Abstract

A review is given of the present status of gas discharge lasers, with particular attention to developments reported in 1965 and early 1966. Following a brief history, gas lasers are classified by types—neutral atom, ion, and molecular—and a comparison is given of the properties of the various types. A short discussion is given of noise and coherence properties. Detailed descriptions are given of three recent developments of particular interest—the CO2 laser, the argon-ion laser, and pulsed self-terminating lasers. Finally, brief mention is made of the most important present applications of gas lasers.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. White, J. D. Rigden, “Continuous gas maser operation in the visible,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1697, July1962.
  3. L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Stimulated emission in the band spectrum of nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 16–17, July1963.
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Visible laser oscillations from carbon monoxide,” Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 194–196, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. E. Bell, “Visible laser transitions in Hg+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 34–35, January1964.
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. B. Bridges, “Laser oscillation in singly ionized argon in the visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 128–130, April1964; see also G. Convert, M. Armand, P. Martinot-Lagarde, “Transitions lasers visibles dans l’argon ionisé,” Comptes Rendus, vol. 258, pp. 4467–4469, 1964; and W. R. Bennett, J. W. Knutson, G. N. Mercer, J. L. Detch, “Super-radiance, excitation mechanisms, and quasi-CW oscillation in Ar+laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 180–182, the visible May1964.
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. R. Bennett, “Gaseous optical masers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 1 on Optical Masers), pp. 24–61, 1962.
  9. W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Visible and UV laser oscillation at 118 wavelengths in ionized neon and other gases,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 573–580, May1965.
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. K. N. Patel, “CW high-power N2-CO2laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 15–17, July1965, and earlier papers referred to therein.
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. E. Bell, “Ring discharge excitation of gas ion lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 190–191, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. R. Fowles, W. T. Silfvast, “High gain laser transition in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 236–237, June1965.
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, “Zeeman effect at 3.39μin a helium-neon laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 413–415, March1964, and papers referred to therein.
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. W. Rigrod, “Saturation effects in high-gain lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2487–2490, August1965.
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Isotope shift and saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 521–524, June1963.
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.
  21. P. W. Smith, “On the optimum geometry of a 6328 Å laser oscillator,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 77–79, April1966.
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “High-power laser action in CO2-He mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 274–276, November1965; see also C. K. N. Patel, P. K. Tien, J. H. McFee, “CW high-power CO2-N2helium laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 290–292, December1965.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. L. Bloom, R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, “Emission line widths of ion lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 688–689, and unpublished work.
  27. S. E. Harris, “Control and stabilization of laser oscillators by internal time varying perturbation,” this issue.
  28. P. W. Smith, “Stabilized, single-frequency output from a long laser cavity,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 343–348, November1965.
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multi-mode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961; see also G. D. Boyd, H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 41, pp. 1347–1369, July1962.
  30. T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. J. Bridges, C. K. N. Patel, “High-power Brewster window laser at 10.6μ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 244–245, November1965.
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. R. Bennett, “Inversion mechanisms in gas lasers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers), pp. 3–33, 1965.
  33. E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.
  34. J. P. Goldsborough, private communication.
  35. C. K. N. Patel, “Vibration energy transfer—an efficient means of selective excitation in molecules,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 643–654.
  36. H. Heffner, “The fundamental noise limit of linear amplifiers,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1604–1608, July1962.
    [CrossRef]
  37. L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Cross correlation between discharge current noise and laser light noise in helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 48–49, August1964; see also L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Detection of spontaneous emission noise in helium-neon lasers,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 317–319, October1964.
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. I. Gordon, “Optical maser oscillations and noise,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 507–539, January1964.
  39. For a more detailed review of the problems involved in building stabilized lasers, see A. D. White, “Frequency stabilization of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 349–357, November1965.
    [CrossRef]
  40. K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. L. Bloom, D. L. Wright, “Pressure shifts in a stabilized single wavelength helium-neon laser,” this issue.
  42. A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon studied with helium-neon laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 145, pp. 137–147, May1966.
    [CrossRef]
  43. W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 228–245, January1966.
    [CrossRef]
  44. R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Mode competition and collision effects in gaseous optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 139, pp. A1408–A1414, August1965.
    [CrossRef]
  45. R. L. Fork, M. Sergeant, “Multiple quantum processes in magnetic field tuned optical masers,”and P. T. Bolwijn, “Zeeman effects in a helium-neon laser,” both in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.
  46. C. Freed, H. A. Haus, “Photocurrent spectrum and photoelectron counts produced by a gaseous laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 287–298, January1966.
    [CrossRef]
  47. G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “Observation of laser action in the R branch of CO2and N2O vibrational spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 69–70, February1966.
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. D. Rigden, “A metallic plasma tube for ion lasers,” IEEE J of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, p. 221, August1965.
    [CrossRef]
  49. J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
    [CrossRef]
  50. W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, “Bistable traveling-wave oscillations of ion ring laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 298–303, October1965; also T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
    [CrossRef]
  51. W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
    [CrossRef]
  52. P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Ultraviolet ion laser transitions between 2300 and 4000 Å,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1862–1865, June1965.
    [CrossRef]
  53. M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
    [CrossRef]
  54. W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.
  55. E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, “Gas pumping in continuously operating ion lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1827–1829, July1964.
  56. W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Spectroscopy of ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 66–84, May1965.
    [CrossRef]
  57. D. A. Leonard, “Saturation of the molecular nitrogen second positive laser transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 4–6, July1965.
    [CrossRef]
  58. W. J. Witteman, R. Bleekrode, “Pulsed and continuous molecular far infra-red gas laser,” Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 126–127, November1964.
    [CrossRef]
  59. L. N. Large, H. Hill, “A compact pulsed gas laser for the far infrared,” App. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 625–626, May1965.
    [CrossRef]
  60. K. Tomiyasu, “Laser bibliography,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 133–156, June1965; “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 199–219, August1965; and “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 124–151, June1966.
    [CrossRef]
  61. E. V. Ashburn, “Bibliography of the open literature on lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, pp. 647–652, May1963; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 54, pp. 135–142, January1964; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 55, pp. 752–756, June1965, and pp. 1040–1045, August 1965.
  62. E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, “Microwave determination of average electron energy and density in He-Ne discharges,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1647–1648, May1964, and references contained therein.
    [CrossRef]

1966 (8)

P. W. Smith, “On the optimum geometry of a 6328 Å laser oscillator,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 77–79, April1966.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon studied with helium-neon laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 145, pp. 137–147, May1966.
[CrossRef]

W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 228–245, January1966.
[CrossRef]

C. Freed, H. A. Haus, “Photocurrent spectrum and photoelectron counts produced by a gaseous laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 287–298, January1966.
[CrossRef]

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “Observation of laser action in the R branch of CO2and N2O vibrational spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 69–70, February1966.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

1965 (22)

P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Ultraviolet ion laser transitions between 2300 and 4000 Å,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1862–1865, June1965.
[CrossRef]

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, “Bistable traveling-wave oscillations of ion ring laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 298–303, October1965; also T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rigden, “A metallic plasma tube for ion lasers,” IEEE J of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, p. 221, August1965.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Mode competition and collision effects in gaseous optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 139, pp. A1408–A1414, August1965.
[CrossRef]

For a more detailed review of the problems involved in building stabilized lasers, see A. D. White, “Frequency stabilization of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 349–357, November1965.
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, C. K. N. Patel, “High-power Brewster window laser at 10.6μ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 244–245, November1965.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, “Inversion mechanisms in gas lasers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers), pp. 3–33, 1965.

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “High-power laser action in CO2-He mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 274–276, November1965; see also C. K. N. Patel, P. K. Tien, J. H. McFee, “CW high-power CO2-N2helium laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 290–292, December1965.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “Stabilized, single-frequency output from a long laser cavity,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 343–348, November1965.
[CrossRef]

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Saturation effects in high-gain lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2487–2490, August1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Spectroscopy of ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 66–84, May1965.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, “Saturation of the molecular nitrogen second positive laser transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 4–6, July1965.
[CrossRef]

L. N. Large, H. Hill, “A compact pulsed gas laser for the far infrared,” App. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 625–626, May1965.
[CrossRef]

K. Tomiyasu, “Laser bibliography,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 133–156, June1965; “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 199–219, August1965; and “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 124–151, June1966.
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, “CW high-power N2-CO2laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 15–17, July1965, and earlier papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Ring discharge excitation of gas ion lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 190–191, October1965.
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fowles, W. T. Silfvast, “High gain laser transition in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 236–237, June1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Visible and UV laser oscillation at 118 wavelengths in ionized neon and other gases,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 573–580, May1965.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
[CrossRef]

1964 (9)

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, “Microwave determination of average electron energy and density in He-Ne discharges,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1647–1648, May1964, and references contained therein.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, “Zeeman effect at 3.39μin a helium-neon laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 413–415, March1964, and papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Witteman, R. Bleekrode, “Pulsed and continuous molecular far infra-red gas laser,” Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 126–127, November1964.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Visible laser transitions in Hg+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 34–35, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, “Laser oscillation in singly ionized argon in the visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 128–130, April1964; see also G. Convert, M. Armand, P. Martinot-Lagarde, “Transitions lasers visibles dans l’argon ionisé,” Comptes Rendus, vol. 258, pp. 4467–4469, 1964; and W. R. Bennett, J. W. Knutson, G. N. Mercer, J. L. Detch, “Super-radiance, excitation mechanisms, and quasi-CW oscillation in Ar+laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 180–182, the visible May1964.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
[CrossRef]

L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Cross correlation between discharge current noise and laser light noise in helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 48–49, August1964; see also L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Detection of spontaneous emission noise in helium-neon lasers,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 317–319, October1964.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, “Optical maser oscillations and noise,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 507–539, January1964.

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, “Gas pumping in continuously operating ion lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1827–1829, July1964.

1963 (8)

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Stimulated emission in the band spectrum of nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 16–17, July1963.
[CrossRef]

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Visible laser oscillations from carbon monoxide,” Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 194–196, 1963.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Isotope shift and saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 521–524, June1963.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
[CrossRef]

H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
[CrossRef]

E. V. Ashburn, “Bibliography of the open literature on lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, pp. 647–652, May1963; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 54, pp. 135–142, January1964; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 55, pp. 752–756, June1965, and pp. 1040–1045, August 1965.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
[CrossRef]

1962 (4)

A. D. White, J. D. Rigden, “Continuous gas maser operation in the visible,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1697, July1962.

W. R. Bennett, “Gaseous optical masers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 1 on Optical Masers), pp. 24–61, 1962.

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

H. Heffner, “The fundamental noise limit of linear amplifiers,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1604–1608, July1962.
[CrossRef]

1961 (2)

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multi-mode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961; see also G. D. Boyd, H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 41, pp. 1347–1369, July1962.

Ashburn, E. V.

E. V. Ashburn, “Bibliography of the open literature on lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, pp. 647–652, May1963; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 54, pp. 135–142, January1964; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 55, pp. 752–756, June1965, and pp. 1040–1045, August 1965.

Ballik, E. A.

W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

Bell, W. E.

J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Ring discharge excitation of gas ion lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 190–191, October1965.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, “Zeeman effect at 3.39μin a helium-neon laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 413–415, March1964, and papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Visible laser transitions in Hg+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 34–35, January1964.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Bloom, R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, “Emission line widths of ion lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 688–689, and unpublished work.

Bennett, W. R.

W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, “Inversion mechanisms in gas lasers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers), pp. 3–33, 1965.

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, “Gaseous optical masers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 1 on Optical Masers), pp. 24–61, 1962.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
[CrossRef]

Bleekrode, R.

W. J. Witteman, R. Bleekrode, “Pulsed and continuous molecular far infra-red gas laser,” Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 126–127, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Bloom, A. L.

R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, A. L. Bloom, “Zeeman effect at 3.39μin a helium-neon laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 413–415, March1964, and papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Bloom, R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, “Emission line widths of ion lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 688–689, and unpublished work.

A. L. Bloom, D. L. Wright, “Pressure shifts in a stabilized single wavelength helium-neon laser,” this issue.

Boot, H. A. H.

H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multi-mode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961; see also G. D. Boyd, H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 41, pp. 1347–1369, July1962.

Bridges, T. J.

T. J. Bridges, C. K. N. Patel, “High-power Brewster window laser at 10.6μ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 244–245, November1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, “Bistable traveling-wave oscillations of ion ring laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 298–303, October1965; also T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Bridges, W. B.

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Visible and UV laser oscillation at 118 wavelengths in ionized neon and other gases,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 573–580, May1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Spectroscopy of ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 66–84, May1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, “Laser oscillation in singly ionized argon in the visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 128–130, April1964; see also G. Convert, M. Armand, P. Martinot-Lagarde, “Transitions lasers visibles dans l’argon ionisé,” Comptes Rendus, vol. 258, pp. 4467–4469, 1964; and W. R. Bennett, J. W. Knutson, G. N. Mercer, J. L. Detch, “Super-radiance, excitation mechanisms, and quasi-CW oscillation in Ar+laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 180–182, the visible May1964.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Bloom, R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, “Emission line widths of ion lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 688–689, and unpublished work.

Cheo, P. K.

P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Ultraviolet ion laser transitions between 2300 and 4000 Å,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1862–1865, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Chester, A. N.

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Spectroscopy of ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 66–84, May1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Visible and UV laser oscillation at 118 wavelengths in ionized neon and other gases,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 573–580, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Clunie, D. M.

H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Cooper, H. G.

P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Ultraviolet ion laser transitions between 2300 and 4000 Å,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1862–1865, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, W.

W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 228–245, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Dane Rigden, J.

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “Observation of laser action in the R branch of CO2and N2O vibrational spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 69–70, February1966.
[CrossRef]

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “High-power laser action in CO2-He mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 274–276, November1965; see also C. K. N. Patel, P. K. Tien, J. H. McFee, “CW high-power CO2-N2helium laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 290–292, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Flynn, G. W.

M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Mode competition and collision effects in gaseous optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 139, pp. A1408–A1414, August1965.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, M. Sergeant, “Multiple quantum processes in magnetic field tuned optical masers,”and P. T. Bolwijn, “Zeeman effects in a helium-neon laser,” both in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Fowles, G. R.

G. R. Fowles, W. T. Silfvast, “High gain laser transition in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 236–237, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed, H. A. Haus, “Photocurrent spectrum and photoelectron counts produced by a gaseous laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 287–298, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Gillilland, K. E.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Goldsborough, J. P.

J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Goldsborough, private communication.

Gordon, E. I.

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, “Optical maser oscillations and noise,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 507–539, January1964.

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, “Gas pumping in continuously operating ion lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1827–1829, July1964.

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, “Microwave determination of average electron energy and density in He-Ne discharges,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1647–1648, May1964, and references contained therein.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.

Gordon, J. P.

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multi-mode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961; see also G. D. Boyd, H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 41, pp. 1347–1369, July1962.

Gould, G.

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Control and stabilization of laser oscillators by internal time varying perturbation,” this issue.

Haus, H. A.

C. Freed, H. A. Haus, “Photocurrent spectrum and photoelectron counts produced by a gaseous laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 287–298, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Heffner, H.

H. Heffner, “The fundamental noise limit of linear amplifiers,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1604–1608, July1962.
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
[CrossRef]

Hill, H.

L. N. Large, H. Hill, “A compact pulsed gas laser for the far infrared,” App. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 625–626, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Hodges, E.

Hodges, E. B.

J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Horrigan, F. H.

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

Jaseja, T. S.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon studied with helium-neon laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 145, pp. 137–147, May1966.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Isotope shift and saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 521–524, June1963.
[CrossRef]

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
[CrossRef]

Kannelaud, J.

W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 228–245, January1966.
[CrossRef]

Koozekanani, S. H.

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

Koster, G. F.

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

Kovacs, M. A.

M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Labuda, E. F.

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, “Gas pumping in continuously operating ion lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1827–1829, July1964.

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
[CrossRef]

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, “Microwave determination of average electron energy and density in He-Ne discharges,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1647–1648, May1964, and references contained therein.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.

Large, L. N.

L. N. Large, H. Hill, “A compact pulsed gas laser for the far infrared,” App. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 625–626, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard, “Saturation of the molecular nitrogen second positive laser transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 4–6, July1965.
[CrossRef]

Mathias, L. E. S.

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Visible laser oscillations from carbon monoxide,” Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 194–196, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Stimulated emission in the band spectrum of nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 16–17, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Mercer, G. N.

W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.

Moeller, G.

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “Observation of laser action in the R branch of CO2and N2O vibrational spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 69–70, February1966.
[CrossRef]

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “High-power laser action in CO2-He mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 274–276, November1965; see also C. K. N. Patel, P. K. Tien, J. H. McFee, “CW high-power CO2-N2helium laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 290–292, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Nefflen, K. F.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. T.

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Visible laser oscillations from carbon monoxide,” Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 194–196, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Stimulated emission in the band spectrum of nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 16–17, July1963.
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, “CW high-power N2-CO2laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 15–17, July1965, and earlier papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, C. K. N. Patel, “High-power Brewster window laser at 10.6μ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 244–245, November1965.
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, “Vibration energy transfer—an efficient means of selective excitation in molecules,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 643–654.

Piltch, M.

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.

Pollack, M. A.

R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Mode competition and collision effects in gaseous optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 139, pp. A1408–A1414, August1965.
[CrossRef]

Prescott, L. J.

L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Cross correlation between discharge current noise and laser light noise in helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 48–49, August1964; see also L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Detection of spontaneous emission noise in helium-neon lasers,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 317–319, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Rigden, J. D.

J. D. Rigden, “A metallic plasma tube for ion lasers,” IEEE J of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, p. 221, August1965.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, J. D. Rigden, “Continuous gas maser operation in the visible,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1697, July1962.

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, “Bistable traveling-wave oscillations of ion ring laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 298–303, October1965; also T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Saturation effects in high-gain lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2487–2490, August1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

Sergeant, M.

R. L. Fork, M. Sergeant, “Multiple quantum processes in magnetic field tuned optical masers,”and P. T. Bolwijn, “Zeeman effects in a helium-neon laser,” both in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Silfvast, W. T.

G. R. Fowles, W. T. Silfvast, “High gain laser transition in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 236–237, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, “On the optimum geometry of a 6328 Å laser oscillator,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 77–79, April1966.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “Stabilized, single-frequency output from a long laser cavity,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 343–348, November1965.
[CrossRef]

Solimene, N.

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.

Statz, H.

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

Stephens, R. B.

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

Szöke, A.

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon studied with helium-neon laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 145, pp. 137–147, May1966.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Isotope shift and saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 521–524, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

Thorn, R. S. A.

H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Tomiyasu, K.

K. Tomiyasu, “Laser bibliography,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 133–156, June1965; “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 199–219, August1965; and “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 124–151, June1966.
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
[CrossRef]

van der Ziel, A.

L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Cross correlation between discharge current noise and laser light noise in helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 48–49, August1964; see also L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Detection of spontaneous emission noise in helium-neon lasers,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 317–319, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Walter, W. T.

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.

Webb, C. E.

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.

White, A. D.

For a more detailed review of the problems involved in building stabilized lasers, see A. D. White, “Frequency stabilization of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 349–357, November1965.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, J. D. Rigden, “Continuous gas maser operation in the visible,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1697, July1962.

Witteman, W. J.

W. J. Witteman, R. Bleekrode, “Pulsed and continuous molecular far infra-red gas laser,” Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 126–127, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Wright, D. L.

A. L. Bloom, D. L. Wright, “Pressure shifts in a stabilized single wavelength helium-neon laser,” this issue.

App. Opt. (1)

L. N. Large, H. Hill, “A compact pulsed gas laser for the far infrared,” App. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 625–626, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 1 on Optical Masers) (1)

W. R. Bennett, “Gaseous optical masers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 1 on Optical Masers), pp. 24–61, 1962.

Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers) (1)

W. R. Bennett, “Inversion mechanisms in gas lasers,” Appl. Opt. (Suppl. 2 on Chemical Lasers), pp. 3–33, 1965.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (17)

T. J. Bridges, C. K. N. Patel, “High-power Brewster window laser at 10.6μ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 244–245, November1965.
[CrossRef]

L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Cross correlation between discharge current noise and laser light noise in helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 48–49, August1964; see also L. J. Prescott, A. van der Ziel, “Detection of spontaneous emission noise in helium-neon lasers,” Phys. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 317–319, October1964.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, “Saturation of the molecular nitrogen second positive laser transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 4–6, July1965.
[CrossRef]

M. Piltch, W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. Gould, W. R. Bennett, “Pulsed laser transitions in manganese vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 309–310, December1965.
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, K. F. Nefflen, K. E. Gillilland, R. B. Stephens, “Measurement of 633-nm wavelength of helium-neon lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 277–279, November1965; see also W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, “Wavelength measurements of helium-neon laser emission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 56, p. 259, February1966.
[CrossRef]

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “Observation of laser action in the R branch of CO2and N2O vibrational spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 69–70, February1966.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Goldsborough, E. B. Hodges, W. E. Bell, “RF induction excitation of CW visible laser transitions in ionized gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 137–139, March1966.
[CrossRef]

A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, J. D. Rigden, “Output power of the 6328 Å gas maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 91–93, March1963.
[CrossRef]

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Stimulated emission in the band spectrum of nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 16–17, July1963.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Visible laser transitions in Hg+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 34–35, January1964.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, “Laser oscillation in singly ionized argon in the visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 128–130, April1964; see also G. Convert, M. Armand, P. Martinot-Lagarde, “Transitions lasers visibles dans l’argon ionisé,” Comptes Rendus, vol. 258, pp. 4467–4469, 1964; and W. R. Bennett, J. W. Knutson, G. N. Mercer, J. L. Detch, “Super-radiance, excitation mechanisms, and quasi-CW oscillation in Ar+laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 180–182, the visible May1964.
[CrossRef]

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, W. B. Bridges, “Continuous visible laser action in singly ionized argon, krypton, and xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 178–180, May1964.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kovacs, G. W. Flynn, A. Javan, “Q-switching of molecular laser transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 62–63, February1966.
[CrossRef]

G. Moeller, J. Dane Rigden, “High-power laser action in CO2-He mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 274–276, November1965; see also C. K. N. Patel, P. K. Tien, J. H. McFee, “CW high-power CO2-N2helium laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 290–292, December1965.
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, “CW high-power N2-CO2laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 15–17, July1965, and earlier papers referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Bell, “Ring discharge excitation of gas ion lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 190–191, October1965.
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fowles, W. T. Silfvast, “High gain laser transition in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 236–237, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (3)

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, “Gas pumping in continuously operating ion lasers,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 1827–1829, July1964.

E. I. Gordon, “Optical maser oscillations and noise,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 43, pp. 507–539, January1964.

G. D. Boyd, J. P. Gordon, “Confocal multi-mode resonator for millimeter through optical wavelength masers.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 40, pp. 489–508, March1961; see also G. D. Boyd, H. Kogelnik, “Generalized confocal resonator theory.” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 41, pp. 1347–1369, July1962.

IEEE J of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence) (1)

J. D. Rigden, “A metallic plasma tube for ion lasers,” IEEE J of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, p. 221, August1965.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (7)

W. W. Rigrod, T. J. Bridges, “Bistable traveling-wave oscillations of ion ring laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 298–303, October1965; also T. J. Bridges, W. W. Rigrod, “Output spectra of the argon ion laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 303–308, October1965.
[CrossRef]

W. B. Bridges, A. N. Chester, “Spectroscopy of ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 66–84, May1965.
[CrossRef]

K. Tomiyasu, “Laser bibliography,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 133–156, June1965; “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 199–219, August1965; and “Laser bibliography III,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 124–151, June1966.
[CrossRef]

For a more detailed review of the problems involved in building stabilized lasers, see A. D. White, “Frequency stabilization of gas lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 349–357, November1965.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “Stabilized, single-frequency output from a long laser cavity,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 343–348, November1965.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, “On the optimum geometry of a 6328 Å laser oscillator,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. 77–79, April1966.
[CrossRef]

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, R. C. Miller, “Continuous-duty argon ion lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 273–279, September1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

W. W. Rigrod, “Gain saturation and output power of optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 2602–2609, September1963.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “Saturation effects in high-gain lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2487–2490, August1965.
[CrossRef]

E. F. Labuda, E. I. Gordon, “Microwave determination of average electron energy and density in He-Ne discharges,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1647–1648, May1964, and references contained therein.
[CrossRef]

P. K. Cheo, H. G. Cooper, “Ultraviolet ion laser transitions between 2300 and 4000 Å,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1862–1865, June1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, E. Hodges, A. L. Bloom, “Laser emission in ionized mercury: isotope shift, line width, and precise wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 1598–1602, December, 1965.
[CrossRef]

E. V. Ashburn, “Bibliography of the open literature on lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, pp. 647–652, May1963; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 54, pp. 135–142, January1964; J. Opt. Soc. Am. vol. 55, pp. 752–756, June1965, and pp. 1040–1045, August 1965.

Nature (1)

H. A. H. Boot, D. M. Clunie, R. S. A. Thorn, “Pulsed laser operation in a high pressure helium-neon mixture,” Nature, vol. 198, pp. 773–774, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (2)

L. E. S. Mathias, J. T. Parker, “Visible laser oscillations from carbon monoxide,” Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 194–196, 1963.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Witteman, R. Bleekrode, “Pulsed and continuous molecular far infra-red gas laser,” Phys. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 126–127, November1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (5)

C. Freed, H. A. Haus, “Photocurrent spectrum and photoelectron counts produced by a gaseous laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 287–298, January1966.
[CrossRef]

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Effects of collisions on saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon studied with helium-neon laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 145, pp. 137–147, May1966.
[CrossRef]

W. Culshaw, J. Kannelaud, “Coherence effects in gaseous lasers with axial magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, pp. 228–245, January1966.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Mode competition and collision effects in gaseous optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 139, pp. A1408–A1414, August1965.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, “Hole burning effects in a He-Ne optical maser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 126, pp. 580–593, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Szöke, A. Javan, “Isotope shift and saturation behavior of the 1.15μtransition of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 521–524, June1963.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Jaseja, A. Javan, C. H. Townes, “Frequency stability of helium-neon masers and measurements of length,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 10, p. 165, March1963.
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bennett, E. A. Ballik, G. N. Mercer, “Spontaneous-emission line shape of ion laser transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 603–605, April1966, and earlier work referred to therein.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

H. Heffner, “The fundamental noise limit of linear amplifiers,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, pp. 1604–1608, July1962.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (Correspondence) (1)

A. D. White, J. D. Rigden, “Continuous gas maser operation in the visible,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1697, July1962.

Pys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, D. R. Herriott, “Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a helium-neon mixture,” Pys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 106–110, February1961.
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

H. Statz, F. H. Horrigan, S. H. Koozekanani, C. L. Tang, G. F. Koster, “Transition probabilities, lifetimes and related considerations in ionized argon lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 674–687; see also “Transition probabilities for some ArII laser lines,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 2278–2286, July1965.

A. L. Bloom, D. L. Wright, “Pressure shifts in a stabilized single wavelength helium-neon laser,” this issue.

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, M. Piltch, G. Gould, “Efficient pulsed gas discharge lasers,” presented at the 1966 Quantum Electronics Conf., to be published.

A. L. Bloom, R. L. Byer, W. E. Bell, “Emission line widths of ion lasers,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 688–689, and unpublished work.

S. E. Harris, “Control and stabilization of laser oscillators by internal time varying perturbation,” this issue.

E. I. Gordon, E. F. Labuda, R. C. Miller, C. E. Webb, “Excitation mechanisms of the argon-ion laser,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 664–673.

J. P. Goldsborough, private communication.

C. K. N. Patel, “Vibration energy transfer—an efficient means of selective excitation in molecules,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, pp. 643–654.

R. L. Fork, M. Sergeant, “Multiple quantum processes in magnetic field tuned optical masers,”and P. T. Bolwijn, “Zeeman effects in a helium-neon laser,” both in Physics of Quantum Electronics.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A greatly oversimplified energy level diagram typical of all gas lasers. Laser action usually takes place in the region labeled A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A portion of the periodic table showing, in boldface, those elements from which CW ion laser operation has been observed. Pulsed ion laser operation has been seen in all elements shown except helium.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A typical dc-excited ion laser tube. In practice, the gas return path must be made considerably longer than the laser bore to prevent short-circuiting of the laser discharge [55].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CW RF-excited ion laser [49].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d W d t = G W 1 + s W - ( a + T ) W ,
T opt = ( G a ) 1 / 2 - a ,
P = ( G 1 / 2 - a 1 / 2 ) 2 s
s = ( γ a b γ a b ) - 1 μ 2 / 2
I ( r ) = e - 2 r 2 / w 2 ,

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