Abstract

This paper is intended as a status report on high-speed detectors for the visible and near-infrared portion of the optical spectrum. Both vacuum and solid-state detectors are discussed, with the emphasis on those devices which can be used as direct (noncoherent) detectors of weak optical signals modulated at microwave frequencies. The best detectors for this application have internal current gain and in this regard the relevant properties and limitations of high-frequency secondary emission multiplication in vacuum tube devices and avalanche multiplication in p-n junctions are summarized.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  5. B. M. Oliver, “Signal-to-noise ratios in photoelectric mixing,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 49, pp. 1960–1961, December1961.
  6. W. B. Bridges, G. S. Picus, “Gas laser preamplifier performance,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1189–1190, October1964.
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  7. S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Kerr, “The FM laser and optical communication systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 671–672, April1966.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Johnson, “Square law behavior of photocathodes at high light intensities and high frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 99–101, May1965.
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  10. S. E. Harris, A. E. Siegman, B. J. McMurtry, “Optical heterodyning and optical demodulation at microwave frequencies,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 511–527.
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  13. C. C. Eaglesfield, “Noise factor at optical frequencies,” Proc. IEE (London), vol. 111, pp. 1241–1244, July1964.
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  26. M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
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  29. B. J. McMurtry, “Microwave phototube design considerations,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-O, pp. 219–226, July1963.
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  30. D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
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  31. O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “High-gain dynamic microwave photomultiplier,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 207–208, February1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Photomultiplier detection of microwave modulated light,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1525, June1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplierProc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 153–162, January1963.
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  32. R. Hankin, E. Dallafior, “Effect of an electrostatic field in the dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 412–413, April1964.
    [CrossRef]
  33. O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Some aspects of electron motion in biased DCFEM operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 413–414, April1964.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Improved gain and stability in the dynamic crossedfield photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, field p. 616, May1964.
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965.
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.
  36. M. B. Fisher, “A traveling-wave photomultiplier,” paper 11.4, presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, D. C.; to be published in the IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics.
  37. D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, “Evaluating light demodulators,” Electronics, vol. 37, pp. 54–61, April6, 1964.
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    [CrossRef]
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  41. M. I. Grace, D. E. Sawyer, “UHF photoparametric amplifier,” to be published, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices.
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    [CrossRef]
  43. R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “An available power-bandwidth product for photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 865, July1964.
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  44. R. P. Riesz, “High-speed semiconductor photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 33, pp. 994–998, September1962.
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  45. H. Inaba, A. E. Siegman, “Microwave photomixing of optical maser outputs with a PIN-junction photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1823–1824, August1962.L. U. Kibler, “A high-speed point contact photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1834–1835, August1962.W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964.
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. DiDomenico, W. M. Sharpless, J. J. McNicol, “High-speed photodetection in germanium and silicon cartridge-type point-contact photodiodes,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 677–683, June1965.
    [CrossRef]
  47. E. Ahlstrom, W. W. Gaertner, “Silicon surface-barrier photocell,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 2602–2606, August1962.
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  48. M. V. Schneider, “Surface barrier photodiode with antireflection coating,” to be published.
  49. M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
    [CrossRef]
  50. G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
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    [CrossRef]
  53. E. N. Fuls, “Optical frequency mixing in photoconductive InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 7–9, January1, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  54. S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
    [CrossRef]
  55. K. Garbrecht, W. Heinlein, “Noise performance of photodiodes in parametric amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 192–193, February1964.
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  56. K. M. Johnson, “High-speed photodiode signal enhancement at avalanche breakdown voltage,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 55–63, February1965.
    [CrossRef]
  57. L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
    [CrossRef]
  58. G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche multiplication in InAs photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 180, February1965.
    [CrossRef]
  59. S. L. Miller, “Avalanche breakdown in germanium,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1234–1241, August15, 1955.
    [CrossRef]
  60. C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  61. W. Shockley, “Problems related to p-n junctions in silicon,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 2, pp. 35–67, January1961.
    [CrossRef]
  62. A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
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  63. W. T. Read, “A proposed high-frequency, negative-resistance diode,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol.37, pp. 401–446, March1958.C. A. Lee, unpublished work.R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “The frequency response of avalanching photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 297–305, March1966.
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  64. A. S. Tager, “Current fluctuations in a semiconductor under the conditions of impact ionization and avalanche breakdown,” Soviet Physics-Solid State, vol. 6, pp. 1919–1925, February1965.R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 164–168, January1966.
    [CrossRef]
  65. L. K. Anderson, H. Melchior, unpublished work.Also R. D. Baertsch, “Low-frequency noise measurements in silicon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (Correspondence), vol. 13, pp. 383–385, March1966.
    [CrossRef]
  66. C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
    [CrossRef]
  67. H. Ruegg, “A fast, high-gain silicon photodiode,” ISSCC Digest, pp. 56–57, February1966.

1966

J. R. Kerr, “The FM laser and optical communication systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 671–672, April1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

H. Ruegg, “A fast, high-gain silicon photodiode,” ISSCC Digest, pp. 56–57, February1966.

1965

A. S. Tager, “Current fluctuations in a semiconductor under the conditions of impact ionization and avalanche breakdown,” Soviet Physics-Solid State, vol. 6, pp. 1919–1925, February1965.R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 164–168, January1966.
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, “High-speed photodiode signal enhancement at avalanche breakdown voltage,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 55–63, February1965.
[CrossRef]

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche multiplication in InAs photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 180, February1965.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Johnson, “Square law behavior of photocathodes at high light intensities and high frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 99–101, May1965.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Smith, “Detectors for ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 631–638, June1965.
[CrossRef]

B. M. Oliver, “Thermal and quantum noise,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 436–454, May1965.
[CrossRef]

M. Ross, “A proposal for a new sensitivity measure for optical and IR detectors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2160–2161, December1965.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Caddes, “A Ku-band traveling-wave phototube,” Microwave J., vol. 8, pp. 3–8, March1965.

R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965.
[CrossRef]

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

M. DiDomenico, W. M. Sharpless, J. J. McNicol, “High-speed photodetection in germanium and silicon cartridge-type point-contact photodiodes,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 677–683, June1965.
[CrossRef]

1964

R. Hankin, E. Dallafior, “Effect of an electrostatic field in the dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 412–413, April1964.
[CrossRef]

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Some aspects of electron motion in biased DCFEM operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 413–414, April1964.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Improved gain and stability in the dynamic crossedfield photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, field p. 616, May1964.
[CrossRef]

R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “An available power-bandwidth product for photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 865, July1964.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, “Evaluating light demodulators,” Electronics, vol. 37, pp. 54–61, April6, 1964.

C. C. Eaglesfield, “Noise factor at optical frequencies,” Proc. IEE (London), vol. 111, pp. 1241–1244, July1964.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blattner, H. C. Johnson, F. Sterzer, “Upper limit of time dispersion in transmission secondary electron emission from KCl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 46–47, February1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

L. Waszak, “Direct observation of axial mode beating in Q-switched ruby lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 428, April1964.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, G. S. Picus, “Gas laser preamplifier performance,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1189–1190, October1964.
[CrossRef]

H. S. Sommers, W. B. Teutsch, “Demodulation of low-level broad-band optical signals with semiconductors: Part II—Analysis of the photoconductive detector,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 144–153, February1964.
[CrossRef]

E. N. Fuls, “Optical frequency mixing in photoconductive InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 7–9, January1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Garbrecht, W. Heinlein, “Noise performance of photodiodes in parametric amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 192–193, February1964.
[CrossRef]

1963

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wittwer, “Detection of higher order ruby optical maser modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 194–197, May15, 1963.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Spicer, F. Wooten, “Photoemission and photomultipliers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 1119–1126, August1963.
[CrossRef]

B. J. McMurtry, “Microwave phototube design considerations,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-O, pp. 219–226, July1963.
[CrossRef]

R. H. Rediker, T. M. Quist, B. Lax, “High speed heterojunction photodiodes and beam-of-light transistors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 218–219, January1963. T. B. Ramachandran, K. K. Chow, W. J. Moroney, P. Olendzensky, “Photomixing in a GaAsxP1−x-GaAs heterodiode,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2594–2595, August1965.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
[CrossRef]

1962

E. Ahlstrom, W. W. Gaertner, “Silicon surface-barrier photocell,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 2602–2606, August1962.
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Riesz, “High-speed semiconductor photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 33, pp. 994–998, September1962.
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, A. E. Siegman, “Microwave photomixing of optical maser outputs with a PIN-junction photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1823–1824, August1962.L. U. Kibler, “A high-speed point contact photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1834–1835, August1962.W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964.
[CrossRef]

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “High-gain dynamic microwave photomultiplier,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 207–208, February1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Photomultiplier detection of microwave modulated light,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1525, June1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplierProc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 153–162, January1963.
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Photomixing experiments with a ruby optical maser and a traveling-wave microwave phototube,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 51–53, January1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, “Quantum effects in communications systems,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1898–1908, September1962.
[CrossRef]

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

1961

W. Shockley, “Problems related to p-n junctions in silicon,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 2, pp. 35–67, January1961.
[CrossRef]

B. M. Oliver, “Signal-to-noise ratios in photoelectric mixing,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 49, pp. 1960–1961, December1961.

1959

R. C. Jones, “Phenomenological description of the response and detecting ability of radiation detectors,” Proc. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1495–1502, September1959.
[CrossRef]

1958

D. E. Sawyer, R. H. Rediker, “Narrow base germanium photodiodes,” Proc. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1122–1130, June1958.W. W. Gaertner, “Depletion-layer photoeffects in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev., vol. 116, pp. 84–87, October1, 1959.G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p-i-n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 622–628, March1964.
[CrossRef]

1955

A. T. Forrester et al.., “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1691–1700, September15, 1955.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Miller, “Avalanche breakdown in germanium,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1234–1241, August15, 1955.
[CrossRef]

Ahlstrom, E.

E. Ahlstrom, W. W. Gaertner, “Silicon surface-barrier photocell,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 2602–2606, August1962.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. K.

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

L. K. Anderson, H. Melchior, unpublished work.Also R. D. Baertsch, “Low-frequency noise measurements in silicon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (Correspondence), vol. 13, pp. 383–385, March1966.
[CrossRef]

L. K. Anderson, “Photodiode detection,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 549–563.

Batdorf, R. L.

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Bjørnerud, E. K.

M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
[CrossRef]

Blattner, D.

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

Blattner, D. J.

D. J. Blattner, H. C. Johnson, F. Sterzer, “Upper limit of time dispersion in transmission secondary electron emission from KCl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 46–47, February1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Bridges, W. B.

Bruining, H.

H. Bruining, Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1954.

Caddes, D. E.

D. E. Caddes, “A Ku-band traveling-wave phototube,” Microwave J., vol. 8, pp. 3–8, March1965.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, “Evaluating light demodulators,” Electronics, vol. 37, pp. 54–61, April6, 1964.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Dallafior, E.

R. Hankin, E. Dallafior, “Effect of an electrostatic field in the dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 412–413, April1964.
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

M. DiDomenico, W. M. Sharpless, J. J. McNicol, “High-speed photodetection in germanium and silicon cartridge-type point-contact photodiodes,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 677–683, June1965.
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Eaglesfield, C. C.

C. C. Eaglesfield, “Noise factor at optical frequencies,” Proc. IEE (London), vol. 111, pp. 1241–1244, July1964.

Emmons, R. B.

G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche multiplication in InAs photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 180, February1965.
[CrossRef]

R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “An available power-bandwidth product for photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 865, July1964.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M. B.

M. B. Fisher, “A traveling-wave photomultiplier,” paper 11.4, presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, D. C.; to be published in the IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics.

Forrester, A. T.

A. T. Forrester et al.., “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1691–1700, September15, 1955.
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Fujii, Y.

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
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Fuls, E. N.

E. N. Fuls, “Optical frequency mixing in photoconductive InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 7–9, January1, 1964.
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Gaddy, O. L.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Some aspects of electron motion in biased DCFEM operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 413–414, April1964.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Improved gain and stability in the dynamic crossedfield photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, field p. 616, May1964.
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O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “High-gain dynamic microwave photomultiplier,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 207–208, February1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Photomultiplier detection of microwave modulated light,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1525, June1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplierProc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 153–162, January1963.
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Gaertner, W. W.

E. Ahlstrom, W. W. Gaertner, “Silicon surface-barrier photocell,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 2602–2606, August1962.
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Garbrecht, K.

K. Garbrecht, W. Heinlein, “Noise performance of photodiodes in parametric amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 192–193, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, K. D.

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Ginzton, E. L.

E. L. Ginzton, Microwave Measurements. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957, ch. 10.

Goetzberger, A.

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon, “Quantum effects in communications systems,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1898–1908, September1962.
[CrossRef]

Grace, M. I.

M. I. Grace, D. E. Sawyer, “UHF photoparametric amplifier,” to be published, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices.

Haitz, R. H.

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Hankin, R.

R. Hankin, E. Dallafior, “Effect of an electrostatic field in the dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 412–413, April1964.
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, A. E. Siegman, B. J. McMurtry, “Optical heterodyning and optical demodulation at microwave frequencies,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 511–527.

Heinlein, W.

K. Garbrecht, W. Heinlein, “Noise performance of photodiodes in parametric amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 192–193, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Holshouser, D. F.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Some aspects of electron motion in biased DCFEM operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 413–414, April1964.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Improved gain and stability in the dynamic crossedfield photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, field p. 616, May1964.
[CrossRef]

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “High-gain dynamic microwave photomultiplier,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 207–208, February1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Photomultiplier detection of microwave modulated light,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1525, June1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplierProc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 153–162, January1963.
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, A. E. Siegman, “Microwave photomixing of optical maser outputs with a PIN-junction photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1823–1824, August1962.L. U. Kibler, “A high-speed point contact photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1834–1835, August1962.W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Jacquez, A. E.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A. M.

A. M. Johnson, “Square law behavior of photocathodes at high light intensities and high frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 99–101, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, H.

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

Johnson, H. C.

D. J. Blattner, H. C. Johnson, F. Sterzer, “Upper limit of time dispersion in transmission secondary electron emission from KCl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 46–47, February1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, “High-speed photodiode signal enhancement at avalanche breakdown voltage,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 55–63, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, “Phenomenological description of the response and detecting ability of radiation detectors,” Proc. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1495–1502, September1959.
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Kaminsky, G.

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. R.

Kimura, T.

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Kleimack, J. J.

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Kruse, P. W.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology. New York: Wiley, 1962, pp. 268–276.

Kurokawa, K.

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Lax, B.

R. H. Rediker, T. M. Quist, B. Lax, “High speed heterojunction photodiodes and beam-of-light transistors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 218–219, January1963. T. B. Ramachandran, K. K. Chow, W. J. Moroney, P. Olendzensky, “Photomixing in a GaAsxP1−x-GaAs heterodiode,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2594–2595, August1965.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. A.

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, P. A.

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche multiplication in InAs photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 180, February1965.
[CrossRef]

R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “An available power-bandwidth product for photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 865, July1964.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Lynch, W. T.

H. Melchior, W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” to be published in IEEE Traits. on Electron Devices.

McDonald, B.

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

McGlauchlin, L. D.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology. New York: Wiley, 1962, pp. 268–276.

McMullin, P. G.

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

McMurtry, B. J.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, “Evaluating light demodulators,” Electronics, vol. 37, pp. 54–61, April6, 1964.

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
[CrossRef]

B. J. McMurtry, “Microwave phototube design considerations,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-O, pp. 219–226, July1963.
[CrossRef]

B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Photomixing experiments with a ruby optical maser and a traveling-wave microwave phototube,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 51–53, January1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, A. E. Siegman, B. J. McMurtry, “Optical heterodyning and optical demodulation at microwave frequencies,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 511–527.

McNicol, J. J.

McQuistan, R. B.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology. New York: Wiley, 1962, pp. 268–276.

Melchior, H.

H. Melchior, W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” to be published in IEEE Traits. on Electron Devices.

L. K. Anderson, H. Melchior, unpublished work.Also R. D. Baertsch, “Low-frequency noise measurements in silicon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (Correspondence), vol. 13, pp. 383–385, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965.
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Miller, S. L.

S. L. Miller, “Avalanche breakdown in germanium,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1234–1241, August15, 1955.
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Oliver, B. M.

B. M. Oliver, “Thermal and quantum noise,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 436–454, May1965.
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B. M. Oliver, “Signal-to-noise ratios in photoelectric mixing,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 49, pp. 1960–1961, December1961.

Paik, S. F.

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Petroff, M. D.

M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
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Picus, G. S.

Quate, C. F.

C. F. Quate, “Shot noise from thermionic cathodes,” in Noise in Electron Devices, L. D. Smullin, H. A. Haus, Eds. New York: Wiley, 1959.

Quist, T. M.

R. H. Rediker, T. M. Quist, B. Lax, “High speed heterojunction photodiodes and beam-of-light transistors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 218–219, January1963. T. B. Ramachandran, K. K. Chow, W. J. Moroney, P. Olendzensky, “Photomixing in a GaAsxP1−x-GaAs heterodiode,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2594–2595, August1965.
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Ramberg, E. G.

V. K. Zworykin, E. G. Ramberg, Potoelectricity and its Application. New York: Wiley, 1949.

Read, W. T.

W. T. Read, “A proposed high-frequency, negative-resistance diode,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol.37, pp. 401–446, March1958.C. A. Lee, unpublished work.R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “The frequency response of avalanching photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 297–305, March1966.
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Rediker, R. H.

R. H. Rediker, T. M. Quist, B. Lax, “High speed heterojunction photodiodes and beam-of-light transistors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 218–219, January1963. T. B. Ramachandran, K. K. Chow, W. J. Moroney, P. Olendzensky, “Photomixing in a GaAsxP1−x-GaAs heterodiode,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2594–2595, August1965.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Sawyer, R. H. Rediker, “Narrow base germanium photodiodes,” Proc. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1122–1130, June1958.W. W. Gaertner, “Depletion-layer photoeffects in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev., vol. 116, pp. 84–87, October1, 1959.G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p-i-n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 622–628, March1964.
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Riesz, R. P.

R. P. Riesz, “High-speed semiconductor photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 33, pp. 994–998, September1962.
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Rooney, S. A.

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems. New York: Interscience, 1963, pp. 4–10.

Ross, M.

M. Ross, “A proposal for a new sensitivity measure for optical and IR detectors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2160–2161, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Ruedy, J.

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

Ruegg, H.

H. Ruegg, “A fast, high-gain silicon photodiode,” ISSCC Digest, pp. 56–57, February1966.

Saito, S.

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Sawyer, D. E.

D. E. Sawyer, R. H. Rediker, “Narrow base germanium photodiodes,” Proc. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1122–1130, June1958.W. W. Gaertner, “Depletion-layer photoeffects in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev., vol. 116, pp. 84–87, October1, 1959.G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p-i-n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 622–628, March1964.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Grace, D. E. Sawyer, “UHF photoparametric amplifier,” to be published, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices.

Scarlett, R. M.

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

M. V. Schneider, “Surface barrier photodiode with antireflection coating,” to be published.

Schwarz, R. F.

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Sharpless, W. M.

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, “Problems related to p-n junctions in silicon,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 2, pp. 35–67, January1961.
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Siegman, A. E.

H. Inaba, A. E. Siegman, “Microwave photomixing of optical maser outputs with a PIN-junction photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1823–1824, August1962.L. U. Kibler, “A high-speed point contact photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1834–1835, August1962.W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964.
[CrossRef]

B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Photomixing experiments with a ruby optical maser and a traveling-wave microwave phototube,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 51–53, January1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, A. E. Siegman, B. J. McMurtry, “Optical heterodyning and optical demodulation at microwave frequencies,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 511–527.

Smith, R. A.

Sommers, H. S.

H. S. Sommers, W. B. Teutsch, “Demodulation of low-level broad-band optical signals with semiconductors: Part II—Analysis of the photoconductive detector,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 144–153, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Spangenberg, K. R.

K. R. Spangenberg, Vacuum Tubes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948.

Spetzler, H. A.

M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
[CrossRef]

Spicer, W. E.

W. E. Spicer, F. Wooten, “Photoemission and photomultipliers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 1119–1126, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Sterzer, F.

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

D. J. Blattner, H. C. Johnson, F. Sterzer, “Upper limit of time dispersion in transmission secondary electron emission from KCl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 46–47, February1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Tager, A. S.

A. S. Tager, “Current fluctuations in a semiconductor under the conditions of impact ionization and avalanche breakdown,” Soviet Physics-Solid State, vol. 6, pp. 1919–1925, February1965.R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 164–168, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Teutsch, W. B.

H. S. Sommers, W. B. Teutsch, “Demodulation of low-level broad-band optical signals with semiconductors: Part II—Analysis of the photoconductive detector,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 144–153, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Uno, Y.

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Waszak, L.

L. Waszak, “Direct observation of axial mode beating in Q-switched ruby lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 428, April1964.
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. N.

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, N. C.

R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965.
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wittwer, “Detection of higher order ruby optical maser modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 194–197, May15, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Wooten, F.

W. E. Spicer, F. Wooten, “Photoemission and photomultipliers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 1119–1126, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Zworykin, V. K.

V. K. Zworykin, E. G. Ramberg, Potoelectricity and its Application. New York: Wiley, 1949.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. DiDomenico, R. H. Pantell, O. Svelto, J. N. Weaver, “Optical frequency mixing in bulk semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 77–79, December1962.
[CrossRef]

E. N. Fuls, “Optical frequency mixing in photoconductive InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 7–9, January1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

L. K. Anderson, P. G. McMullin, L. A. D’Asaro, A. Goetzberger, “Microwave photodiodes exhibiting micro-plasma-free carrier multiplication,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 62–64, February1965.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blattner, H. C. Johnson, F. Sterzer, “Upper limit of time dispersion in transmission secondary electron emission from KCl films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 46–47, February1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wittwer, “Detection of higher order ruby optical maser modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 194–197, May15, 1963.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Siegman, “Modulation and direct demodulation of coherent and incoherent light at a microwave frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 37–39, October1, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Electronics

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, “Evaluating light demodulators,” Electronics, vol. 37, pp. 54–61, April6, 1964.

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics

A. M. Johnson, “Square law behavior of photocathodes at high light intensities and high frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 99–101, May1965.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller, N. C. Wittwer, “Secondary-emission amplification at microwave frequencies,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 49–59, April1965.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices

B. J. McMurtry, “Microwave phototube design considerations,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-O, pp. 219–226, July1963.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Caddes, B. J. McMurtry, A. E. Jacquez, “The traveling-wave phototube—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 156–163, April1964.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. L. Batdorf, W. Wiegmann, G. Kaminsky, “Technological developments evolving from research on Read diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 175–180, January1966.
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, “High-speed photodiode signal enhancement at avalanche breakdown voltage,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 55–63, February1965.
[CrossRef]

ISSCC Digest

H. Ruegg, “A fast, high-gain silicon photodiode,” ISSCC Digest, pp. 56–57, February1966.

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Goetzberger, B. McDonald, R. H. Haitz, R. M. Scarlett, “Avalanche effects in silicon p-n junctions—II. Structurally perfect junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 1591–1600, June1963.
[CrossRef]

E. Ahlstrom, W. W. Gaertner, “Silicon surface-barrier photocell,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 2602–2606, August1962.
[CrossRef]

Microwave J.

D. E. Caddes, “A Ku-band traveling-wave phototube,” Microwave J., vol. 8, pp. 3–8, March1965.

Phys. Rev.

A. T. Forrester et al.., “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1691–1700, September15, 1955.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Miller, “Avalanche breakdown in germanium,” Phys. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 1234–1241, August15, 1955.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lee, R. A. Logan, R. L. Batdorf, J. J. Kleimack, W. Wiegmann, “Ionization rates of holes and electrons in silicon,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A761–A773, May4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE (London)

C. C. Eaglesfield, “Noise factor at optical frequencies,” Proc. IEE (London), vol. 111, pp. 1241–1244, July1964.

Proc. IEEE

B. M. Oliver, “Thermal and quantum noise,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 436–454, May1965.
[CrossRef]

H. S. Sommers, W. B. Teutsch, “Demodulation of low-level broad-band optical signals with semiconductors: Part II—Analysis of the photoconductive detector,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 144–153, February1964.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Spicer, F. Wooten, “Photoemission and photomultipliers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 1119–1126, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (Correspondence)

R. H. Rediker, T. M. Quist, B. Lax, “High speed heterojunction photodiodes and beam-of-light transistors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 218–219, January1963. T. B. Ramachandran, K. K. Chow, W. J. Moroney, P. Olendzensky, “Photomixing in a GaAsxP1−x-GaAs heterodiode,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2594–2595, August1965.
[CrossRef]

R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “An available power-bandwidth product for photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 865, July1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Garbrecht, W. Heinlein, “Noise performance of photodiodes in parametric amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 192–193, February1964.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Photoelectric mixing of coherent light in bulk photoconductors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 613–614, April1963.M. DiDomenico, L. K. Anderson, “Microwave signal-to-noise performance of CdSe bulk photoconductive detectors,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 815–822, July1964.G. J. Lasher, A. H. Nethercot, “Theory of optical frequency mixing in bulk photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2122–2123, July1963.
[CrossRef]

G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, “Avalanche multiplication in InAs photodiodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 180, February1965.
[CrossRef]

M. Ross, “A proposal for a new sensitivity measure for optical and IR detectors,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2160–2161, December1965.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Petroff, H. A. Spetzler, E. K. Bjørnerud, “X-band microwave phototube for demodulation of laser beams,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 614–615, April1963.
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, K. D. Gilbert, S. A. Rooney, “Optical mixing in phototubes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2380–2381, November1962.K. D. Gilbert, H. C. McClees, P. A. Lindsay, S. F. Paik, “Photomixing experiments at X band,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, p. 1148, August1963.
[CrossRef]

L. Waszak, “Direct observation of axial mode beating in Q-switched ruby lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, p. 428, April1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Hankin, E. Dallafior, “Effect of an electrostatic field in the dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 412–413, April1964.
[CrossRef]

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Some aspects of electron motion in biased DCFEM operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 413–414, April1964.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Improved gain and stability in the dynamic crossedfield photomultiplier,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, field p. 616, May1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE

R. C. Jones, “Phenomenological description of the response and detecting ability of radiation detectors,” Proc. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1495–1502, September1959.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon, “Quantum effects in communications systems,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1898–1908, September1962.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Sawyer, R. H. Rediker, “Narrow base germanium photodiodes,” Proc. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1122–1130, June1958.W. W. Gaertner, “Depletion-layer photoeffects in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev., vol. 116, pp. 84–87, October1, 1959.G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, R. B. Emmons, “Transit-time considerations in p-i-n diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 622–628, March1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (Correspondence)

H. Inaba, A. E. Siegman, “Microwave photomixing of optical maser outputs with a PIN-junction photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1823–1824, August1962.L. U. Kibler, “A high-speed point contact photodiode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1834–1835, August1962.W. M. Sharpless, “Cartridge-type point-contact photodiode,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 207–208, February1964.
[CrossRef]

S. Saito, K. Kurokawa, Y. Fujii, T. Kimura, Y. Uno, “Detection and amplification of the microwave signal in laser light by a parametric diode,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2369–2370, November1962.P. Penfield, D. E. Sawyer, “Photoparametric amplifier,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 340–347, April1965.
[CrossRef]

B. M. Oliver, “Signal-to-noise ratios in photoelectric mixing,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 49, pp. 1960–1961, December1961.

O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “High-gain dynamic microwave photomultiplier,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 207–208, February1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “Photomultiplier detection of microwave modulated light,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1525, June1962.O. L. Gaddy, D. F. Holshouser, “A microwave frequency dynamic crossed-field photomultiplierProc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 153–162, January1963.
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev.

D. Blattner, H. Johnson, J. Ruedy, F. Sterzer, “Microwave photomultipliers using transmission dynodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 26, pp. 22–39, March1965.

Rev. Sci. Instr.

R. P. Riesz, “High-speed semiconductor photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instr., vol. 33, pp. 994–998, September1962.
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electronics

W. Shockley, “Problems related to p-n junctions in silicon,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 2, pp. 35–67, January1961.
[CrossRef]

Soviet Physics-Solid State

A. S. Tager, “Current fluctuations in a semiconductor under the conditions of impact ionization and avalanche breakdown,” Soviet Physics-Solid State, vol. 6, pp. 1919–1925, February1965.R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 164–168, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Other

L. K. Anderson, H. Melchior, unpublished work.Also R. D. Baertsch, “Low-frequency noise measurements in silicon avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (Correspondence), vol. 13, pp. 383–385, March1966.
[CrossRef]

W. T. Read, “A proposed high-frequency, negative-resistance diode,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol.37, pp. 401–446, March1958.C. A. Lee, unpublished work.R. B. Emmons, G. Lucovsky, “The frequency response of avalanching photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, pp. 297–305, March1966.
[CrossRef]

L. K. Anderson, “Photodiode detection,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 549–563.

M. I. Grace, D. E. Sawyer, “UHF photoparametric amplifier,” to be published, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices.

H. Melchior, W. T. Lynch, “Signal and noise response of high speed germanium avalanche photodiodes,” to be published in IEEE Traits. on Electron Devices.

A. Rose, Concepts in Photoconductivity and Allied Problems. New York: Interscience, 1963, pp. 4–10.

M. V. Schneider, “Surface barrier photodiode with antireflection coating,” to be published.

M. B. Fisher, “A traveling-wave photomultiplier,” paper 11.4, presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, D. C.; to be published in the IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics.

K. R. Spangenberg, Vacuum Tubes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948.

E. L. Ginzton, Microwave Measurements. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957, ch. 10.

S. E. Harris, A. E. Siegman, B. J. McMurtry, “Optical heterodyning and optical demodulation at microwave frequencies,” 1963 Proc. Symp. on Optical Masers, pp. 511–527.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology. New York: Wiley, 1962, pp. 268–276.

Several papers on infrared radiation detectors are included in Proc. IRE, vol. 47, December1959, which is a special issue devoted to infrared techniques and technology.

V. K. Zworykin, E. G. Ramberg, Potoelectricity and its Application. New York: Wiley, 1949.

C. F. Quate, “Shot noise from thermionic cathodes,” in Noise in Electron Devices, L. D. Smullin, H. A. Haus, Eds. New York: Wiley, 1959.

H. Bruining, Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1954.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The generalized photodetection process. As the signal is processed through each step, the signal-to-noise ratio will be degraded in general by the noise sources indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phenomenological equivalent circuit of a photodetector, showing the principal signal and noise sources.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensitivity vs. optical wavelength for several representative photocathodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Noise figure of a secondary emission multiplier, as a function of the multiplication per stage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic arrangement of a photoklystron, in which the interaction circuit is a relatively high-Q reentrant cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic arrangement of a traveling-wave phototube, in which the interaction circuit is a helix.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic arrangement of a dynamic crossed-field photomultiplier, which uses a microwave frequency electric field, and a static magnetic field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic arrangement for a static crossed-field photomultiplier (after Miller and Wittwer [34]).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross section of a coaxial secondary emission amplifier suitable for use in a traveling-wave phototube (after Fisher [36]).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimentally determined figure of merit for a four-stage version of the reflection-type multiplier traveling-wave phototube (after Fisher [36]).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cross section of a p+πn junction photodiode. The diode was designed specifically for minimum series resistance and inductance (after Riesz [44]).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Quantum efficiency curves for silicon and germanium p-n junction photodiodes. The data were not corrected for reflection at the air-semiconductor interface, which amounts to about 30 percent (after Melchior and Lynch [38]).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Cross section of an edge-illuminated junction photodiode (after D. E. Sawyer).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic representation of impact ionization processes in a p-n junction. In this example there are two ionizing collisions the first by the primary electron, and the second by the hole produced in the first collision, as it travels back to the primary source. This feedback effect largely determines the response time and excess noise of the avalanche.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Cross section and top view of the junction in a germanium guard-ring avalanche photodiode (after Melchior and Lynch [38]).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Signal and noise measurements on a germanium avalanche photodiode. The signal noise source was a He–Ne laser at 1.15 microns, the radiation from which was intensity modulated to a depth of about 3 percent by a KDP electrooptic modulator (after Melchior and Lynch [38]).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Figure of merit (η2Mopt2Req) as a function of wavelength for some photoemissive and p-n junction avalanche photodetectors. Performance comparable to that shown for the static crossed-field photomultiplier can also be obtained from the dynamic crossed-field multiplier and the reflection-dynode multiplier TWP.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Summary of High-Frequency Photodetectors Using the External Photoelectric Effect

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I p = η e P L h ν ,
i s 2 ¯ = 2 e I p B ,
i n 2 ¯ = 2 e I p B M ( ω ) 2 F ( M ) ,
P ( ω ) = 1 2 I ( ω ) 2 R e q ( ω ) .
i T 2 ¯ = 4 k T B R e q .
S N = 1 2 ( η e P L h ν ) 2 [ 2 η e 2 h ν ( P L + P B ) + 2 e I D ] B F + 4 k T B M ( ω ) 2 R eq
P L = 2 B ( S / N ) h ν F η { 1 + [ 1 + ϕ c B ( S / N ) F 2 ] 1 / 2 }
ϕ c = ( η P B h ν + I D e ) F + 2 k T e 2 M 2 R e q .
ϕ c B ( S / N ) F 2
P L h ν B = 4 ( S / N ) F η .
P L = 2 h ν η B ( S / N ) ϕ c .
P L / 2 S / N .
NEP h ν η 2 B ϕ c .
NEP ( h ν / e ) ( 8 B k T ) 1 / 2 η M opt R eq 1 / 2 ,
S = I p P L = e η h ν amperes / watt .
F = δ N + 1 - 1 δ N ( δ - 1 ) .
R eq = π 2 N 2 Z c ,
0 P ( ω ) d ω π I 2 4 C ,
R eq 1 4 B C .
NEP = 4 h ν B η e 2 k T C .
n min NEP h ν B = 4 2 k T C η e .
G = τ T ,
M ( ω ) = M 0 1 + M 0 ω τ ,
M opt ( x + 2 ) = 4 k T amp x e R eq I D ,
T = T amp ( 1 + 2 x ) M opt 2 .
I 0 = η e P L M h ν [ 50 k T B ( S / N ) R eq ] 1 / 2 .

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