Abstract

For those interested in measuring the spectral radiance of high-intensity arcs, especially in the ultraviolet region, the 3000°C blackbody has several advantages over the conventional tungsten ribbon filament standard of spectral radiance. At a wavelength of 250 nm, it is between two and three orders of magnitude more intense and could have 30% to 40% less uncertainty in its spectral radiance. Moreover, by using the blackbody, measurements could be extended to wavelengths shorter than 250 nm. On the other hand, the intensity advantage of the blackbody can be nearly eliminated by operating and calibrating a tungsten standard-type lamp well over its rated current. Tests have shown that the stability of these lamps operated at 45 A and 50 A is suitable for calibration purposes.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Duncan, A. J. Hobbs, M. S. Pai, “Spectral Radiances of Some High Intensity Light Sources”, NASA/GSFC X-633-63-100.
  2. MacBeth Sales Corp., “Spectral Energy Distribution for the XBO Point Source Lamps”, data sheet L/5 (May1962).
  3. H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph 41(1962).
  4. G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.
  5. M. R. Null, W. W. Lozier, “Carbon Arc Image Furnace Studies of Graphite”, WADD TR 61-72, Vol. 21.
  6. B. T. Barnes, W. E. Forsythe, E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 804 (1947).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. G. Worthing, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1941), pp. 1164–1187.
  8. H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.
  9. H. H. Blau, H. Fischer, Radiant Transfer from Solid Materials (Macmillan, New York, 1962), pp. 85–105.
  10. H. H. Blau, Proceedings of an International Symposium on High Temperature Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–53.
  11. “Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids”, NASA SP-31.
  12. R. A. Seban, “Thermal Radiation Properties of Materials, Part III”, WADD-TR-60-370.
  13. T. C. Goodwin, M. W. Ayton, “Thermal Properties of Certain Metals”, WADC-TR-56-423.
  14. Private communication with NBS (Aug.1964).
  15. Private communication with NBS (Sept.1964).
  16. R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

1962 (2)

MacBeth Sales Corp., “Spectral Energy Distribution for the XBO Point Source Lamps”, data sheet L/5 (May1962).

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph 41(1962).

1960 (1)

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

1947 (1)

Adams, E. Q.

Ayton, M. W.

T. C. Goodwin, M. W. Ayton, “Thermal Properties of Certain Metals”, WADC-TR-56-423.

Barnes, B. T.

Blau, H. H.

H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.

H. H. Blau, Proceedings of an International Symposium on High Temperature Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–53.

H. H. Blau, H. Fischer, Radiant Transfer from Solid Materials (Macmillan, New York, 1962), pp. 85–105.

Chaffee, E.

H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.

DeSantis, V. J.

G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.

Duncan, C. H.

C. H. Duncan, A. J. Hobbs, M. S. Pai, “Spectral Radiances of Some High Intensity Light Sources”, NASA/GSFC X-633-63-100.

Fischer, H.

H. H. Blau, H. Fischer, Radiant Transfer from Solid Materials (Macmillan, New York, 1962), pp. 85–105.

Forsythe, W. E.

Goodwin, T. C.

T. C. Goodwin, M. W. Ayton, “Thermal Properties of Certain Metals”, WADC-TR-56-423.

Halbach, E. W.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

Hobbs, A. J.

C. H. Duncan, A. J. Hobbs, M. S. Pai, “Spectral Radiances of Some High Intensity Light Sources”, NASA/GSFC X-633-63-100.

Jasperse, J. R.

H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.

Johnston, R. G.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

Kibler, G. M.

G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph 41(1962).

Lee, R. D.

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph 41(1962).

Linevsky, M. J.

G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.

Lozier, W. W.

M. R. Null, W. W. Lozier, “Carbon Arc Image Furnace Studies of Graphite”, WADD TR 61-72, Vol. 21.

Lyon, T. F.

G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.

Martin, W. S.

H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.

Null, M. R.

M. R. Null, W. W. Lozier, “Carbon Arc Image Furnace Studies of Graphite”, WADD TR 61-72, Vol. 21.

Pai, M. S.

C. H. Duncan, A. J. Hobbs, M. S. Pai, “Spectral Radiances of Some High Intensity Light Sources”, NASA/GSFC X-633-63-100.

Seban, R. A.

R. A. Seban, “Thermal Radiation Properties of Materials, Part III”, WADD-TR-60-370.

Stair, R.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

Worthing, A. G.

A. G. Worthing, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1941), pp. 1164–1187.

data sheet L/5 (1)

MacBeth Sales Corp., “Spectral Energy Distribution for the XBO Point Source Lamps”, data sheet L/5 (May1962).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (1)

R. Stair, R. G. Johnston, E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 64A (4), (July–Aug. 1960) p. 291.

Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph (1)

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. Monograph 41(1962).

Other (12)

G. M. Kibler, T. F. Lyon, M. J. Linevsky, V. J. DeSantis, “Refractory Materials Research”, WADD TR 60-646, Part IV.

M. R. Null, W. W. Lozier, “Carbon Arc Image Furnace Studies of Graphite”, WADD TR 61-72, Vol. 21.

C. H. Duncan, A. J. Hobbs, M. S. Pai, “Spectral Radiances of Some High Intensity Light Sources”, NASA/GSFC X-633-63-100.

A. G. Worthing, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1941), pp. 1164–1187.

H. H. Blau, E. Chaffee, J. R. Jasperse, W. S. Martin, “High Temperature Thermal Radiation Properties of Solid Materials”, AFCRC-TN-60-165.

H. H. Blau, H. Fischer, Radiant Transfer from Solid Materials (Macmillan, New York, 1962), pp. 85–105.

H. H. Blau, Proceedings of an International Symposium on High Temperature Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960), pp. 45–53.

“Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids”, NASA SP-31.

R. A. Seban, “Thermal Radiation Properties of Materials, Part III”, WADD-TR-60-370.

T. C. Goodwin, M. W. Ayton, “Thermal Properties of Certain Metals”, WADC-TR-56-423.

Private communication with NBS (Aug.1964).

Private communication with NBS (Sept.1964).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stability of the spectral radiance at λ = 250 nm of a tungsten ribbon filament lamp operated at 50 A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stability of the spectral radiance at λ = 250 nm of a tungsten ribbon filament lamp operated at 45 A.

Tables (9)

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Table I Comparison of the Spectral Radiances of a 3000°C Blackbody and of Standard Lamp EU-171

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Table II Comparison of the Spectral Radiances of Compact Arc Lamps and of a 3000°C Blackbody

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Table III Comparison of the Spectral Radiances of a 3000°C Blackbody and of Lamp J at 35 A

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Table IV Spectral Radiance of a Tungsten Lamp as a Function of Current

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Table V Comparison of the Spectral Radiances of a 3000°C Blackbody and of a Tungsten Lamp Operated at High Currents

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Table VI Temperature Uncertainty due to Window Transmission Uncertainty

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Table VII Spectral Radiance Uncertainty due to Window Transmission Uncertainty

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Table VIII Spectral Radiance Uncertainty due to Temperature Uncertainty

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Table IX Comparison of the Uncertainties Associated with a 3000°C Blackbody and with a Tungsten Lamp Operated at 45 A

Equations (19)

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T T = T A p 1 + ( T A λ / C 2 ) ln R ] - 1
d T T d R = - T A 2 λ R [ 1 + ( T A λ / C 2 ) ln R ] - 2 .
d T T d R = - T A 2 λ C 2 R .
Δ T T = T A 2 λ C 2 R Δ R ,
Δ N λ N λ = C 2 λ T 2 Δ T ,
λ = 250 nm , C 2 = 1.4380 cm ° K ,
N λ T T = C 1 λ - 5 ( e C 2 / λ T T - 1 ) - 1 ,
N λ T A = R λ N λ T T ,
N λ T A = C 1 λ - 5 ( e C 2 / λ T A - 1 ) - 1 .
R λ ( e C 2 / λ T A - 1 ) = ( e C 2 / λ T T - 1 ) .
R λ e C 2 / λ T A = e C 2 / λ T T
R λ = e C 2 / λ [ ( 1 / T T ) - ( 1 / T A ) ] ,
ln R λ = C 2 λ [ 1 T T - 1 T A ] .
T T = T A 1 + T A λ C 2 ln R λ .
N λ = C 1 λ - 5 ( e C 2 / λ T - 1 - 1 ) 1 , N λ T = C 1 C 2 T 2 λ 6 e C 2 / λ T ( e C 2 / λ T - 1 ) 2 .
Δ N λ = C 1 C 2 T 2 λ 6 e C 2 / λ T ( e C 2 / λ T - 1 ) 2 Δ T ,
Δ N λ N λ = C 2 Δ T λ T 2 ( e C 2 / λ T e C 2 / λ R - 1 ) .
Δ N λ N λ = C 2 Δ T λ T 2
% uncertainty in N λ = 10 2 C 2 Δ T λ T 2 .

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