Abstract

Light scattering measurements from a searchlight beam were carried out in New Mexico to determine the aerosol properties of the atmosphere. Although data were acquired to an altitude of about 70 km, the results show the aerosol attenuation parameters to be significant to about 35 km. The expression for the aerosol attenuation coefficient is derived based on the field geometry in conjunction with Rayleigh and aerosol scattering considerations. The results are categorized into moderate-structured, medium-structured and full-structured aerosol profiles. Examples of each are discussed and measurements presented which show variation over a 6-h period. A quantitative examination is made of the 20-km aerosol layer. Also, a medium-structured profile is selected and treated more extensively to provide preliminary information pertaining to atmospheric scattering and transmission. Ultimately, the data accumulated will provide a substantial number of profiles that will form a basis for various atmospheric studies.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. K. Bigg, Tellus 16, 2 (1964).
  2. G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966).
  3. F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmospheric Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 377 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. A. Khvostikov, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 10, 4 (1946).
  6. G. V. Rozenberg, “Searchlight Beam in the Atmosphere,” (Izd.-VO, Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Moscow, 1960).
  7. G. Fiocco, G. Grams, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 3 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. H. Collis, M. G. H. Ligda, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 255 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Elterman, Appl. Opt. 3, 1139 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Elterman, “Atmospheric Attentuation Model, 1964, in the Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Regions for Altitudes to 50 km,” Rept. AFCRL-64-740, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1964).
  12. J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Reeger, H. Siedentopf, Optik 1, 15 (1946).
  14. K. Bullrich, F. Möeller, Optik 2, 301 (1947).
  15. K. Bullrich, Advan. Geophys. 10, 99 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Foitzik, H. Zschaeck, Zeit. Meteorol., 7, 1 (1952).
  17. D. Deirmendjian, Appl. Opt. 3, 157 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. S. Fraser, “Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols”, Rept. AFCRC-TN-60-256, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1960).
  19. O. D. Barteneva, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. 1, 1852 (1960).
  20. L. Elterman, “Searchlight Probing Technique for Upper Atmosphere Measurements”, in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, J. Thewlis, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962).
  21. L. Elterman, A. B. Campbell, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 457 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
    [CrossRef]

1966 (2)

B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, M. G. H. Ligda, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 255 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (6)

L. Elterman, Appl. Opt. 3, 1139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Bigg, Tellus 16, 2 (1964).

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 3 (1964).
[CrossRef]

K. Bullrich, Advan. Geophys. 10, 99 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. Deirmendjian, Appl. Opt. 3, 157 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, A. B. Campbell, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 457 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmospheric Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

O. D. Barteneva, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. 1, 1852 (1960).

1952 (1)

L. Foitzik, H. Zschaeck, Zeit. Meteorol., 7, 1 (1952).

1947 (1)

K. Bullrich, F. Möeller, Optik 2, 301 (1947).

1946 (3)

E. Reeger, H. Siedentopf, Optik 1, 15 (1946).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 377 (1946).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Khvostikov, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 10, 4 (1946).

1945 (1)

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Barteneva, O. D.

O. D. Barteneva, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. 1, 1852 (1960).

Bigg, E. K.

E. K. Bigg, Tellus 16, 2 (1964).

Bullrich, K.

K. Bullrich, Advan. Geophys. 10, 99 (1964).
[CrossRef]

K. Bullrich, F. Möeller, Optik 2, 301 (1947).

Campbell, A. B.

L. Elterman, A. B. Campbell, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 457 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chagnon, C. W.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Clemesha, B. R.

B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, M. G. H. Ligda, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 255 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Deirmendjian, D.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, Appl. Opt. 3, 1139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, A. B. Campbell, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 457 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, “Searchlight Probing Technique for Upper Atmosphere Measurements”, in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, J. Thewlis, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962).

L. Elterman, “Atmospheric Attentuation Model, 1964, in the Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Regions for Altitudes to 50 km,” Rept. AFCRL-64-740, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1964).

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 3 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Foitzik, L.

L. Foitzik, H. Zschaeck, Zeit. Meteorol., 7, 1 (1952).

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, “Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols”, Rept. AFCRC-TN-60-256, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1960).

Goody, R. M.

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmospheric Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 3 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Khvostikov, I. A.

I. A. Khvostikov, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 10, 4 (1946).

Ligda, M. G. H.

R. T. H. Collis, M. G. H. Ligda, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 255 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Manson, J. E.

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Möeller, F.

K. Bullrich, F. Möeller, Optik 2, 301 (1947).

Reeger, E.

E. Reeger, H. Siedentopf, Optik 1, 15 (1946).

Rozenberg, G. V.

G. V. Rozenberg, “Searchlight Beam in the Atmosphere,” (Izd.-VO, Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Moscow, 1960).

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966).

Siedentopf, H.

E. Reeger, H. Siedentopf, Optik 1, 15 (1946).

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmospheric Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Waldram, J. M.

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Wright, R. W. H.

B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Zschaeck, H.

L. Foitzik, H. Zschaeck, Zeit. Meteorol., 7, 1 (1952).

Advan. Geophys. (1)

K. Bullrich, Advan. Geophys. 10, 99 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR (1)

O. D. Barteneva, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Geophys. Ser. 1, 1852 (1960).

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. (1)

I. A. Khvostikov, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 10, 4 (1946).

J. Atmospheric Sci. (4)

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 3 (1964).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, R. M. Goody, J. Atmospheric Sci. 19, 385 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, M. G. H. Ligda, J. Atmospheric Sci. 23, 255 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, A. B. Campbell, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 457 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

C. E. Junge, C. W. Chagnon, J. E. Manson, J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

B. R. Clemesha, G. S. Kent, R. W. H. Wright, Nature 209, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Optik (2)

E. Reeger, H. Siedentopf, Optik 1, 15 (1946).

K. Bullrich, F. Möeller, Optik 2, 301 (1947).

Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

J. M. Waldram, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 71, 319 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

E. K. Bigg, Tellus 16, 2 (1964).

Zeit. Meteorol. (1)

L. Foitzik, H. Zschaeck, Zeit. Meteorol., 7, 1 (1952).

Other (5)

L. Elterman, “Atmospheric Attentuation Model, 1964, in the Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Regions for Altitudes to 50 km,” Rept. AFCRL-64-740, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1964).

G. V. Rozenberg, Twilight (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1966).

G. V. Rozenberg, “Searchlight Beam in the Atmosphere,” (Izd.-VO, Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Moscow, 1960).

L. Elterman, “Searchlight Probing Technique for Upper Atmosphere Measurements”, in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, J. Thewlis, Ed. (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962).

R. S. Fraser, “Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols”, Rept. AFCRC-TN-60-256, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1960).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Searchlight scene geometry in New Mexico. Projector elevation angle ϕp = 75°; beam and collector field divergences are adjusted to 1.7° and 2.0°, respectively. Both divergences are exaggerated in this figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instrumentation response of single scan and corresponding Rayleigh values. Wavelength is 0.55 μ. 8 May 1964. 03:05. … data points (automatically plotted). calculated Rayleigh response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Iteration procedure. Tp is aerosol transmission. βp is aerosol attenuation coefficient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase functions. (1) — — Rayleigh. (2) Reeger and Seidentopf met. range = 30 km. (3) — - - — aerosol, derived from (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modulating shutters with drive motors below. Detector assembly for synchronous rectification mounted near the top.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Aerosol and related parameters. The aerosol profile represents the medium-structured category. 8 May 1964. 03:05. Rayleigh (computed). +++ aerosol (from measurements with smoothing). ⋯ extinction (Rayleigh and aerosol). - - - extrapolated (in accordance with Ref. 9).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aerosol profile representing the moderate-structured category. 17 December 1963. 02:00. Rayleigh (computed). +++ aerosol (from measurements with smoothing).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Aerosol profiles representing the full-structured category showing variations over a period of about 6 h.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Slant path transmission (0.55 μ) through 20-km aerosol layer. 13 April 1964 at 00:18. (1) Aerosol. (2) Rayleigh + aerosol.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Computer Output (Partial Tabulation) Measurement on 13 April 1964 at 00:18

Equations (16)

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F s × T s = E A ,
J ( ϕ s ) = E A L β ( ϕ s ) ,
F d = J ( ϕ s ) T d ω ,
F d = F s T s T d L ω β ( ϕ s ) .
L = R θ / sin ϕ B
sin ϕ B = B sin ϕ p / R
ω = ( π D 2 / 4 R 2 ) .
L ω = ( π D 2 θ / 4 B sin ϕ p ) = C 1 .
E r p = C T s T d β ( ϕ s ) .
T s T d = T r T p
β ( ϕ s ) = β r P r ( ϕ s ) + β p P p ( ϕ s ) .
E r p = C T r T p [ β r × P r ( ϕ s ) + β p × P p ( ϕ s ) ] ,
E r p ( 35 ) = C T r ( 35 ) T p ( 35 ) β r ( 35 ) P r ( 132 ° ) .
β p ( h ) = E r p ( h ) E r p ( 35 ) T r ( 35 ) T r ( h ) T p ( 35 ) T p ( h ) β r ( 35 ) P r ( 132 ° ) P p ( ϕ s ) - β r ( h ) P r ( ϕ s ) P p ( ϕ s ) .
T p ( h ) = exp - 2.76 h β ¯ p ( h ) Δ h sec Z ( h ) ,
τ p = 12.7 23.2 β ¯ p ( h ) Δ h ,

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