Abstract

This paper is a review of semiconductor laser work. The principles of operation are discussed. The stress is on work since early 1964. The present state-of-the-art in GaAs junction lasers is described.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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1966

F. H. Nicol, “Ultraviolet ZnO laser pumped by an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 13–15, July1, 1966.
[CrossRef]

V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.

B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. H. Rediker, “Properties of InAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 899–911, February1966.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Electron beam pumped laser of CdSe and CdS,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 121–124, March1966.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient visible lasers of Cd(SxSe1−x) by electron beam excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 243–245, May15, 1966.
[CrossRef]

J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966.
[CrossRef]

G. H. Schwuttke, H. S. Rupprecht, “X-ray analysis of diffusion induced defects in gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 167–173, January1966.
[CrossRef]

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ahearn, J. W. Crowe, “Linewidth measurements of CW gallium arsenide lasers at 77°K,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvi, April1966.

J. E. Ripper, G. W. Pratt, “Direct frequency modulation of semiconductor laser by ultrasonic waves,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lxvi–lxvii, April1966.

J. W. Crowe, W. E. Ahearn, “Gallium arsenide laser diode amplifier,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvii, April1966.

1965

E. J. Chatterton, “Semiconductor laser communication through multiple-scatter paths,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2114–2115, December1965.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Fenner, “Internal frequency modulation of GaAs junction lasers by changing the index of refraction through electron injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 198–199, November1965.
[CrossRef]

R. O. Carlson, T. J. Soltys, “Low threshold room temperature GaAs laser diodes,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 10, p. 607, June1965.

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuations in GaAs laser emission,” Phys. Rev., vol. 140, pp. A155–164, October1965.
[CrossRef]

W. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Thermal characteristics of GaAs laser junctions under high power pulsed conditions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 585–604, 1965.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Keyes, “Thermal problems of the injection laser,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 9, pp. 303–314, March1965.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965.
[CrossRef]

K. G. Hambleton, F. E. Birbeck, “Design of a compact 100 watt gallium arsenide laser transmitter,” SERL Tech. J., vol. 15, pp. 111–114, February1965.

B. S. Goldstein, R. M. Wiegand, “X-band modulation of GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 195, February1965.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Kelly, “Interactions between closely coupled GaAs injection lasers,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 1–4, January1965.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

D. E. Hill, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3405–3409, November1965.
[CrossRef]

M. Cliftan, P. P. Debeye, “On the parameters which affect the CW output of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 120–122, March1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Emission spontanee et stimulee du tellure par bombardment electrique,” Solid-State Communication, vol. 3, pp. 19–20, 1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effet laser dans le sulfure de cadmium par bombardemet electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 261, pp. 5428–5430, 1965.

V. S. Vauilov, E. L. Nolle, “Cadmium telluride laser with electron excitation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 164, pp. 73–74, September, 1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 827–838, March1966).

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

J. J. Tietjen, S. A. Ochs, “Improved performance of Ga(As1−xPx) laser diodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 180–181, February1965.
[CrossRef]

R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “PbS diode laser,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 54, pp. 1056–1057, October1965.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Longitudinal injection-plasma laser in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 59–60, February1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Klein, “Laser action threshold in electron-beam excited GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–202, October1965.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Optically pumped indium arsenide laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 104–105, May1965.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phivs. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 70–71, February1965.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).

K. Weiser, J. F. Woods, “Evidence for avalanche injection laser in p-type GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 225–228, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Examples are given through [14]. R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Today, vol. 18, pp. 42–54, February1965.
[CrossRef]

B. Lax, “Progress in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 2, pp. 62–75, July1965.
[CrossRef]

1964

G. J. Lasher, F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated line shapes in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A553–563, January1964.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, F. Stern, “Higher order transverse modes in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 115–116, September1964.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, M. I. Nathan, “P-Njunction lasers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 770–794, July1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).

D. A. Cusano, “Radiative recombination from GaAs directly excited by fast electrons,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 353–358, 1964.
[CrossRef]

F. B. Alexander et al., “Spontaneous and stimulated infrared emission from indium phosphide arsenide diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 13–15, January1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’arseniure d’ indium par bombardment electronique,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 145–146, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’antimoniure de gallium par bombardment electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 259, pp. 2200–2206, October1964.

C. E. Hurwitz, R. J. Keyes, “Electron-beam-pumped GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 139–141, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, “Diffused junction diodes of PbSe and PbTe,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 111, pp. 1150–1154, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Diffusion problems related to GaAs injection lasers,” Trans. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 296–300, March1964.

W. E. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Characteristics of a continuous high-power GaAs junction laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1734–1741, June1964.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Marinace, “High power CW operation of GaAs injection lasers at 77°K,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 543–544, November1964.
[CrossRef]

N. N. Winogradoff, H. K. Kessler, “Light emission and electrical characteristics of epitaxial GaAs lasers and tunnel diodes,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 119–121, 1964.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dousmanis, H. Nelson, “Temperature dependence of threshold current in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 174–176, November1964.
[CrossRef]

A. Kawaji, “Some properties of junction triode laser,” J. Appl. Phys. (Japan), vol. 3, pp. 425–426, 1964.
[CrossRef]

S. V. Galginaitis, “Efficiency measurements of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 295–298, February1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, W. V. Smith, “Thermal limitation of the energy of single injection laser light pulse,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 532–536, November1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Konnerth, C. Lanza, “Delay between current pulse and light emission of a gallium arsenide injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 120–121, April1964.
[CrossRef]

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Analysis of a proposed bistable injection laser,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 707–716, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 196–198, June1964.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “Small-signal amplification in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 57–58, February1964.
[CrossRef]

B. A. Boershig, “A light-modulated data link,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. BC-10, pp. 4–7, February1964.
[CrossRef]

1963

M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.

I. Mengailis, R. H. Rediker, “Magnetically tunable CW InAs diode maser,” Appl Phis. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 202–204, June1963.
[CrossRef]

A. B. Fowler, “Quenching of gallium arsenide injection lasers,” Appl. Phlys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 1–3, July1963.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963.
[CrossRef]

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963.
[CrossRef]

F. M. Ryan, R. C. Miller, “The effect of uniaxial strain on the threshold current and output of GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 162–163, November1963.
[CrossRef]

D. Mayerhofer, R. Braunstein, “Frequency tuning of GaAs laser diode by uniaxial stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 171–172, November1963.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “A relation between the current density at threshold and the length of Fabry-Perot type GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1243–1244, September1963; and “Light emission from GaAsxP1−xdiodes,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 282–286, March1964.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963.
[CrossRef]

S. Mayburg, “Temperature limitation on continuous operation of GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 3417–3418, November1963.
[CrossRef]

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 405–416, September1963.
[CrossRef]

H. Nelson, “Epitaxial growth from the liquid state and its application to the fabrication of tunnel and laser diodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 24, p. 603, December1963.

J. C. Marinace, “Diffused junctions in GaAs injection lasers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 110, pp. 1153–1159, November1963.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, P. Lavallard, “Laser effect in indium antimonide,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 1, pp. 148–150, November1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Maser action in InAs diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 176–178, May1963.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, R. S. Levitt, “Stimulated light emission from indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 178–179, May1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Threshold relations and diffraction loss for injection lasers,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 58–61, January1963.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Wilson, “Stimulated emission of exciton recombination radiation in GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 127–129, October1963.
[CrossRef]

1962

W. P. Dumke, “Interband transitions and maser action,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 1559–1563, September1962.
[CrossRef]

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

N. Holonyak, S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1−xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82–83, December1962.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sturge, “Optical absorption of gallium arsenide between 0.6 and 2.75 ev,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 768–773, August1962.
[CrossRef]

1961

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical emission in fluorescent solids I theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev., vol. 123, pp. 1145–1150, August1961.
[CrossRef]

M. G. A. Bernard, G. Duraffourg, “Laser conditions in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 1, pp. 699–703, July1961.
[CrossRef]

1960

N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.

1959

N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.

Abdulaev, G. B.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

Ahearn, W. E.

J. W. Crowe, W. E. Ahearn, “Gallium arsenide laser diode amplifier,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvii, April1966.

W. E. Ahearn, J. W. Crowe, “Linewidth measurements of CW gallium arsenide lasers at 77°K,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvi, April1966.

Akhundov, G. A.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

Alexander, F. B.

F. B. Alexander et al., “Spontaneous and stimulated infrared emission from indium phosphide arsenide diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 13–15, January1964.
[CrossRef]

Archer, R. J.

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuations in GaAs laser emission,” Phys. Rev., vol. 140, pp. A155–164, October1965.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 196–198, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. W. Smith, J. A. Armstrong, “Intensity noise in multimode GaAs laser emission,” IBM J. Research and Develop., to be published.

Axe, J. D.

M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).

N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.

N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.

N. G. Basov, “Quantum oscillator and amplifier investigations,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 411.

N. G. Basov, Discussion in “Advances in quantum electronics,” J. R. Singer, Ed., New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 506.

Benoit a la Guillaume, C.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Emission spontanee et stimulee du tellure par bombardment electrique,” Solid-State Communication, vol. 3, pp. 19–20, 1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effet laser dans le sulfure de cadmium par bombardemet electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 261, pp. 5428–5430, 1965.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’arseniure d’ indium par bombardment electronique,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 145–146, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’antimoniure de gallium par bombardment electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 259, pp. 2200–2206, October1964.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, P. Lavallard, “Laser effect in indium antimonide,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 1, pp. 148–150, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Bernard, M.

R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

Bernard, M. G. A.

M. G. A. Bernard, G. Duraffourg, “Laser conditions in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 1, pp. 699–703, July1961.
[CrossRef]

Besson, J. M.

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

Bevacqua, S. F.

N. Holonyak, S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1−xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82–83, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Birbeck, F. E.

K. G. Hambleton, F. E. Birbeck, “Design of a compact 100 watt gallium arsenide laser transmitter,” SERL Tech. J., vol. 15, pp. 111–114, February1965.

Blum, S. E.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Boershig, B. A.

B. A. Boershig, “A light-modulated data link,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. BC-10, pp. 4–7, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Bogdankevich, O. V.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).

Braunstein, R.

D. Mayerhofer, R. Braunstein, “Frequency tuning of GaAs laser diode by uniaxial stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 171–172, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Bullwinkel, E. C.

E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Burns, G.

G. Burns, M. I. Nathan, “P-Njunction lasers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 770–794, July1964.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. F.

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “PbS diode laser,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 54, pp. 1056–1057, October1965.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, “Diffused junction diodes of PbSe and PbTe,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 111, pp. 1150–1154, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “Magnetoemission studies of PbS, PbTe, and PbSe diode lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Calawa, A. R.

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “PbS diode laser,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 54, pp. 1056–1057, October1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “Magnetoemission studies of PbS, PbTe, and PbSe diode lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. O.

R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965.
[CrossRef]

R. O. Carlson, T. J. Soltys, “Low threshold room temperature GaAs laser diodes,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 10, p. 607, June1965.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Casey, H. C.

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Chatterton, E. J.

E. J. Chatterton, “Semiconductor laser communication through multiple-scatter paths,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2114–2115, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Chipaux, C.

R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

Cliftan, M.

M. Cliftan, P. P. Debeye, “On the parameters which affect the CW output of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 120–122, March1965.
[CrossRef]

Coupland, M. J.

M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.

Craig, R. M.

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “Small-signal amplification in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 57–58, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Crowder, B. L.

B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J. W.

W. E. Ahearn, J. W. Crowe, “Linewidth measurements of CW gallium arsenide lasers at 77°K,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvi, April1966.

J. W. Crowe, W. E. Ahearn, “Gallium arsenide laser diode amplifier,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvii, April1966.

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “Small-signal amplification in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 57–58, February1964.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Crowe, private communication.

Cuff, K. F.

K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.

Cusano, D. A.

D. A. Cusano, “Radiative recombination from GaAs directly excited by fast electrons,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 353–358, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Debever, J. M.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Emission spontanee et stimulee du tellure par bombardment electrique,” Solid-State Communication, vol. 3, pp. 19–20, 1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effet laser dans le sulfure de cadmium par bombardemet electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 261, pp. 5428–5430, 1965.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’arseniure d’ indium par bombardment electronique,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 145–146, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’antimoniure de gallium par bombardment electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 259, pp. 2200–2206, October1964.

Debeye, P. P.

M. Cliftan, P. P. Debeye, “On the parameters which affect the CW output of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 120–122, March1965.
[CrossRef]

Devyatkov, A. G.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).

Dill, F. H.

G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Dimmock, J. O.

J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Dousmanis, G. C.

G. C. Dousmanis, H. Nelson, “Temperature dependence of threshold current in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 174–176, November1964.
[CrossRef]

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Dumke, W. P.

W. P. Dumke, “Interband transitions and maser action,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 1559–1563, September1962.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

W. P. Dumke, “The injection laser,” in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.

Duraffourg, G.

M. G. A. Bernard, G. Duraffourg, “Laser conditions in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 1, pp. 699–703, July1961.
[CrossRef]

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.

Ellett, M. R.

K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.

Engeler, W.

W. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Thermal characteristics of GaAs laser junctions under high power pulsed conditions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 585–604, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Engeler, W. E.

W. E. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Characteristics of a continuous high-power GaAs junction laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1734–1741, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Eymard, R.

R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.

Feinleib, J.

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Fenner, G. E.

G. E. Fenner, “Internal frequency modulation of GaAs junction lasers by changing the index of refraction through electron injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 198–199, November1965.
[CrossRef]

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Fenner, private communication.

Fowler, A. B.

A. B. Fowler, “Quenching of gallium arsenide injection lasers,” Appl. Phlys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 1–3, July1963.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963.
[CrossRef]

Galginaitis, S. V.

S. V. Galginaitis, “Efficiency measurements of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 295–298, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Garfinkel, M.

W. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Thermal characteristics of GaAs laser junctions under high power pulsed conditions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 585–604, 1965.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Characteristics of a continuous high-power GaAs junction laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1734–1741, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, B. S.

B. S. Goldstein, R. M. Wiegand, “X-band modulation of GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 195, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Grasyuk, A. Z.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).

Groves, S.

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. N.

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 405–416, September1963.
[CrossRef]

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Hambleton, K. G.

K. G. Hambleton, F. E. Birbeck, “Design of a compact 100 watt gallium arsenide laser transmitter,” SERL Tech. J., vol. 15, pp. 111–114, February1965.

M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.

Harman, T. C.

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

Hawrylo, F.

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Henkel, H. J.

H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Hill, D. E.

D. E. Hill, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3405–3409, November1965.
[CrossRef]

Hilsum, C.

C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.

Holonyak, N.

N. Holonyak, S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1−xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82–83, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Hurwitz, C.

C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Hurwitz, C. E.

C. E. Hurwitz, “Electron beam pumped laser of CdSe and CdS,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 121–124, March1966.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient visible lasers of Cd(SxSe1−x) by electron beam excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 243–245, May15, 1966.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, R. J. Keyes, “Electron-beam-pumped GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 139–141, October1964.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient ultraviolet laser of ZnS by electron beam excitation,” presented at the 1966 Solid-State Device Research Conference, Northwestern, Chicago, Ill., also IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, to be published.

Kaiser, R. H.

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Katulin, V. A.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).

Katulyn, V. A.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

Kawaji, A.

A. Kawaji, “Some properties of junction triode laser,” J. Appl. Phys. (Japan), vol. 3, pp. 425–426, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, C. E.

C. E. Kelly, “Interactions between closely coupled GaAs injection lasers,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 1–4, January1965.
[CrossRef]

Kessler, H. K.

N. N. Winogradoff, H. K. Kessler, “Light emission and electrical characteristics of epitaxial GaAs lasers and tunnel diodes,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 119–121, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Keyes, R. J.

C. E. Hurwitz, R. J. Keyes, “Electron-beam-pumped GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 139–141, October1964.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Keyes, R. W.

R. W. Keyes, “Thermal problems of the injection laser,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 9, pp. 303–314, March1965.
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, J. D.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Klein, C.

C. Klein, “Laser action threshold in electron-beam excited GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–202, October1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Klein, “The excitation mechanism in electron beam pumped laser,” Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 424–434.

Klein, E.

H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Klohn, K. L.

J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Koniukhov, V. K.

V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.

Konnerth, K.

K. Konnerth, C. Lanza, “Delay between current pulse and light emission of a gallium arsenide injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 120–121, April1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Konnerth, “Turn on delay in GaAs in GaAs injection lasers operated at room temperature,” to be published.

Krag, W. E.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Krokhin, O. N.

N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.

Kuckuck, H.

H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Kuglin, C. D.

K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.

Kulevskii, L. A.

V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.

Lankard, J. R.

M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Lanza, C.

K. Konnerth, C. Lanza, “Delay between current pulse and light emission of a gallium arsenide injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 120–121, April1964.
[CrossRef]

Lasher, G. J.

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Analysis of a proposed bistable injection laser,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 707–716, 1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated line shapes in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A553–563, January1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, W. V. Smith, “Thermal limitation of the energy of single injection laser light pulse,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 532–536, November1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Threshold relations and diffraction loss for injection lasers,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 58–61, January1963.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Lavallard, P.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, P. Lavallard, “Laser effect in indium antimonide,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 1, pp. 148–150, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Lax, B.

B. Lax, “Progress in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 2, pp. 62–75, July1965.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, B. A.

See for example, B. A. Lengyel, Lasers, Generation of Light by Stimulated Emission. New York: John Wiley, 1962.

Levitt, R. S.

K. Weiser, R. S. Levitt, “Stimulated light emission from indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 178–179, May1963.
[CrossRef]

Loudette, J.

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical emission in fluorescent solids I theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev., vol. 123, pp. 1145–1150, August1961.
[CrossRef]

Marinace, J. C.

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Marinace, “High power CW operation of GaAs injection lasers at 77°K,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 543–544, November1964.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Marinace, “Diffused junctions in GaAs injection lasers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 110, pp. 1153–1159, November1963.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Marinace, private communication.

Mayburg, S.

S. Mayburg, “Temperature limitation on continuous operation of GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 3417–3418, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Mayerhofer, D.

D. Mayerhofer, R. Braunstein, “Frequency tuning of GaAs laser diode by uniaxial stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 171–172, November1963.
[CrossRef]

McWhorter, A. L.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Melngailis, I.

I. Melngailis, R. H. Rediker, “Properties of InAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 899–911, February1966.
[CrossRef]

J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Optically pumped indium arsenide laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 104–105, May1965.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Longitudinal injection-plasma laser in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 59–60, February1965.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Maser action in InAs diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 176–178, May1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Spontaneous and coherent photoluminesce in CdxHg1−xTe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett., to be published.

Mengailis, I.

I. Mengailis, R. H. Rediker, “Magnetically tunable CW InAs diode maser,” Appl Phis. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 202–204, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Michel, A. E.

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

F. M. Ryan, R. C. Miller, “The effect of uniaxial strain on the threshold current and output of GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 162–163, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Morehead, F. F.

B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Nathan, M. I.

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, M. I. Nathan, “P-Njunction lasers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 770–794, July1964.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Nelson, H.

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dousmanis, H. Nelson, “Temperature dependence of threshold current in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 174–176, November1964.
[CrossRef]

H. Nelson, “Epitaxial growth from the liquid state and its application to the fabrication of tunnel and laser diodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 24, p. 603, December1963.

Nicol, F. H.

F. H. Nicol, “Ultraviolet ZnO laser pumped by an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 13–15, July1, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Niebuhr, K.

K. Niebuhr, private communication.

Nikitin, V. V.

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

Noblanc, J. P.

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

Nolle, E. L.

V. S. Vauilov, E. L. Nolle, “Cadmium telluride laser with electron excitation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 164, pp. 73–74, September, 1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 827–838, March1966).

Ochs, S. A.

J. J. Tietjen, S. A. Ochs, “Improved performance of Ga(As1−xPx) laser diodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 180–181, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Oliver, D. J.

C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

J. I. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission spectrum and threshold current GaAs lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 201–204.

Paul, W.

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

Pechenov, A. N.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

Pelan, R. J.

R. J. Pelan, “Laser emission by optical pumping of semiconductors,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 435–441.

Phelan, R. J.

R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phivs. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 70–71, February1965.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Pilkuhn, M. H.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Diffusion problems related to GaAs injection lasers,” Trans. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 296–300, March1964.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “A relation between the current density at threshold and the length of Fabry-Perot type GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1243–1244, September1963; and “Light emission from GaAsxP1−xdiodes,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 282–286, March1964.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Influence of temperature on radiative recombination in GaAs p-njunction lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 195–199.

Popov, Y. M.

N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.

N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.

Pratt, G. W.

J. E. Ripper, G. W. Pratt, “Direct frequency modulation of semiconductor laser by ultrasonic waves,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lxvi–lxvii, April1966.

Prokhorov, A. M.

V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.

Quist, T. M.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Rediker, R. H.

I. Melngailis, R. H. Rediker, “Properties of InAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 899–911, February1966.
[CrossRef]

C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Examples are given through [14]. R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Today, vol. 18, pp. 42–54, February1965.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phivs. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 70–71, February1965.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Mengailis, R. H. Rediker, “Magnetically tunable CW InAs diode maser,” Appl Phis. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 202–204, June1963.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

Reno, C.

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Ripper, J. E.

J. E. Ripper, G. W. Pratt, “Direct frequency modulation of semiconductor laser by ultrasonic waves,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lxvi–lxvii, April1966.

Rupprecht, H.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Rupprecht, H. S.

G. H. Schwuttke, H. S. Rupprecht, “X-ray analysis of diffusion induced defects in gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 167–173, January1966.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Diffusion problems related to GaAs injection lasers,” Trans. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 296–300, March1964.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “A relation between the current density at threshold and the length of Fabry-Perot type GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1243–1244, September1963; and “Light emission from GaAsxP1−xdiodes,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 282–286, March1964.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Influence of temperature on radiative recombination in GaAs p-njunction lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 195–199.

Rutz, R. F.

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Ryan, F. M.

F. M. Ryan, R. C. Miller, “The effect of uniaxial strain on the threshold current and output of GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 162–163, November1963.
[CrossRef]

Salaev, E. Yu.

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

Sarace, J. C.

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Schiel, E. J.

E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Schwuttke, G. H.

G. H. Schwuttke, H. S. Rupprecht, “X-ray analysis of diffusion induced defects in gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 167–173, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Sheronov, A. A.

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

Silverman, S. J.

R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. W.

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuations in GaAs laser emission,” Phys. Rev., vol. 140, pp. A155–164, October1965.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 196–198, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. W. Smith, J. A. Armstrong, “Intensity noise in multimode GaAs laser emission,” IBM J. Research and Develop., to be published.

Smith, W. V.

G. J. Lasher, W. V. Smith, “Thermal limitation of the energy of single injection laser light pulse,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 532–536, November1964.
[CrossRef]

W. V. Smith, “Computer applications of lasers,” this issue.

Soltys, T. J.

R. O. Carlson, T. J. Soltys, “Low threshold room temperature GaAs laser diodes,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 10, p. 607, June1965.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Stern, F.

G. J. Lasher, F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated line shapes in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A553–563, January1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, F. Stern, “Higher order transverse modes in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 115–116, September1964.
[CrossRef]

F. Stern, “Effect of band tails on stimulated emission of light in semiconductors,” to be published.

F. Stern, “Stimulated emission in semiconductors,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Physics of III–V Compounds, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds., vol. 2. New York: Academic, 1966.
[CrossRef]

F. Stern, “Radiation confinement in semiconductor lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 165–170.

Stevenson, M. J.

M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963.
[CrossRef]

Strauss, A. J.

J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Spontaneous and coherent photoluminesce in CdxHg1−xTe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett., to be published.

Sturge, M. D.

M. D. Sturge, “Optical absorption of gallium arsenide between 0.6 and 2.75 ev,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 768–773, August1962.
[CrossRef]

Tanner, J. M.

C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Tietjen, J. J.

J. J. Tietjen, S. A. Ochs, “Improved performance of Ga(As1−xPx) laser diodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 180–181, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Vauilov, V. S.

V. S. Vauilov, E. L. Nolle, “Cadmium telluride laser with electron excitation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 164, pp. 73–74, September, 1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 827–838, March1966).

Vilms, J.

J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Vul, B. M.

N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.

Wagner, P. R.

B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, L.

J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966.
[CrossRef]

Weimer, R. B.

E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Weiser, K.

K. Weiser, J. F. Woods, “Evidence for avalanche injection laser in p-type GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 225–228, October1965.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, F. Stern, “Higher order transverse modes in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 115–116, September1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, R. S. Levitt, “Stimulated light emission from indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 178–179, May1963.
[CrossRef]

Wiegand, R. M.

B. S. Goldstein, R. M. Wiegand, “X-band modulation of GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 195, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Williams, L. R.

K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.

Wilson, D. K.

D. K. Wilson, “Stimulated emission of exciton recombination radiation in GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 127–129, October1963.
[CrossRef]

Winogradoff, N. N.

N. N. Winogradoff, H. K. Kessler, “Light emission and electrical characteristics of epitaxial GaAs lasers and tunnel diodes,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 119–121, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Woods, J. F.

K. Weiser, J. F. Woods, “Evidence for avalanche injection laser in p-type GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 225–228, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Zabarev, I. G.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

Zakharov, Yu.P.

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

Zallen, R.

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Zeiger, H. J.

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

Appl Phis. Lett.

I. Mengailis, R. H. Rediker, “Magnetically tunable CW InAs diode maser,” Appl Phis. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 202–204, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phivs. Lett.

R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phivs. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 70–71, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phlys. Lett.

A. B. Fowler, “Quenching of gallium arsenide injection lasers,” Appl. Phlys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 1–3, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. M. Ryan, R. C. Miller, “The effect of uniaxial strain on the threshold current and output of GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 162–163, November1963.
[CrossRef]

D. Mayerhofer, R. Braunstein, “Frequency tuning of GaAs laser diode by uniaxial stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 171–172, November1963.
[CrossRef]

K. Konnerth, C. Lanza, “Delay between current pulse and light emission of a gallium arsenide injection laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 120–121, April1964.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Fenner, “Internal frequency modulation of GaAs junction lasers by changing the index of refraction through electron injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 198–199, November1965.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Crowe, R. M. Craig, “Small-signal amplification in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 57–58, February1964.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dousmanis, H. Nelson, “Temperature dependence of threshold current in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 174–176, November1964.
[CrossRef]

M. Cliftan, P. P. Debeye, “On the parameters which affect the CW output of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 120–122, March1965.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 196–198, June1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, J. F. Woods, “Evidence for avalanche injection laser in p-type GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 225–228, October1965.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, G. J. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 62–64, November1962.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, H. J. Zeiger, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 91–92, December1962.
[CrossRef]

F. H. Nicol, “Ultraviolet ZnO laser pumped by an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 13–15, July1, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Wilson, “Stimulated emission of exciton recombination radiation in GaAs p-njunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 127–129, October1963.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. J. Phelan, R. H. Rediker, “Luminescence and coherent emission in a large volume injection plasma in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 99–100, September1964.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, F. Stern, “Higher order transverse modes in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 115–116, September1964.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Longitudinal injection-plasma laser in InSb,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 59–60, February1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Klein, “Laser action threshold in electron-beam excited GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–202, October1965.
[CrossRef]

B. L. Crowder, F. F. Morehead, P. R. Wagner, “Efficient injection electroluminescence in ZnTe by avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 148–149, March1966.
[CrossRef]

N. Holonyak, S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(As1−xPx) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 82–83, December1962.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, “Maser action in InAs diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 176–178, May1963.
[CrossRef]

K. Weiser, R. S. Levitt, “Stimulated light emission from indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 178–179, May1963.
[CrossRef]

F. B. Alexander et al., “Spontaneous and stimulated infrared emission from indium phosphide arsenide diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 13–15, January1964.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, B. Lax, “InSb diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 143–145, November1963.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, T. C. Harman, A. J. Strauss, “PbTe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 75–76, August1964.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, R. J. Keyes, “Electron-beam-pumped GaAs laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 139–141, October1964.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Electron beam pumped laser of CdSe and CdS,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 121–124, March1966.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient visible lasers of Cd(SxSe1−x) by electron beam excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 243–245, May15, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

R. O. Carlson, T. J. Soltys, “Low threshold room temperature GaAs laser diodes,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., vol. 10, p. 607, June1965.

Compt. Rend.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effet laser dans le sulfure de cadmium par bombardemet electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 261, pp. 5428–5430, 1965.

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’antimoniure de gallium par bombardment electronique,” Compt. Rend., vol. 259, pp. 2200–2206, October1964.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR

V. S. Vauilov, E. L. Nolle, “Cadmium telluride laser with electron excitation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 164, pp. 73–74, September, 1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 827–838, March1966).

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. N. Pechenov, G. B. Abdulaev, G. A. Akhundov, E. Yu. Salaev, “Radiation in GaSe single crystals induced by excitation with fast electrons,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, p. 1059, April1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics-Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 329–330, October1965).

N. G. Basov, O. V. Bogdankevich, A. G. Devyatkov, “Exciting a semiconductor quantum generator with a fast electron beam,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 155, p. 783, April1964; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 9, p. 288, October1964).

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, V. A. Katulin, “Induced radiation in optically excited GaAs,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 161, pp. 1306–1307, April1965; (Translation: Sov. Phys. Doklady, vol. 10, pp. 343–344, October1965).

Fizika Trerdogo Tela

N. G. Basov, Yu.P. Zakharov, V. V. Nikitin, A. A. Sheronov, “GaAs p-njunction laser with nonuniform distribution of current,” Fizika Trerdogo Tela, vol. 7, pp. 3128–3130, October1965; (Translation: Soviet Physics—Solid State, vol. 7, pp. 2532–2533, April1966).

IBM J. Research and Develop.

J. C. Marinace, “High power CW operation of GaAs injection lasers at 77°K,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 543–544, November1964.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, W. V. Smith, “Thermal limitation of the energy of single injection laser light pulse,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 8, pp. 532–536, November1964.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Keyes, “Thermal problems of the injection laser,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 9, pp. 303–314, March1965.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevenson, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Line widths and pressure shifts in mode structure of stimulated emission from GaAs junctions,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 155–156, April1963.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Threshold relations and diffraction loss for injection lasers,” IBM J. Research and Develop., vol. 7, pp. 58–61, January1963.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics

V. K. Koniukhov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, “Cadmium sulfide laser with two-photon ruby excitation,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. OE2, p. lxv, April1966.

J. E. Ripper, G. W. Pratt, “Direct frequency modulation of semiconductor laser by ultrasonic waves,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lxvi–lxvii, April1966.

J. W. Crowe, W. E. Ahearn, “Gallium arsenide laser diode amplifier,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvii, April1966.

J. Vilms, L. Wandinger, K. L. Klohn, “Optimization of the gallium arsenide injection laser for maximum CW power output,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 80–83, April1966.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ahearn, J. W. Crowe, “Linewidth measurements of CW gallium arsenide lasers at 77°K,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxvi, April1966.

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence)

I. Melngailis, “Optically pumped indium arsenide laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 104–105, May1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Hurwitz, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, “Electron beam pumped lasers of PbS, PbSe, PbTe,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 102–104, May1965.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum

B. Lax, “Progress in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 2, pp. 62–75, July1965.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting

B. A. Boershig, “A light-modulated data link,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. BC-10, pp. 4–7, February1964.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices

C. E. Kelly, “Interactions between closely coupled GaAs injection lasers,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, pp. 1–4, January1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. P. Sorokin, J. D. Axe, J. R. Lankard, “Spectral characteristic of GaAs lasers operating in Fabry-Perot modes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2553–2556, September1963.
[CrossRef]

S. Mayburg, “Temperature limitation on continuous operation of GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 3417–3418, November1963.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hill, “Internal quantum efficiency of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 3405–3409, November1965.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Characteristics of a continuous high-power GaAs junction laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1734–1741, June1964.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, J. C. Marinace, R. F. Rutz, A. E. Michel, G. J. Lasher, “GaAs injection laser with novel mode control and switching properties,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 473–480, February1965.
[CrossRef]

S. V. Galginaitis, “Efficiency measurements of GaAs electro-luminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 295–298, February1964.
[CrossRef]

H. C. Casey, R. J. Archer, R. H. Kaiser, J. C. Sarace, “Width of the spontaneous emission region in degenerate GaAs p-njunctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 893–898, February1966.
[CrossRef]

G. H. Schwuttke, H. S. Rupprecht, “X-ray analysis of diffusion induced defects in gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 167–173, January1966.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, R. H. Rediker, “Properties of InAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 899–911, February1966.
[CrossRef]

R. O. Carlson, G. A. Slack, S. J. Silverman, “Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPxlaser semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 505–507, February1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (Japan)

A. Kawaji, “Some properties of junction triode laser,” J. Appl. Phys. (Japan), vol. 3, pp. 425–426, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

J. C. Marinace, “Diffused junctions in GaAs injection lasers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 110, pp. 1153–1159, November1963.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, “Diffused junction diodes of PbSe and PbTe,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 111, pp. 1150–1154, October1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “PbS diode laser,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 54, pp. 1056–1057, October1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR)

N. G. Basov, B. M. Vul, Y. M. Popov, “Quantum-mechanical semiconductor generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR), vol. 37, pp. 587–588, August1959; also in Soviet Phys. JETP, vol. 10, pp. 416, February1960.

JETP Lett.

N. G. Basov, A. Z. Grasyuk, I. G. Zabarev, V. A. Katulyn, “Generation in GaAs under two photon optical excitation of Nd-glass laser emission,” JETP Lett., vol. 1, p. 118, 1965.

Phys. Letters

C. Hilsum, D. J. Oliver, J. M. Tanner, “The speed of response of GaAs lasers,” Phys. Letters, vol. 8, pp. 232–233, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

J. Feinleib, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, “Effect of pressure on the spontaneous and stimulated emissionfrom GaAs,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, pp. 2070–2077, September1963.
[CrossRef]

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical emission in fluorescent solids I theoretical consideration,” Phys. Rev., vol. 123, pp. 1145–1150, August1961.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuations in GaAs laser emission,” Phys. Rev., vol. 140, pp. A155–164, October1965.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sturge, “Optical absorption of gallium arsenide between 0.6 and 2.75 ev,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 768–773, August1962.
[CrossRef]

W. P. Dumke, “Interband transitions and maser action,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 1559–1563, September1962.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated line shapes in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A553–563, January1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light emission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 366–378, November1962.
[CrossRef]

J. O. Dimmock, I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Band structure and laser action in PbxSn1−xTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1193–1196, June27, 1966.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Nathan, A. B. Fowler, G. Burns, “Oscillations in GaAs spontaneous emission in Fabry-Perot cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 152–154, August1963.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Coupland, K. G. Hambleton, C. Hilsum, “Measurement of amplification in GaAs injection laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 231–232, 1963.

Phys. Today

Examples are given through [14]. R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Today, vol. 18, pp. 42–54, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Physica Status Solidi

M. G. A. Bernard, G. Duraffourg, “Laser conditions in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi, vol. 1, pp. 699–703, July1961.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

G. Burns, M. I. Nathan, “P-Njunction lasers,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 770–794, July1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (Correspondence)

J. J. Tietjen, S. A. Ochs, “Improved performance of Ga(As1−xPx) laser diodes,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 180–181, February1965.
[CrossRef]

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode masers of (InxGa1−x)As,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1154–1155, August1963.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Chatterton, “Semiconductor laser communication through multiple-scatter paths,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, pp. 2114–2115, December1965.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Schiel, E. C. Bullwinkel, R. B. Weimer, “Pulse-code modulation multiplex transmission over an injection leser transmission system,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 353, pp. 2140–2141, December1965.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Goldstein, R. M. Wiegand, “X-band modulation of GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 53, p. 195, February1965.
[CrossRef]

G. Burns, F. H. Dill, M. I. Nathan, “The effect of temperature on the properties of GaAs laser,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 947–948, June1963.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “A relation between the current density at threshold and the length of Fabry-Perot type GaAs lasers,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1243–1244, September1963; and “Light emission from GaAsxP1−xdiodes,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 282–286, March1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE(Correspondence)

H. Nelson, J. I. Pankove, F. Hawrylo, G. C. Dousmanis, C. Reno, “High-efficiency injection laser at room temperature,” Proc. IEEE(Correspondence), pp. 1360–1361, November1964.
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev.

H. Nelson, “Epitaxial growth from the liquid state and its application to the fabrication of tunnel and laser diodes,” RCA Rev., vol. 24, p. 603, December1963.

SERL Tech. J.

K. G. Hambleton, F. E. Birbeck, “Design of a compact 100 watt gallium arsenide laser transmitter,” SERL Tech. J., vol. 15, pp. 111–114, February1965.

Solid-State Commun.

N. N. Winogradoff, H. K. Kessler, “Light emission and electrical characteristics of epitaxial GaAs lasers and tunnel diodes,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 119–121, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, P. Lavallard, “Laser effect in indium antimonide,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 1, pp. 148–150, November1963.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cusano, “Radiative recombination from GaAs directly excited by fast electrons,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 353–358, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Effect laser dans l’arseniure d’ indium par bombardment electronique,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 145–146, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, R. J. Phelan, A. J. Strauss, R. H. Rediker, “PbSe diode laser,” Solid-State Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–303, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Communication

C. Benoit a la Guillaume, J. M. Debever, “Emission spontanee et stimulee du tellure par bombardment electrique,” Solid-State Communication, vol. 3, pp. 19–20, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electronics

R. N. Hall, “Coherent light emission from p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 405–416, September1963.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht, S. E. Blum, “Effect of temperature on the stimulated emission from GaAs p-njunctions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 905–909, 1964.
[CrossRef]

W. Engeler, M. Garfinkel, “Thermal characteristics of GaAs laser junctions under high power pulsed conditions,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 585–604, 1965.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Henkel, E. Klein, H. Kuckuck, “Das verhalten von GaAs laser dioden bei hohen strahlungsleistangen,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 8, pp. 475–478, 1965.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Lasher, “Analysis of a proposed bistable injection laser,” Solid-State Electronics, vol. 7, pp. 707–716, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Trans. AIME

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Diffusion problems related to GaAs injection lasers,” Trans. AIME, vol. 230, pp. 296–300, March1964.

Usp. Fiz. Nauk.

N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, Y. M. Popov, “Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems,” Usp. Fiz. Nauk., vol. 72, pp. 161–209, October1960; also in Soviet Physics Uspekhi, vol. 3, pp. 702–728, March1961.

Other

N. G. Basov, “Quantum oscillator and amplifier investigations,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 411.

F. Stern, “Effect of band tails on stimulated emission of light in semiconductors,” to be published.

C. Klein, “The excitation mechanism in electron beam pumped laser,” Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 424–434.

J. M. Besson, J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, W. Paul, R. H. Rediker, “Pressure tuned PbSe diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 200–208, October1965, and private communication.
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, Discussion in “Advances in quantum electronics,” J. R. Singer, Ed., New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 506.

C. E. Hurwitz, “Efficient ultraviolet laser of ZnS by electron beam excitation,” presented at the 1966 Solid-State Device Research Conference, Northwestern, Chicago, Ill., also IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, to be published.

F. Stern, “Stimulated emission in semiconductors,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Physics of III–V Compounds, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, Eds., vol. 2. New York: Academic, 1966.
[CrossRef]

W. P. Dumke, “The injection laser,” in Advances in Lasers, A. K. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.

See for example, B. A. Lengyel, Lasers, Generation of Light by Stimulated Emission. New York: John Wiley, 1962.

I. Melngailis, A. J. Strauss, “Spontaneous and coherent photoluminesce in CdxHg1−xTe alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett., to be published.

R. J. Pelan, “Laser emission by optical pumping of semiconductors,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 435–441.

K. F. Cuff, M. R. Ellett, C. D. Kuglin, L. R. Williams, “The band structure of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS,” Physics of Semiconductors Proceedings of the 7th Internat’l Conference(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1964, pp. 677–684.

J. F. Butler, A. R. Calawa, “Magnetoemission studies of PbS, PbTe, and PbSe diode lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, J. Loudette, J. P. Noblanc, M. Bernard, “Emission stimulee dans l’antmoniure de gallium,” 7th Internat’l Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 217–222.

R. Eymard, G. Duraffourg, C. Chipaux, M. Bernard, “Laser action in gallium antimonide diodes,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannewald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 450–457.

W. V. Smith, “Computer applications of lasers,” this issue.

K. Niebuhr, private communication.

K. Konnerth, “Turn on delay in GaAs in GaAs injection lasers operated at room temperature,” to be published.

Examples are given in the next three references.

A. W. Smith, J. A. Armstrong, “Intensity noise in multimode GaAs laser emission,” IBM J. Research and Develop., to be published.

J. C. Marinace, private communication.

G. E. Fenner, private communication.

J. W. Crowe, private communication.

M. H. Pilkuhn, H. S. Rupprecht, “Influence of temperature on radiative recombination in GaAs p-njunction lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 195–199.

J. I. Pankove, “Temperature dependence of emission spectrum and threshold current GaAs lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 201–204.

F. Stern, “Radiation confinement in semiconductor lasers,” 7th Internat’l Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors(Paris, 1964). Paris: Dunod, 1965, pp. 165–170.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy vs. density of states for an intrinsic semiconductor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy vs. density of states for a simple model of a doped semiconductor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy vs. distance for a p-n junction. (a) V=0, (b) V>0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing for a p-n junction laser. The laser beam is emitted near the junction from the reflecting ends.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electron beam pumping arrangement. (b) Avalanche injection laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold current density vs. the reciprocal of the length of a set of lasers made from the same crystal. T=77°K. R=0.25 (After Pilkuhn and Rupprecht [72].)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Threshold current density vs. temperature. The numbers refer to the substrate carrier concentration. (After Pilkuhn and Rupprecht [18].)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Threshold current vs. the fraction of the current flowing through one of the contacts to a double unit shown in the inset. The laser beam comes out from the reflecting ends. T=77°K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Heat sink mount for laser. (After Marinace [87].)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Light output vs. current for laser in a heat sink mount. A small amount of spontaneous emission is not shown, but should be visible above 3 amperes where the stimulated emission turns off due to heating. (Courtesy of Marinace.)

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Far-field pattern of laser. The horizontal pattern is caused by diffraction of the light from the mount. The vertical pattern results from the coherence of the laser. (After Engeler and Garfinkel [87].)

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectrum of a laser showing simultaneous oscillation in two modes at 10°K. (After Smith and Armstrong [97].)

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Mode shifting spectrum of a CW heat-sinked laser as a function of current at 77°K. (Konnerth unpublished.)

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Arrangements for quenching of a laser by the light from another laser. (a) Two separate lasers. (After Fowler [121].) (b) Both lasers made in a single block materials with SiO2 masking techniques. (After Kelly [83].)

Tables (1)

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TABLE I Semiconductor Laser Materials. The Value Given for the Photon is the Most Common One Reported for Liquid Helium Temperatures. Observed Values can Vary Slightly from this Because Different Impurity Densities or Different Kinds of Transition

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f c = 1 1 + exp ( E - F c ) / k T .
F c - F v > h ν .
Re ( g t - α ) l = 1
g ( h ν ) = c 2 [ N 2 - N 1 ( g 2 / g 1 ) ] A ( ν ) 8 π ν 2 n 0 2 τ r
g ( E ) d E = ( 4 π 2 e 2 / ( m 2 c n 0 E ) ) M 2 ( f c - f v )
ρ c = ρ 0 exp E / E 0
g ( E ) = + K ρ 0 exp E / E 0 , E < F c = - K ρ 0 exp E / E 0 , E > F c
n = - F c ρ c ( E ) d E = E 0 g ( F c ) K = E 0 K g max .
j / d = e n / τ ,
j t = 8 π e n 0 2 ν 2 d Δ ν η c 2 [ 1 l l n ( 1 / R ) + α ]
= 1 β [ 1 l l n ( 1 / R ) + α ]
m λ = 2 n 0 l
t d = τ l n I / ( I - I t h ) .

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