Abstract

The paper reviews the application of internal time-varying perturbation to the problem of laser mode control and stabilization. The spectral characteristics and time domain behavior obtained by means of phase type and loss type perturbations are considered. Two techniques which allow the attainment of high single frequency output powers from normally multimode lasers are described. A method for the absolute frequency stabilization of an FM laser is considered, and a brief discussion of an efficient method of internal modulation, termed coupling modulation, is given.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. E. Harris, R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 202–204, November1964.
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. XLII, pp. 155–179, January1963.
  7. A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 388–391, February1965; and, “Parametric interactions of optical modes,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 30–37, February1966.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “FM laser oscillation-theory,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 205–206, November1964.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 245–262, September1965.
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A1429–A1450, June1964.
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Targ, B. J. McMurtry, private communication.
  13. T. Uchida, “Direct modulation of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 336–343, November1965.
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. W. Smith, “The output power of a 6328 Å He-Ne gas laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 62–68, March1966.
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Gürs, “Beats and modulation in optical ruby-masers,” Quantum Electronics III, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964, pp. 1113–1119.
  17. K. Gürs, R. Muller, Internal Modulation of Optical Masers, Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Masers—New York, 1963. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 243–252.
  18. M. DiDomenico, “Small-signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2870–2876, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. H. Pantell, R. L. Kohn, “Mode coupling in a ruby laser,” to be published.
  21. O. P. McDuff, S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear theory of the internally loss modulated laser,” to be published.
  22. G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, “Frequency selective coupling to the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 265–267, November15, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Osterink, R. Byer, S. E. Harris, “The internally phase modulated laser with frequency selective output coupling,” presented at the Fourth Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., April 1966.
  25. S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. P. Kaminow, “Internal modulation of optical masers (bandwidth limitations),” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 123–127, January1965.
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. J. Peterson, A. Yariv, “Parametric frequency conversion of coherent light by the electro-optic effect in KDP,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, p. 184, November1, 1964.
    [CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. W. Smith, “The output power of a 6328 Å He-Ne gas laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 62–68, March1966.
[CrossRef]

1965 (10)

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Uchida, “Direct modulation of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 336–343, November1965.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, “Frequency selective coupling to the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 265–267, November15, 1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, “Internal modulation of optical masers (bandwidth limitations),” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 123–127, January1965.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 245–262, September1965.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
[CrossRef]

1964 (8)

R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Peterson, A. Yariv, “Parametric frequency conversion of coherent light by the electro-optic effect in KDP,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, p. 184, November1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “FM laser oscillation-theory,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 205–206, November1964.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A1429–A1450, June1964.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 202–204, November1964.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, “Small-signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2870–2876, October1964.
[CrossRef]

1963 (4)

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. XLII, pp. 155–179, January1963.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Ammann, E. O.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Bennett, W. R.

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J.

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T. J.

T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Byer, R.

L. Osterink, R. Byer, S. E. Harris, “The internally phase modulated laser with frequency selective output coupling,” presented at the Fourth Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., April 1966.

Crowell, M. H.

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Cummins, H.

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

de Mars, G.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

M. DiDomenico, “Small-signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2870–2876, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Francois, G.

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Gampel, L.

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Gordon, E. I.

E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. XLII, pp. 155–179, January1963.

Gürs, K.

K. Gürs, “Beats and modulation in optical ruby-masers,” Quantum Electronics III, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964, pp. 1113–1119.

K. Gürs, R. Muller, Internal Modulation of Optical Masers, Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Masers—New York, 1963. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 243–252.

Hargrove, L. E.

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 245–262, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, “Frequency selective coupling to the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 265–267, November15, 1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “FM laser oscillation-theory,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 205–206, November1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 202–204, November1964.
[CrossRef]

L. Osterink, R. Byer, S. E. Harris, “The internally phase modulated laser with frequency selective output coupling,” presented at the Fourth Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., April 1966.

O. P. McDuff, S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear theory of the internally loss modulated laser,” to be published.

Kaminow, I. P.

Knable, H.

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Kohn, R. L.

R. H. Pantell, R. L. Kohn, “Mode coupling in a ruby laser,” to be published.

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A1429–A1450, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Massey, G. A.

G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
[CrossRef]

McDuff, O. P.

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 245–262, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “FM laser oscillation-theory,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 205–206, November1964.
[CrossRef]

O. P. McDuff, S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear theory of the internally loss modulated laser,” to be published.

McMurtry, B. J.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, “Frequency selective coupling to the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 265–267, November15, 1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, B. J. McMurtry, private communication.

Muller, R.

K. Gürs, R. Muller, Internal Modulation of Optical Masers, Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Masers—New York, 1963. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 243–252.

Oshman, M. K.

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
[CrossRef]

Osterink, L.

L. Osterink, R. Byer, S. E. Harris, “The internally phase modulated laser with frequency selective output coupling,” presented at the Fourth Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., April 1966.

Pantell, R. H.

R. H. Pantell, R. L. Kohn, “Mode coupling in a ruby laser,” to be published.

Peterson, B. J.

B. J. Peterson, A. Yariv, “Parametric frequency conversion of coherent light by the electro-optic effect in KDP,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, p. 184, November1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Pollack, M. A.

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Rigden, J. D.

E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. XLII, pp. 155–179, January1963.

Rigrod, W. W.

T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “The output power of a 6328 Å He-Ne gas laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 62–68, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Statz, H.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Targ, R.

G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 202–204, November1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, B. J. McMurtry, private communication.

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida, “Direct modulation of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 336–343, November1965.
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Winslow, D. K.

C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

B. J. Peterson, A. Yariv, “Parametric frequency conversion of coherent light by the electro-optic effect in KDP,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, p. 184, November1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 388–391, February1965; and, “Parametric interactions of optical modes,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 30–37, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y.

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Letters (9)

A. E. Siegman, C. F. Quate, J. Bjorkholm, G. Francois, “Frequency translation of an He-Ne laser’s output frequency by acoustic output coupling inside the resonant cavity,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 1–2, July1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

H. Cummins, H. Knable, L. Gampel, Y. Yeh, “Frequency shifts in light diffracted by ultrasonic waves and liquid media,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 2, pp. 62–64, February1, 1963.
[CrossRef]

G. A. Massey, M. K. Oshman, R. Targ, “Generation of single frequency light using the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 6, pp. 10–11, January1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, “Frequency selective coupling to the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 265–267, November15, 1965.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, B. J. McMurtry, E. O. Ammann, “Proposed frequency stabilization of the FM laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 7, pp. 184–186, October1965.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Peterson, A. Yariv, “Parametric frequency conversion of coherent light by the electro-optic effect in KDP,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, p. 184, November1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Hargrove, R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He-Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intracavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 4–5, July1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, R. Targ, “FM oscillation of the He-Ne laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 202–204, November1964.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “FM laser oscillation-theory,” Appl. Phys. Letters, vol. 5, pp. 205–206, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “The Fabry-Perot electro-optic modulator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. XLII, pp. 155–179, January1963.

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (6)

S. E. Harris, O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 245–262, September1965.
[CrossRef]

E. O. Ammann, B. J. McMurtry, M. K. Oshman, “Detailed experiments on helium-neon FM lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 263–272, September1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Uchida, “Direct modulation of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 336–343, November1965.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “The output power of a 6328 Å He-Ne gas laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 62–68, March1966.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. DiDomenico, “Small-signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2870–2876, October1964.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. de Mars, “Spectral output and spiking behavior of solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2289–2295, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A1429–A1450, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. F. Quate, C. D. W. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow, “Interaction of light and microwave sound,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 1604–1623, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (Correspondence) (1)

R. Targ, G. A. Massey, S. E. Harris, “Laser frequency translation by means of electro-optic coupling control,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1247–1248, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. H. Pantell, R. L. Kohn, “Mode coupling in a ruby laser,” to be published.

O. P. McDuff, S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear theory of the internally loss modulated laser,” to be published.

L. Osterink, R. Byer, S. E. Harris, “The internally phase modulated laser with frequency selective output coupling,” presented at the Fourth Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conf., April 1966.

A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 388–391, February1965; and, “Parametric interactions of optical modes,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 30–37, February1966.
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, B. J. McMurtry, private communication.

K. Gürs, “Beats and modulation in optical ruby-masers,” Quantum Electronics III, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964, pp. 1113–1119.

K. Gürs, R. Muller, Internal Modulation of Optical Masers, Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Masers—New York, 1963. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 243–252.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of FM laser oscillation. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of q=0 and q= 1 solutions. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beat amplitude vs. δ at constant Γ. Figure from Ammann, McMurtry, and Oshman [11].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical FM spectra. Figure from Ammann, McMurtry, and Oshman [11].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser mode intensities at constant δ and variable detuning: g0=0.075; αn=0.070. Five modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Shift of envelope of laser modes in phase locked region. (a) Zero detuning. (b) Finite detuning. Figure from Ammann, McMurtry, and Oshman [11].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output intensity vs. time for phase locked and FM operation: g0=0.075; αn=0.070. Five modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output power vs. detuning: g0=0.075; αn=0.070. Five modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectra and time domain behavior for loss perturbation. Figure from McDuff and Harris [21].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Peak pulse intensity vs. αc. Five modes free running. Figure from McDuff and Harris [21].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pulse width vs. αc. Five modes free running. Figure from McDuff and Harris [21].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

αc(threshold) vs. detuning. Nine modes free running. Figure from McDuff and Harris [21].

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic of super-mode techniques. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Super-mode conversion efficiency vs. δ:g0=0.085; an=0.070. Nine modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Method of frequency selective coupling.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Amplitude of first and second beat vs. position of center frequency: g0= 0.085; αn=0.070. Nine modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Phase of first and second beat vs. position of center frequency: g0=0.085; αn=0.070. Nine modes free running. Figure from Harris and McDuff [9].

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

AM type coupling modulation.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Acoustic frequency translation.

Equations (28)

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[ ϕ ˙ n - n Δ ν + 1 2 ν χ n ] E n = - δ c 2 L [ E n + 1 cos ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) + E n - 1 cos ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) ]
E ˙ n + ν 2 [ 1 Q n + χ n ] E n = δ c 2 L [ E n + 1 sin ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) - E n - 1 sin ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) ] .
E ( z , t ) = n E n ( t ) cos [ ν n t + ϕ n ( t ) ] U n ( z ) ,
ν L c χ n = - g n ( 1 - m β n m E m 2 ) ,
ν L χ n c = σ n + m τ n m E m 2 ,
ν L c 1 Q n = α n ,
δ = L a 2 π ( sin a L π 2 ) ( cos z 0 π L ) δ m ,
2 n Γ J n ( Γ ) = J n + 1 ( Γ ) + J n - 1 ( Γ ) ,
E ˙ n = 0 ϕ ˙ n = q Δ ν E n = J n - q ( Γ ) ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n = 0 ,
Γ = c L 1 Δ ν δ = 1 π Δ Ω Δ ν δ = 1 π axial mode interval detuning frequency δ .
E n = E n + 1 ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n = p π ϕ ˙ n = ( - 1 ) p + 1 δ c L = ( - 1 ) p + 1 δ π Δ Ω ,
Ψ n = ν L χ n c ρ n = ν L c [ 1 Q n + χ n ] .
sin ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) = 1 J n ( Γ ) J n - 1 ( Γ ) 1 δ q = - n - 1 ρ q J q 2 ( Γ ) .
E n = J n ( Γ ) + Γ 2 q q 0 m 1 q J n - q ( Γ ) J m - q ( Γ ) μ m
μ n = J n + 1 ( Γ ) [ 1 - cos ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) ] + J n + 1 ( Γ ) [ 1 - cos ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) ] - J n ( Γ ) Ψ n δ .
n = - + { E n E ˙ n + ν 2 [ 1 Q n + χ n ] E n 2 } = 0.
n ( g n - α n ) J n 2 ( Γ ) > 0 .
( 1 2 n E n 2 )
( 1 2 n E n 2 )
[ ϕ ˙ n - n Δ ν + 1 2 ν χ n ] E n = - α c c 2 L [ E n + 1 sin ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) - E n - 1 sin ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) ]
E n + ν 2 [ 1 Q n + χ n ] E n = - α c 2 L E n - α c c 2 L E n + 1 cos ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) + E n - 1 cos ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) ] .
α c = 1 2 0 L α ( z ) sin π z L d z .
α = 0 L α ( z ) d z .
α c = L a α π sin ( π a 2 L ) cos z 0 π L .
E n = E n + 1 ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n = π ϕ ˙ n = 0.
E n = I n ( ξ ) ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n = π 2 , ϕ ˙ n = 0 ,
n E n E ˙ n + ν 2 [ 1 Q n + χ n ] E n 2 = - α c 2 L n E n 2 - α c c L n E n E n + 1 cos ( ϕ n + 1 - ϕ n ) .
sin ( ϕ n - ϕ n - 1 ) = 1 E n E n - 1 1 α c q = n q = [ - q Δ ν 2 L c + ψ q ] E q 2 .

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