Abstract

Methods of high-resolution, high-speed, optical beam deflection and scanning are reviewed with respect to resolution and scanning frequency capabilities. A general description is given of external deflector devices in the categories of variable reflectors, variable refractors, birefringent deflectors, and interference deflectors. The different techniques are then evaluated on the basis of their application to high-speed, high-resolution, precision scanning applications.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, J. Nunez, “Bidirectional electrically switched laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 119–121, January1965.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.
  3. E. S. Kohn, V. J. Fowler, “An internally scanned laser.” presented at the 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.
  4. R. A. Meyers, R. V. Pole, J. Nunez, “Laser deflection with the conjugate plano-concentric resonator,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 140–141, January1965.
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” this issue.
  6. J. G. Skinner, “Comment on light beam deflectors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1504, December1964.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Bulletin 7365, Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation, Monrovia, Calif.
  8. F. Dostal, “The fork as a scanner: a new twist,” Electronic Communicator, vol. 1, pp. 4–5, January1966.
  9. C. M. Alsabrook, “A multicolor laser display,” 18th Annual National Aerospace Electronics Conference, pp. 325–331, May1966.
  10. C. E. Baker, A. D. Rugari, “The laser display,” 1965 Proc. Society for Information Display, 6th Nat’l Symp. on Information Display, p. 85.
  11. J. Schlafer, V. J. Fowler, “A precision, high speed, óptical beam steerer,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting.
  12. F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Haas, R. Johannes, P. Cholet, “Light beam deflection using the Kerr effect in single crystal prisms of BaTiO3,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 988–989, August1964.
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 528–530, May15, 1961.
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. G. Liu, W. L. Walters, “Optical beam deflection by pulsed temperature gradients in bulk GaAs,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 522–523, May1965.
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. W. Boer, “Franz-Keldysh effect for appreciable deflection of light beams,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 8, pp. K179–K180, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. J. Schmidt, “The problems of light beam deflection at high frequencies,” Proc. Symp. on Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollack et al., Eds. Baltimore, Md.: Spartan, 1963, pp. 98–103.
  21. A. J. Giarola, T. R. Billeter, “Electroacoustic deflection of a coherent light beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1150–1151, August1963.
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. G. Aas, R. K. Erf, “Application of ultrasonic standing waves to the generation of optical beam scanning,” J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 36, pp. 1906–1913, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. D. LaFond, “Optical imaging unit shown feasible,” Missiles and Rockets, pp. 32–39, June7, 1965.
  26. W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.
  28. T. J. Nelson, “Digital light deflection,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 821–845, May1964.
  29. U. J. Schmidt, “A high speed digital light beam deflector,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 205–206, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  30. W. J. Tabor, “The use of Wollaston prisms for a high-capacity digital light deflector,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1153–1154, May1964.
  31. R. A. Soref, D. H. McMahon, “Optical design of Wollaston-prism digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 425–434, March1966.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. K. Lee, F. Moskowitz, “Transmission and self-generated noise characteristics of polarization scanned digital optical systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1305–1310, November1964.
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Bromley, “High-power light flux resulting from bunching of light wave packets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 210–212, November1964.
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Burns, “On the possibility of using conical refraction phenomena for laser beam steering,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1505–1506, December1964.
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. Haas, R. Johannes, “Light beam scanning using conical refraction and optical activity,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 1088–1089, June1966.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan, 1964, ch. 7.
  37. W. E. Buck, T. E. Holland, “Optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 8, pp. 198–199, April1966.
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Korpel, “Phased array type scanning of a laser beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 1666–1667, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. G. Cohen, E. I. Gordon, “Electrooptic [KTaxNb1−xO3(KTN)] grating for light beam modulation and deflection,” Appl. Physics Lett., vol. 5, pp. 181–182, May1964.
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
    [CrossRef]

1966 (6)

F. Dostal, “The fork as a scanner: a new twist,” Electronic Communicator, vol. 1, pp. 4–5, January1966.

C. M. Alsabrook, “A multicolor laser display,” 18th Annual National Aerospace Electronics Conference, pp. 325–331, May1966.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Buck, T. E. Holland, “Optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 8, pp. 198–199, April1966.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, D. H. McMahon, “Optical design of Wollaston-prism digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 425–434, March1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Haas, R. Johannes, “Light beam scanning using conical refraction and optical activity,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 1088–1089, June1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (9)

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, J. Nunez, “Bidirectional electrically switched laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 119–121, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Meyers, R. V. Pole, J. Nunez, “Laser deflection with the conjugate plano-concentric resonator,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 140–141, January1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Korpel, “Phased array type scanning of a laser beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 1666–1667, October1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

C. D. LaFond, “Optical imaging unit shown feasible,” Missiles and Rockets, pp. 32–39, June7, 1965.

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Liu, W. L. Walters, “Optical beam deflection by pulsed temperature gradients in bulk GaAs,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 522–523, May1965.
[CrossRef]

K. W. Boer, “Franz-Keldysh effect for appreciable deflection of light beams,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 8, pp. K179–K180, 1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
[CrossRef]

1964 (14)

H. G. Aas, R. K. Erf, “Application of ultrasonic standing waves to the generation of optical beam scanning,” J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 36, pp. 1906–1913, October1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Nelson, “Digital light deflection,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 821–845, May1964.

U. J. Schmidt, “A high speed digital light beam deflector,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 205–206, October1964.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tabor, “The use of Wollaston prisms for a high-capacity digital light deflector,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1153–1154, May1964.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

A. Bromley, “High-power light flux resulting from bunching of light wave packets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 210–212, November1964.
[CrossRef]

R. K. Lee, F. Moskowitz, “Transmission and self-generated noise characteristics of polarization scanned digital optical systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1305–1310, November1964.
[CrossRef]

M. G. Cohen, E. I. Gordon, “Electrooptic [KTaxNb1−xO3(KTN)] grating for light beam modulation and deflection,” Appl. Physics Lett., vol. 5, pp. 181–182, May1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Haas, R. Johannes, P. Cholet, “Light beam deflection using the Kerr effect in single crystal prisms of BaTiO3,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 988–989, August1964.
[CrossRef]

J. G. Skinner, “Comment on light beam deflectors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1504, December1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Burns, “On the possibility of using conical refraction phenomena for laser beam steering,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1505–1506, December1964.
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

A. J. Giarola, T. R. Billeter, “Electroacoustic deflection of a coherent light beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1150–1151, August1963.
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 528–530, May15, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Aas, H. G.

H. G. Aas, R. K. Erf, “Application of ultrasonic standing waves to the generation of optical beam scanning,” J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 36, pp. 1906–1913, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Adler, R.

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Alsabrook, C. M.

C. M. Alsabrook, “A multicolor laser display,” 18th Annual National Aerospace Electronics Conference, pp. 325–331, May1966.

Baker, C. E.

C. E. Baker, A. D. Rugari, “The laser display,” 1965 Proc. Society for Information Display, 6th Nat’l Symp. on Information Display, p. 85.

Barrekette, E. S.

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.

Billeter, T. R.

A. J. Giarola, T. R. Billeter, “Electroacoustic deflection of a coherent light beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1150–1151, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Bloom, L. R.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Boer, K. W.

K. W. Boer, “Franz-Keldysh effect for appreciable deflection of light beams,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 8, pp. K179–K180, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan, 1964, ch. 7.

Bromley, A.

A. Bromley, “High-power light flux resulting from bunching of light wave packets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 210–212, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Buck, W. E.

W. E. Buck, T. E. Holland, “Optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 8, pp. 198–199, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Buhrer, C. F.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Burns, R.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Cholet, P.

Cohen, M. G.

M. G. Cohen, E. I. Gordon, “Electrooptic [KTaxNb1−xO3(KTN)] grating for light beam modulation and deflection,” Appl. Physics Lett., vol. 5, pp. 181–182, May1964.
[CrossRef]

Desmares, P.

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Dostal, F.

F. Dostal, “The fork as a scanner: a new twist,” Electronic Communicator, vol. 1, pp. 4–5, January1966.

Erf, R. K.

H. G. Aas, R. K. Erf, “Application of ultrasonic standing waves to the generation of optical beam scanning,” J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 36, pp. 1906–1913, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Fleisher, H.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

Fowler, V. J.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
[CrossRef]

E. S. Kohn, V. J. Fowler, “An internally scanned laser.” presented at the 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

J. Schlafer, V. J. Fowler, “A precision, high speed, óptical beam steerer,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting.

Geusic, J. E.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Giarola, A. J.

A. J. Giarola, T. R. Billeter, “Electroacoustic deflection of a coherent light beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1150–1151, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Gordon, E. I.

M. G. Cohen, E. I. Gordon, “Electrooptic [KTaxNb1−xO3(KTN)] grating for light beam modulation and deflection,” Appl. Physics Lett., vol. 5, pp. 181–182, May1964.
[CrossRef]

Haas, W.

Harris, T. J.

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

Holland, T. E.

W. E. Buck, T. E. Holland, “Optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 8, pp. 198–199, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Huen, T.

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Johannes, R.

Kalibjian, R.

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 528–530, May15, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” this issue.

Kohn, E. S.

E. S. Kohn, V. J. Fowler, “An internally scanned laser.” presented at the 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

Korpel, A.

A. Korpel, “Phased array type scanning of a laser beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 1666–1667, October1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Kosanke, K.

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

Kulcke, W.

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

Kurtz, S. K.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

LaFond, C. D.

C. D. LaFond, “Optical imaging unit shown feasible,” Missiles and Rockets, pp. 32–39, June7, 1965.

Lee, R. K.

Li, T.

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” this issue.

Lipnick, R.

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. G.

S. G. Liu, W. L. Walters, “Optical beam deflection by pulsed temperature gradients in bulk GaAs,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 522–523, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Maninger, C.

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Max, E.

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

McMahon, D. H.

Meyers, R. A.

Moskowitz, F.

Myers, R. A.

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, J. Nunez, “Bidirectional electrically switched laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 119–121, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.

Nelson, T. J.

T. J. Nelson, “Digital light deflection,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 821–845, May1964.

Nunez, J.

Pole, R. V.

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, J. Nunez, “Bidirectional electrically switched laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 119–121, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Meyers, R. V. Pole, J. Nunez, “Laser deflection with the conjugate plano-concentric resonator,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 140–141, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.

Reich, A.

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Rugari, A. D.

C. E. Baker, A. D. Rugari, “The laser display,” 1965 Proc. Society for Information Display, 6th Nat’l Symp. on Information Display, p. 85.

Schlafer, J.

J. Schlafer, V. J. Fowler, “A precision, high speed, óptical beam steerer,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting.

Schmidt, U. J.

U. J. Schmidt, “A high speed digital light beam deflector,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 205–206, October1964.
[CrossRef]

U. J. Schmidt, “The problems of light beam deflection at high frequencies,” Proc. Symp. on Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollack et al., Eds. Baltimore, Md.: Spartan, 1963, pp. 98–103.

Schoen, G. A.

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. G.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. G. Skinner, “Comment on light beam deflectors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1504, December1964.
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. M.

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Tabor, W. J.

W. J. Tabor, “The use of Wollaston prisms for a high-capacity digital light deflector,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1153–1154, May1964.

Walters, W. L.

S. G. Liu, W. L. Walters, “Optical beam deflection by pulsed temperature gradients in bulk GaAs,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 522–523, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Wieder, W.

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan, 1964, ch. 7.

Yee, J.

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

18th Annual National Aerospace Electronics Conference (1)

C. M. Alsabrook, “A multicolor laser display,” 18th Annual National Aerospace Electronics Conference, pp. 325–331, May1966.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Bromley, “High-power light flux resulting from bunching of light wave packets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 210–212, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Letts. (1)

W. E. Buck, T. E. Holland, “Optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Letts., vol. 8, pp. 198–199, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Physics Lett. (1)

M. G. Cohen, E. I. Gordon, “Electrooptic [KTaxNb1−xO3(KTN)] grating for light beam modulation and deflection,” Appl. Physics Lett., vol. 5, pp. 181–182, May1964.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (2)

T. J. Nelson, “Digital light deflection,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 821–845, May1964.

W. J. Tabor, “The use of Wollaston prisms for a high-capacity digital light deflector,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1153–1154, May1964.

Electronic Communicator (1)

F. Dostal, “The fork as a scanner: a new twist,” Electronic Communicator, vol. 1, pp. 4–5, January1966.

IBM J. (1)

W. Kulcke, T. J. Harris, K. Kosanke, E. Max, “A fast, digital-indexed light deflector,” IBM J., vol. 8, pp. 64–67, January1964.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence) (1)

A. Korpel, R. Adler, P. Desmares, T. M. Smith, “An ultrasonic light deflection system,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), pp. 60–61, April1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Acous. Soc. Am. (1)

H. G. Aas, R. K. Erf, “Application of ultrasonic standing waves to the generation of optical beam scanning,” J. Acous. Soc. Am., vol. 36, pp. 1906–1913, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “Light modulation and beam deflection with potassium tantalate-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 388–398, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Missiles and Rockets (1)

C. D. LaFond, “Optical imaging unit shown feasible,” Missiles and Rockets, pp. 32–39, June7, 1965.

Phys. Lett. (1)

U. J. Schmidt, “A high speed digital light beam deflector,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 205–206, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 528–530, May15, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Physica Status Solidi (1)

K. W. Boer, “Franz-Keldysh effect for appreciable deflection of light beams,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 8, pp. K179–K180, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (Correspondence) (7)

A. J. Giarola, T. R. Billeter, “Electroacoustic deflection of a coherent light beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1150–1151, August1963.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light using acoustic waves,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 853–854, July1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Lipnick, A. Reich, G. A. Schoen, “Nonmechanical scanning of light in one and two dimensions,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 321, March1965.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Liu, W. L. Walters, “Optical beam deflection by pulsed temperature gradients in bulk GaAs,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 522–523, May1965.
[CrossRef]

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, L. R. Bloom, “Electrooptic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 193–194, February1964.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, S. H. Wemple, “The use of Perovskite paraelectrics in beam deflectors and light modulators,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1258–1259, October1964.
[CrossRef]

A. Korpel, “Phased array type scanning of a laser beam,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 1666–1667, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE(Correspondence) (1)

R. Kalibjian, T. Huen, C. Maninger, J. Yee, “Laser deflection modulation in a CdS prism,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 539, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

U. J. Schmidt, “The problems of light beam deflection at high frequencies,” Proc. Symp. on Optical Processing of Information, D. K. Pollack et al., Eds. Baltimore, Md.: Spartan, 1963, pp. 98–103.

Bulletin 7365, Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation, Monrovia, Calif.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, ch. 23, 1965.

R. V. Pole, R. A. Myers, W. Wieder, E. S. Barrekette, “Laser deflection and scanning,” in Optical and Electro-optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al. Eds. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965, ch. 21.

E. S. Kohn, V. J. Fowler, “An internally scanned laser.” presented at the 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” this issue.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan, 1964, ch. 7.

C. E. Baker, A. D. Rugari, “The laser display,” 1965 Proc. Society for Information Display, 6th Nat’l Symp. on Information Display, p. 85.

J. Schlafer, V. J. Fowler, “A precision, high speed, óptical beam steerer,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light scanned into a cone is converted to a linear scan through a fiber optics bundle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A multiple reflection deflector uses shear-mode transducers to tilt the mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A beam of light passing through a media with an index gradient normal to the propagation direction is refracted in the direction of the gradient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The variation of refractive index with pressure P is used in an acoustic standing-wave cell to form index gradients.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Binary birefringent deflector uses the modulator as a polarization switch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiple beams from a two mirror interferometer, with wedge angle β, combine to form a fringe system which may be scanned laterally.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distributed deflection of a focused beam. Dashed lines indicate undeflected rays.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dimensions L (dashed) and W (solid) of a distributed deflector as a function of resolution for the parameter KW.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = ϕ θ = ϕ w λ
L opt = W 2 3 K W N max = W λ ( 32 / 27 ) K W
N = Δ n l λ ( w W ) ,
ϕ = L d n d x .
N = 2 Δ n ( L / λ ) ( w / W ) .
I ~ 1 1 + F sin δ / 2 ,
N = π R 1 - R ,
d x d z = ϕ ( z )
d ϕ ( z ) d z = K ,
ϕ ( z ) = K z + ϕ i
ϕ ( L ) = K L + ϕ i = - ϕ i ,
L = - 2 ϕ i K = W K F ,
d N = 2 d ϕ θ = 2 w ( z ) λ d ϕ = 2 w ( z ) λ K d z .
N = W 2 F ( 1 - W 2 K F 2 )
N max = W λ 32 27 K W L opt = W 2 3 K W = 2 3 F .

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