Abstract

The history of the laws of thermal radiation is briefly reviewed, and the theoretical relations basic to some of the optical methods of temperature measurement are given. Comments on a number of optical methods are presented, as well as a selected reference with each method where more detail is available. In conclusion, several problems, in areas of uncertainty in the field of optical methods of temperature measurement, are suggested in the belief that a solution to these problems will greatly enhance the technical value of this field.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Draper, Am. J. Sci. Arts, Second Series, IV (1847).
  2. G. Kirchhoff, Poggendorff’s Annalen CIX, 275 (1860).
  3. X. Ritchie, Ann. Physik Chem. 28 (Poggendorf), 378 (1833).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Kirchhoff, Monatsber.662 (1859).
  5. G. G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 19, 193 (1860).
  6. M. Leon Foucault, L’Institut, Feb.7, p. 45 (1849).
  7. J. Stefan, Wien. Akad. Sitzungsber. 79, 391 (1879).
  8. L. Boltzmann, Wiedemanns Ann. 22, 31 (1884).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Wien, Wiedemanns Ann. 48, 662 (1896).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900).
  11. J. H. Jeans, Phil. Mag. 17, 229 (1909).
  12. M. Planck, Verhandl. Deut. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900).
  13. M. Planck, Ann. Physik. 4, 553 (1901).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. R. Harrison, Radiation Pyrometry and Its Underlying Principles of Radiant Heat Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1960).
  15. G. A. W. Rutgers, “Temperature Radiation of Solids”, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1958), Vol. XXVI.
  16. L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen uber die Gas Theorie (Leipzig, 1910), Chap. I, p. 15.
  17. J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Mag. 34, 19 (1860).
  18. V. Weisskopf, Phys. Z. 34, 1 (1933).
  19. H. F. Stimson, Am. J. Phys. 23, 615 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. F. Stimson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 139 (1961); ibid.42, 209 (1949).
  21. H. J. Kostkowski, G. W. Burns, Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids Symposium, 1962, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  22. H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41, 1962.
  23. M. Eppley, A. R. Karoli, J. Opt. Soc. 43, 957 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. M. Reynolds, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 579 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. A. Hornbeck, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 425.
  26. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).
  27. Philip J. Dickerman, ed., Optical Spectrometric Measurements of High Temperatures (University of Chicago Press, 1960).
  28. R. H. Tourin, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 455.
  29. A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1953).
  30. S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 272 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).
  32. A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B199, 89 (1949).
  33. H. P. Broida, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1955), Vol. II, p. 265.
  34. C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, F. P. Boynton, Tenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute1965), p. 161.
    [CrossRef]

1964 (1)

P. M. Reynolds, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 579 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41, 1962.

1961 (1)

H. F. Stimson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 139 (1961); ibid.42, 209 (1949).

1955 (1)

H. F. Stimson, Am. J. Phys. 23, 615 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

M. Eppley, A. R. Karoli, J. Opt. Soc. 43, 957 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 272 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B199, 89 (1949).

1946 (1)

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

1933 (1)

V. Weisskopf, Phys. Z. 34, 1 (1933).

1909 (1)

J. H. Jeans, Phil. Mag. 17, 229 (1909).

1901 (1)

M. Planck, Ann. Physik. 4, 553 (1901).
[CrossRef]

1900 (2)

M. Planck, Verhandl. Deut. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900).

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900).

1896 (1)

W. Wien, Wiedemanns Ann. 48, 662 (1896).
[CrossRef]

1884 (1)

L. Boltzmann, Wiedemanns Ann. 22, 31 (1884).
[CrossRef]

1879 (1)

J. Stefan, Wien. Akad. Sitzungsber. 79, 391 (1879).

1860 (3)

G. G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 19, 193 (1860).

G. Kirchhoff, Poggendorff’s Annalen CIX, 275 (1860).

J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Mag. 34, 19 (1860).

1859 (1)

G. Kirchhoff, Monatsber.662 (1859).

1849 (1)

M. Leon Foucault, L’Institut, Feb.7, p. 45 (1849).

1847 (1)

J. W. Draper, Am. J. Sci. Arts, Second Series, IV (1847).

1833 (1)

X. Ritchie, Ann. Physik Chem. 28 (Poggendorf), 378 (1833).
[CrossRef]

Boltzmann, L.

L. Boltzmann, Wiedemanns Ann. 22, 31 (1884).
[CrossRef]

L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen uber die Gas Theorie (Leipzig, 1910), Chap. I, p. 15.

Boynton, F. P.

C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, F. P. Boynton, Tenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute1965), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

Broida, H. P.

H. P. Broida, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1955), Vol. II, p. 265.

Burns, G. W.

H. J. Kostkowski, G. W. Burns, Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids Symposium, 1962, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Draper, J. W.

J. W. Draper, Am. J. Sci. Arts, Second Series, IV (1847).

Eppley, M.

M. Eppley, A. R. Karoli, J. Opt. Soc. 43, 957 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Ferriso, C. C.

C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, F. P. Boynton, Tenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute1965), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B199, 89 (1949).

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1953).

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

Harrison, T. R.

T. R. Harrison, Radiation Pyrometry and Its Underlying Principles of Radiant Heat Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Hornbeck, G. A.

G. A. Hornbeck, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 425.

Jeans, J. H.

J. H. Jeans, Phil. Mag. 17, 229 (1909).

Karoli, A. R.

M. Eppley, A. R. Karoli, J. Opt. Soc. 43, 957 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhoff, G.

G. Kirchhoff, Poggendorff’s Annalen CIX, 275 (1860).

G. Kirchhoff, Monatsber.662 (1859).

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41, 1962.

H. J. Kostkowski, G. W. Burns, Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids Symposium, 1962, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Lee, R. D.

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41, 1962.

Leon Foucault, M.

M. Leon Foucault, L’Institut, Feb.7, p. 45 (1849).

Ludwig, C. B.

C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, F. P. Boynton, Tenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute1965), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Mag. 34, 19 (1860).

Myers, P. S.

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

Penner, S. S.

S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 272 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Planck, M.

M. Planck, Ann. Physik. 4, 553 (1901).
[CrossRef]

M. Planck, Verhandl. Deut. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900).

Reynolds, P. M.

P. M. Reynolds, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 579 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, X.

X. Ritchie, Ann. Physik Chem. 28 (Poggendorf), 378 (1833).
[CrossRef]

Rutgers, G. A. W.

G. A. W. Rutgers, “Temperature Radiation of Solids”, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1958), Vol. XXVI.

Stefan, J.

J. Stefan, Wien. Akad. Sitzungsber. 79, 391 (1879).

Stimson, H. F.

H. F. Stimson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 139 (1961); ibid.42, 209 (1949).

H. F. Stimson, Am. J. Phys. 23, 615 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, G. G.

G. G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 19, 193 (1860).

Tourin, R. H.

R. H. Tourin, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 455.

Uyehara, O. A.

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

Watson, K. M.

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

Weisskopf, V.

V. Weisskopf, Phys. Z. 34, 1 (1933).

Wien, W.

W. Wien, Wiedemanns Ann. 48, 662 (1896).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. A.

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

Wolfhard, H. G.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B199, 89 (1949).

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1953).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

H. F. Stimson, Am. J. Phys. 23, 615 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci. Arts (1)

J. W. Draper, Am. J. Sci. Arts, Second Series, IV (1847).

Ann. Physik Chem. (1)

X. Ritchie, Ann. Physik Chem. 28 (Poggendorf), 378 (1833).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik. (1)

M. Planck, Ann. Physik. 4, 553 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. M. Reynolds, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 579 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 272 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. (1)

M. Eppley, A. R. Karoli, J. Opt. Soc. 43, 957 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (1)

H. F. Stimson, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 139 (1961); ibid.42, 209 (1949).

L’Institut (1)

M. Leon Foucault, L’Institut, Feb.7, p. 45 (1849).

Monatsber. (1)

G. Kirchhoff, Monatsber.662 (1859).

Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41 (1)

H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Lee, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Monograph No. 41, 1962.

Phil. Mag. (4)

G. G. Stokes, Phil. Mag. 19, 193 (1860).

Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 49, 539 (1900).

J. H. Jeans, Phil. Mag. 17, 229 (1909).

J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Mag. 34, 19 (1860).

Phys. Z. (1)

V. Weisskopf, Phys. Z. 34, 1 (1933).

Poggendorff’s Annalen (1)

G. Kirchhoff, Poggendorff’s Annalen CIX, 275 (1860).

Proc. Roy. Soc. London (1)

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Proc. Roy. Soc. London B199, 89 (1949).

Trans. ASME (1)

O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, K. M. Watson, L. A. Wilson, Trans. ASME 68, 17 (1946).

Verhandl. Deut. Physik. Ges. (1)

M. Planck, Verhandl. Deut. Physik. Ges. 2, 237 (1900).

Wiedemanns Ann. (2)

L. Boltzmann, Wiedemanns Ann. 22, 31 (1884).
[CrossRef]

W. Wien, Wiedemanns Ann. 48, 662 (1896).
[CrossRef]

Wien. Akad. Sitzungsber. (1)

J. Stefan, Wien. Akad. Sitzungsber. 79, 391 (1879).

Other (11)

T. R. Harrison, Radiation Pyrometry and Its Underlying Principles of Radiant Heat Transfer (Wiley, New York, 1960).

G. A. W. Rutgers, “Temperature Radiation of Solids”, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1958), Vol. XXVI.

L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen uber die Gas Theorie (Leipzig, 1910), Chap. I, p. 15.

H. P. Broida, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1955), Vol. II, p. 265.

C. C. Ferriso, C. B. Ludwig, F. P. Boynton, Tenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute1965), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kostkowski, G. W. Burns, Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids Symposium, 1962, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

G. A. Hornbeck, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 425.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

Philip J. Dickerman, ed., Optical Spectrometric Measurements of High Temperatures (University of Chicago Press, 1960).

R. H. Tourin, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, (Reinhold, New York, 1962), Vol. III, p. 455.

A. G. Gaydon, H. G. Wolfhard, Flames, Their Structure, Radiation, and Temperature (Chapman & Hall, London, 1953).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E λ = F ( λ ) exp [ - f ( λ ) T ] ,
E λ = c 1 λ - 4 T
N λ = c 1 / λ 5 ( e c 2 / λ T - 1 ) ,
4 π ( m 2 π k T ) ³ / v 2 e - m v 2 / 2 k T ,
f = A · e - E / k T .
b D = 1.67 λ c ( 2 R T μ ) ½ .
T = ( I σ ) ¼ ,
N λ = c 1 λ - 5 [ exp ( c 2 / λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 ,
T = c h / k 4.9656 λ max = 0.2898 λ max cm - deg ,
R = N λ 1 N λ 2 = f ( λ 1 , T ) f ( λ 2 , T ) ,
R = e λ 1 f ( λ 1 T ) e λ 2 f ( λ 2 T ) .
N λ i = ( a + b λ i ) f ( λ i T ) ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 ) .
R = N λ 1 N λ 3 ( N λ 2 ) 2 = e λ 1 e λ 3 ( e λ 2 ) 2 f ( λ , T ) f ( λ 3 T ) [ f ( λ 2 T ) ] 2 ,
e λ 1 = e λ 2 ± Δ e
e λ 3 = e λ 2 Δ e .
e λ 1 e λ 3 ( e λ 2 ) 2 = e λ 2 2 - ( Δ e ) 2 ( e λ 2 ) 2 = 1 - [ Δ e e λ 2 ] 2
R = ( 1 - [ Δ e e λ 2 ] 2 ) f ( λ 1 T ) f ( λ 3 T ) [ f ( λ 2 T ) ] 2 .

Metrics