Abstract

Carbon disulfide has identical microwave and optical dielectric constants, as well as extremely low optical and microwave loss. These properties make it possible to construct long traveling-wave light modulators at microwave frequencies using the Kerr electrooptic effect induced in CS2 by an electric field propagating on a TEM transmission line.

Several experiments with traveling-wave Kerr cells consisting of resonant strip transmission lines immersed in CS2 are described. A decrease in the microwave power required for modulation by a factor of two, by cooling the modulators to a temperature of −55°C, is demonstrated. Simultaneous modulation of light at two microwave frequencies by excitation of two of the longitudinal modes of the strip line resonator is also described. Relatively high efficiency modulation with long devices of this type is also reported. In these experiments, the microwave power required for large depths of modulation is reduced by almost two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported CS2 light modulators, and is within less than a factor of two of the calculated power for cells up to 44 cm in length. For longer cells, increasingly larger than predicted powers are required.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. L. Clark, “The Kerr cell as a microwave frequency optical shutter,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1957.
  2. D. F. Holshouser, “The time element in photoelectric emission,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1958.
  3. D. F. Holshouser, H. Von Foerster, G. L. Clark, “Microwave modulation of light using the Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 51, pp. 1360–1365, December1961.
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, no. 10, p. 528, 1961.
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, R. E. Stanfield, “Microwave and electrooptical properties of carbon disulfide,” 1962 Proc. 3rd Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., pp. 1679–1686.
  6. D. H. Whiffen, “Measurements on the absorption of microwaves; Part IV, non-polar liquids,” Trans. Faraday Soc., vol. 46, pp. 124–130, February1950.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Near lnfrared Spectra. Champaign, Ill.: Anderson Physical Lab.1958.
  8. E. C. Jordan, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950.
  9. E. V. Condon, H. Odishaw, Handbook of Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

1961 (2)

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, no. 10, p. 528, 1961.
[CrossRef]

D. F. Holshouser, H. Von Foerster, G. L. Clark, “Microwave modulation of light using the Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 51, pp. 1360–1365, December1961.
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

D. H. Whiffen, “Measurements on the absorption of microwaves; Part IV, non-polar liquids,” Trans. Faraday Soc., vol. 46, pp. 124–130, February1950.
[CrossRef]

Clark, G. L.

D. F. Holshouser, H. Von Foerster, G. L. Clark, “Microwave modulation of light using the Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 51, pp. 1360–1365, December1961.
[CrossRef]

G. L. Clark, “The Kerr cell as a microwave frequency optical shutter,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1957.

Condon, E. V.

E. V. Condon, H. Odishaw, Handbook of Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

Gaddy, O. L.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, R. E. Stanfield, “Microwave and electrooptical properties of carbon disulfide,” 1962 Proc. 3rd Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., pp. 1679–1686.

Holshouser, D. F.

D. F. Holshouser, H. Von Foerster, G. L. Clark, “Microwave modulation of light using the Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 51, pp. 1360–1365, December1961.
[CrossRef]

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, R. E. Stanfield, “Microwave and electrooptical properties of carbon disulfide,” 1962 Proc. 3rd Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., pp. 1679–1686.

D. F. Holshouser, “The time element in photoelectric emission,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1958.

Jordan, E. C.

E. C. Jordan, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, no. 10, p. 528, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Odishaw, H.

E. V. Condon, H. Odishaw, Handbook of Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

Stanfield, R. E.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, R. E. Stanfield, “Microwave and electrooptical properties of carbon disulfide,” 1962 Proc. 3rd Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., pp. 1679–1686.

Von Foerster, H.

Whiffen, D. H.

D. H. Whiffen, “Measurements on the absorption of microwaves; Part IV, non-polar liquids,” Trans. Faraday Soc., vol. 46, pp. 124–130, February1950.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Microwave modulation of the electrooptic effect in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, no. 10, p. 528, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

D. H. Whiffen, “Measurements on the absorption of microwaves; Part IV, non-polar liquids,” Trans. Faraday Soc., vol. 46, pp. 124–130, February1950.
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Near lnfrared Spectra. Champaign, Ill.: Anderson Physical Lab.1958.

E. C. Jordan, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950.

E. V. Condon, H. Odishaw, Handbook of Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

G. L. Clark, “The Kerr cell as a microwave frequency optical shutter,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1957.

D. F. Holshouser, “The time element in photoelectric emission,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1958.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, R. E. Stanfield, “Microwave and electrooptical properties of carbon disulfide,” 1962 Proc. 3rd Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., pp. 1679–1686.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of a traveling-wave Kerr cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated and measured depth of modulation vs. power required for CS2 traveling-wave Kerr cells at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of an experimental traveling-wave Kerr cell using a balanced strip line and a glass enclosure.

Equations (19)

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δ = 2 π B - L / 2 L / 2 E 2 ( z , t ) d z
E ( z , t ) = E 0 + E 1 sin ( ω t - β z ) + E 2 sin ( ω t + β z )
E ( z , ϕ 0 ) = E 0 + E 1 sin ϕ 0 + E 2 sin ( ϕ 0 + 2 β z )
δ ( ϕ 0 ) = 2 π B L { E 0 2 + E 1 2 2 + E 2 2 2 + E 1 E 2 sin β L β L + 2 E 0 E 1 [ 1 + E 2 E 1 sin β L β L ] sin ϕ 0 + [ E 1 2 2 - E 1 E 2 sin β L β L + E 2 2 sin 2 β L 2 β L ] cos 2 ϕ 0 } .
δ ( ϕ 0 ) δ 0 + δ m sin ϕ 0
δ 0 2 π B L E 0 2
δ m = 4 π B L E 0 E 1 [ 1 + E 2 E 1 sin β L β L ] .
E A C = 2 E 1 sin ϕ 0 cos β z .
P c = 2 R s b L η 2
P d = σ d E A C 2 2 d x d y d z = σ d b a L E 1 2
P = [ σ d a + 2 R s η 2 ] F b L E 1 2 .
T ( δ ) = 1 2 - 1 2 cos δ
m = T max - T min .
m = sin δ m .
P = [ σ d a + 2 R s η 2 ] F b ( sin - 1 m ) 2 16 π 2 B 2 L E 0 2 .
= 2.33 × 10 - 11             and             B = 3.2 × 10 - 14 ;
tan δ L = 8 π × 10 - 15 f ;
R s = 2.5 × 10 - 7 f ,
δ 0 P = [ 4.6 × 10 - 12 a f 2 + 11.6 f ] F b ( sin - 1 m ) 2 .

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