Abstract

After a general discussion of the merits of glass vs. crystals as host materials for laser ions, a summary is given of the various glass lasers. Because of its importance as an efficient, room temperature laser the properties of neodymium are considered in greater detail. This includes the nonlaser properties of Nd3+ in glass, the spectral and temporal emission characteristics of Nd3+ lasers, and Nd3+ laser configurations.

Separate sections deal with the other two room temperature lasers which use Yb3+ or Er3+. The problem of thermal stability of laser cavities is also discussed. Finally, a survey is given of the glasses that are useful as Faraday rotators.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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1966 (10)

G. Dauge, “Nonradiative energy transfer in silicate glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lviii–lix, April1966.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Saturable absorption of color centers in Nd3+-Yb3+laser glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxx, April1966.

J. H. Boyden, G. L. Clark, “Spectral hole burning in neodymium doped glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lvii–lviii, April1966.

C. J. Koester, “Laser action by enhanced total internal reflection,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

J. Martinelli, “Laser-induced damage thresholds for various glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1939–1940, March1966.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Laser emission at 1.06 μm from Nd3+-Yb3+glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

J. C. Suits, B. E. Argyle, M. J. Freiser, “Magneto-optical properties of materials containing divalent europium,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1391–1397, March1966.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Frequency control of a Nd3+glass laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 121–125, January1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Quelle, “Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 633–637, April1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (19)

P. C. Fletcher, D. L. Weisman, “Circulators for optical radar systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 867–873, July1965.
[CrossRef]

L. G. DeShazer, L. G. Komai, “Fluorescence conversion efficiency of neodymium glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 940–944, August1965.

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, “Saturation operation and gain coefficient of a neodymium-glass amplifier,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 1675–1677, December1965.
[CrossRef]

M. W. Shafer, J. C. Suits, “Preparation and Faraday rotation of divalent europium glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 44, p. 349, April1965.

P. V. Avizonis, T. Farrington, “Internal self-damage of ruby and Nd-glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 205–206, October1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1562–1566, May1965.
[CrossRef]

H. Welling, C. Bickart, H. G. Andresen, “Change of optical path length in laser rods within the pumping period,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 223–224, August1965.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. David Pearson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Energy exchange from Nd3+to Yb3+in calibo glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1962–1966, June1965.
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kovalev, G. O. Karapetyan, “Sensitizing of the luminescence of trivalent ytterbium by neodymium in silicate glasses,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. xviii, pp. 102–10J, January1965.

N. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, “Laser action in uranyl-sensitized Nd-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 43–45, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 233–236, November1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer and Ho3+laser action in silicate glass coactivated with Yb3+and Ho3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 237–239, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in triply activated glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 46–49, February1965.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Laser emission of Yb3+at 1.06 μin Nd-, Yb-doped glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, p. 1575, November1965.

G. O. Karapetyan, V. P. Kovalyov, S. G. Lunter, “Chromium sensitization of the neodymium luminescence in glass,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. 19, pp. 529–531, December1965.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Yb3+-Er3+glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 45–46, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations in erbium activated silicate glass,” Phys. Lett., vol. 16 pp. 266–267, June1965.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, E. K. David, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass produced through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 170–172, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, “Sensitization of Nd3+luminescence by Mn2+and Ce3+in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 117–118, March1965.
[CrossRef]

1964 (20)

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and neodymium,” Phys. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 213–214, August1964.
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Cabezas, L. G. DeShazer, “Radiative transfer of energy between rare-earth ions in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 37–39, January1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, W. R. Northovcr, “Laser oscillations at 0.918, 1.057, and 1.401 microns in Nd3+-doped borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1704–1706, June1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO22+to Nd3+in coactivated barium crown glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 188–190, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, “Nonradiative energy exchange and laser oscillation in Yb3+-, Nd3+-doped borate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 202–204, June1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 220–222, December1964.
[CrossRef]

C. Hirayama, D. W. Lewis, “The effect of neodymium environment on its absorption and emission characteristics in glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 44–51, April1964.

D. W. Harper, “Assessment of neodymium optical maser glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 11–16, February1964.

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Application of resonance cooperation of rare-earth ions Nd3+and Yb3+to lasers (Na0.5RE0.5WO4),” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 201–202, June1964.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Generation of giant pulses from a neodymium laser by a reversibly bleachable absorber,” Nature, vol. 204, p. 276, October1964.
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels of Er3+in LaF3and coherent emission at 1.61 μ,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 1225–1232, September1964.
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borreli, “Faraday rotation in glasses,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 3289–3293, December1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, “A comparison of the optical Faraday roatation and magnetic susceptibility of cerous phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1798–1801, June1964.
[CrossRef]

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Robinson, “The Faraday rotation of diamagnetic glasses from 0.334 μ. to 1.9 μ,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1163–1166, October1964.
[CrossRef]

C. J. Koester, E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1182–1186, October1964.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Study of relaxation processes in Nd using pulsed excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 54, pp. 644–650, May1964.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Keene, J. A. Weiss, “The time-resolved spectrum of a neodymium glass laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 545–547, April1964.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Robinson, R. E. Graf, “Faraday rotation m praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium alumina silicate glasses,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1190, October1964.
[CrossRef]

1963 (5)

R. D. Maurer, “Operation of a Nd3+glass optical maser at 9180Å,” Appl. Opt., vol. 2, pp. 87–88, January1963.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mauer, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass at 1.37 microns,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 153, January1963.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pollack, “Stimulated emission in CaF2: Er3+,” Proc. IEEE, (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1793–1794, December1963.
[CrossRef]

R. F. Woodcock, “Lifetimes of Nd3+-doped silicate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, p. 523, April1963.

C. G. Young, “Continuous glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 151–152, April1963.
[CrossRef]

1962 (5)

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Simultaneous laser action of neodymium and ytterbium ions in silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2114–2115, October1962.

H. W. Gandy, “Redistribution of stimulated emission energy in ytterbium activated glass etalons,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2375–2376, November1962.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission from holmium activated silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2113–2114, October1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaWO4:Er3+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1531, June1962.

H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium activated silicate glass,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 534–536, July1962.
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

E. Snitzer, “Optical maser action of Nd3+in a barium crown glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 444–446, December1961.
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

T. Förster, “Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation energy,” Radiation Res., Suppl. 2, pp. 326–329, 1960.

L. Prod’Homme, “A new approach to the thermal change in the refractive index of glasses,” Phys. and Chem. of Glasses, vol. 1, pp. 119–122, August1960.

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 836–850, May1953.
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

1925 (1)

P. W. Bridgman, Am. J. Sci., vol. 10, p. 359, 1925; Proc. Am. Acad. Sci., vol. 63, p. 401, 1929.
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

F. Pockels, Ann. Physik, vol. 9, p. 220, 1902; Ann. Physik vol. 11, p. 651, 1903.
[CrossRef]

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

Andresen, H. G.

H. Welling, C. Bickart, H. G. Andresen, “Change of optical path length in laser rods within the pumping period,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 223–224, August1965.
[CrossRef]

Argyle, B. E.

J. C. Suits, B. E. Argyle, M. J. Freiser, “Magneto-optical properties of materials containing divalent europium,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1391–1397, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Avizonis, P. V.

P. V. Avizonis, T. Farrington, “Internal self-damage of ruby and Nd-glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 205–206, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Basov, N. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

Bates, T.

T. Bates, “Ligand field theory and absorption spectra of transition-metal ions in glasses,” in Modern Aspects of the Vitreous State, vol. 2, J. D. MacKenzie, Ed. Washington: Butterworths, 1962, pp. 195–254.

Berger, S. B.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, “A comparison of the optical Faraday roatation and magnetic susceptibility of cerous phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1798–1801, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Bickart, C.

H. Welling, C. Bickart, H. G. Andresen, “Change of optical path length in laser rods within the pumping period,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 223–224, August1965.
[CrossRef]

Boley, B. A.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses. New York: Wiley, 1960, pp. 244–246.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, ibid., pp. 288–306.

Bonner, W. A.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

Borreli, N. F.

N. F. Borreli, “Faraday rotation in glasses,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 3289–3293, December1964.
[CrossRef]

Botden, P. J.

P. J. Botden, “Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids,” Philips Research Repts., vol.7, pp. 197–235, June1952.

Boyden, J. H.

J. H. Boyden, G. L. Clark, “Spectral hole burning in neodymium doped glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lvii–lviii, April1966.

Brandt, N. M.

R. W. Young, R. E. Graf, N. M. Brandt, “Influence of alkali oxides on fluorescent lifetime and other properties,” 1964 American Ceramic Soc. Meeting, Chicago, to be published.

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

G. E. Peterson, A. David Pearson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Energy exchange from Nd3+to Yb3+in calibo glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1962–1966, June1965.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Study of relaxation processes in Nd using pulsed excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 54, pp. 644–650, May1964.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Application of resonance cooperation of rare-earth ions Nd3+and Yb3+to lasers (Na0.5RE0.5WO4),” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 201–202, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Bridgman, P. W.

P. W. Bridgman, Am. J. Sci., vol. 10, p. 359, 1925; Proc. Am. Acad. Sci., vol. 63, p. 401, 1929.
[CrossRef]

Cabezas, A. Y.

A. Y. Cabezas, L. G. DeShazer, “Radiative transfer of energy between rare-earth ions in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 37–39, January1964.
[CrossRef]

Clark, G. L.

J. H. Boyden, G. L. Clark, “Spectral hole burning in neodymium doped glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lvii–lviii, April1966.

Dauge, G.

G. Dauge, “Nonradiative energy transfer in silicate glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lviii–lix, April1966.

David, E. K.

M. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, E. K. David, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass produced through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 170–172, September1965.
[CrossRef]

David Pearson, A.

G. E. Peterson, A. David Pearson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Energy exchange from Nd3+to Yb3+in calibo glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1962–1966, June1965.
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

L. G. DeShazer, L. G. Komai, “Fluorescence conversion efficiency of neodymium glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, pp. 940–944, August1965.

A. Y. Cabezas, L. G. DeShazer, “Radiative transfer of energy between rare-earth ions in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 37–39, January1964.
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 836–850, May1953.
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare earths,” Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. New York: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–345.

Dixon, E. O.

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, E. O. Dixon, “Optical avalanche laser,” to be published.

Duncan, R. C.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaWO4:Er3+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1531, June1962.

Etzel, H. W.

Farrington, T.

P. V. Avizonis, T. Farrington, “Internal self-damage of ruby and Nd-glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 205–206, October1965.
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, P. C.

Förster, T.

T. Förster, “Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation energy,” Radiation Res., Suppl. 2, pp. 326–329, 1960.

Freiser, M. J.

J. C. Suits, B. E. Argyle, M. J. Freiser, “Magneto-optical properties of materials containing divalent europium,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1391–1397, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Gandy, H.

H. Gandy, private communication.

Gandy, H. W.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in triply activated glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 46–49, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer and Ho3+laser action in silicate glass coactivated with Yb3+and Ho3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 237–239, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 233–236, November1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations in erbium activated silicate glass,” Phys. Lett., vol. 16 pp. 266–267, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 220–222, December1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and neodymium,” Phys. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 213–214, August1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO22+to Nd3+in coactivated barium crown glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 188–190, June1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium activated silicate glass,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 534–536, July1962.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Simultaneous laser action of neodymium and ytterbium ions in silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2114–2115, October1962.

H. W. Gandy, “Redistribution of stimulated emission energy in ytterbium activated glass etalons,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2375–2376, November1962.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission from holmium activated silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2113–2114, October1962.

Ginther, R. J.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations in erbium activated silicate glass,” Phys. Lett., vol. 16 pp. 266–267, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 233–236, November1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer and Ho3+laser action in silicate glass coactivated with Yb3+and Ho3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 237–239, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in triply activated glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 46–49, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and neodymium,” Phys. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 213–214, August1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO22+to Nd3+in coactivated barium crown glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 188–190, June1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 220–222, December1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission from holmium activated silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2113–2114, October1962.

H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium activated silicate glass,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 534–536, July1962.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Simultaneous laser action of neodymium and ytterbium ions in silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2114–2115, October1962.

Graf, R. E.

C. C. Robinson, R. E. Graf, “Faraday rotation m praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium alumina silicate glasses,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1190, October1964.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Young, R. E. Graf, N. M. Brandt, “Influence of alkali oxides on fluorescent lifetime and other properties,” 1964 American Ceramic Soc. Meeting, Chicago, to be published.

Gruber, J. B.

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels of Er3+in LaF3and coherent emission at 1.61 μ,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 1225–1232, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Harper, D. W.

D. W. Harper, “Assessment of neodymium optical maser glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 11–16, February1964.

Hirayama, C.

N. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, “Laser action in uranyl-sensitized Nd-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 43–45, February1965.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, E. K. David, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass produced through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 170–172, September1965.
[CrossRef]

C. Hirayama, D. W. Lewis, “The effect of neodymium environment on its absorption and emission characteristics in glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 44–51, April1964.

Hoskins, R. H.

B. H. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Generation of giant pulses from a neodymium laser by a reversibly bleachable absorber,” Nature, vol. 204, p. 276, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Kantorski, J. W.

Karapetyan, G. O.

G. O. Karapetyan, V. P. Kovalyov, S. G. Lunter, “Chromium sensitization of the neodymium luminescence in glass,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. 19, pp. 529–531, December1965.

V. P. Kovalev, G. O. Karapetyan, “Sensitizing of the luminescence of trivalent ytterbium by neodymium in silicate glasses,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. xviii, pp. 102–10J, January1965.

Keene, W. H.

Kiss, Z. J.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaWO4:Er3+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1531, June1962.

Koester, C. J.

C. J. Koester, “Laser action by enhanced total internal reflection,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

C. J. Koester, E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1182–1186, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Komai, L. G.

Kovalev, V. P.

V. P. Kovalev, G. O. Karapetyan, “Sensitizing of the luminescence of trivalent ytterbium by neodymium in silicate glasses,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. xviii, pp. 102–10J, January1965.

Kovalyov, V. P.

G. O. Karapetyan, V. P. Kovalyov, S. G. Lunter, “Chromium sensitization of the neodymium luminescence in glass,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. 19, pp. 529–531, December1965.

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels of Er3+in LaF3and coherent emission at 1.61 μ,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 1225–1232, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Kryukov, P. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

Kurkjian, C. R.

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Letokov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

Lewis, D. W.

C. Hirayama, D. W. Lewis, “The effect of neodymium environment on its absorption and emission characteristics in glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 44–51, April1964.

Lunter, S. G.

G. O. Karapetyan, V. P. Kovalyov, S. G. Lunter, “Chromium sensitization of the neodymium luminescence in glass,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. 19, pp. 529–531, December1965.

Martinelli, J.

J. Martinelli, “Laser-induced damage thresholds for various glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1939–1940, March1966.
[CrossRef]

Mauer, P. B.

Maurer, R. D.

R. D. Maurer, “Operation of a Nd3+glass optical maser at 9180Å,” Appl. Opt., vol. 2, pp. 87–88, January1963.
[CrossRef]

R. D. Maurer, “Nd3+fluorescence and stimulated emission in oxide glasses,” in Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 435–447.

Melamed, M. T.

M. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, E. K. David, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass produced through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 170–172, September1965.
[CrossRef]

Melamed, N. T.

N. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, “Laser action in uranyl-sensitized Nd-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 43–45, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Molby, F. A.

Morey, G. W.

G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass. New York: Reinhold, 1938, pp. 423–431.

Nakazawa, E.

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, “Sensitization of Nd3+luminescence by Mn2+and Ce3+in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 117–118, March1965.
[CrossRef]

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, 1963 Meeting, Phys. Soc. of Japan, Tokyo.

Northovcr, W. R.

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, W. R. Northovcr, “Laser oscillations at 0.918, 1.057, and 1.401 microns in Nd3+-doped borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1704–1706, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Pandey, B.

G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare earths,” Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. New York: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–345.

Pearson, A. D.

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, W. R. Northovcr, “Laser oscillations at 0.918, 1.057, and 1.401 microns in Nd3+-doped borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1704–1706, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, “Nonradiative energy exchange and laser oscillation in Yb3+-, Nd3+-doped borate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 202–204, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. E.

G. E. Peterson, A. David Pearson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Energy exchange from Nd3+to Yb3+in calibo glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1962–1966, June1965.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Study of relaxation processes in Nd using pulsed excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 54, pp. 644–650, May1964.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Application of resonance cooperation of rare-earth ions Nd3+and Yb3+to lasers (Na0.5RE0.5WO4),” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 201–202, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Pockels, F.

F. Pockels, Ann. Physik, vol. 9, p. 220, 1902; Ann. Physik vol. 11, p. 651, 1903.
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S. A.

S. A. Pollack, “Stimulated emission in CaF2: Er3+,” Proc. IEEE, (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1793–1794, December1963.
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, “Nonradiative energy exchange and laser oscillation in Yb3+-, Nd3+-doped borate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 202–204, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, W. R. Northovcr, “Laser oscillations at 0.918, 1.057, and 1.401 microns in Nd3+-doped borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1704–1706, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Prod’Homme, L.

L. Prod’Homme, “A new approach to the thermal change in the refractive index of glasses,” Phys. and Chem. of Glasses, vol. 1, pp. 119–122, August1960.

Quelle, F. W.

Robinson, C. C.

Rubinstein, C. B.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, “A comparison of the optical Faraday roatation and magnetic susceptibility of cerous phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1798–1801, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Shafer, M. W.

M. W. Shafer, J. C. Suits, “Preparation and Faraday rotation of divalent europium glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 44, p. 349, April1965.

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, “Amplitude and frequency variations in ruby optical masers,” in Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 95–108.

Shionoya, S.

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, “Sensitization of Nd3+luminescence by Mn2+and Ce3+in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 117–118, March1965.
[CrossRef]

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, 1963 Meeting, Phys. Soc. of Japan, Tokyo.

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, “Laser emission at 1.06 μm from Nd3+-Yb3+glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

E. Snitzer, “Frequency control of a Nd3+glass laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 121–125, January1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Saturable absorption of color centers in Nd3+-Yb3+laser glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxx, April1966.

E. Snitzer, “Laser emission of Yb3+at 1.06 μin Nd-, Yb-doped glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 55, p. 1575, November1965.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Yb3+-Er3+glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 45–46, February1965.
[CrossRef]

C. J. Koester, E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1182–1186, October1964.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Optical maser action of Nd3+in a barium crown glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 444–446, December1961.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Neodymium glass laser,” in Quantum Electronics III, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds., New York: Columbia University Press, 1964, pp. 999–1019.

E. Snitzer, C. G. Young, “Glass Lasers,” in Advances in Lasers, vol. 2, by A. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Generation of giant pulses from a neodymium laser by a reversibly bleachable absorber,” Nature, vol. 204, p. 276, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Stein, R. A.

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1562–1566, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Suits, J. C.

J. C. Suits, B. E. Argyle, M. J. Freiser, “Magneto-optical properties of materials containing divalent europium,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1391–1397, March1966.
[CrossRef]

M. W. Shafer, J. C. Suits, “Preparation and Faraday rotation of divalent europium glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 44, p. 349, April1965.

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1562–1566, May1965.
[CrossRef]

Treptow, A. W.

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

VanUitert, L. G.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. H.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses. New York: Wiley, 1960, pp. 244–246.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, ibid., pp. 288–306.

Weisman, D. L.

Weiss, J. A.

Weller, J. F.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer and Ho3+laser action in silicate glass coactivated with Yb3+and Ho3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 237–239, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in triply activated glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 46–49, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 233–236, November1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations in erbium activated silicate glass,” Phys. Lett., vol. 16 pp. 266–267, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 220–222, December1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and neodymium,” Phys. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 213–214, August1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO22+to Nd3+in coactivated barium crown glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 188–190, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

H. Welling, C. Bickart, H. G. Andresen, “Change of optical path length in laser rods within the pumping period,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 223–224, August1965.
[CrossRef]

Woodcock, R.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Saturable absorption of color centers in Nd3+-Yb3+laser glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxx, April1966.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Yb3+-Er3+glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 45–46, February1965.
[CrossRef]

Woodcock, R. F.

R. F. Woodcock, “Lifetimes of Nd3+-doped silicate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 53, p. 523, April1963.

Young, C. G.

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, “Saturation operation and gain coefficient of a neodymium-glass amplifier,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 1675–1677, December1965.
[CrossRef]

C. G. Young, “Continuous glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 151–152, April1963.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, C. G. Young, “Glass Lasers,” in Advances in Lasers, vol. 2, by A. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, E. O. Dixon, “Optical avalanche laser,” to be published.

Young, R. W.

R. W. Young, R. E. Graf, N. M. Brandt, “Influence of alkali oxides on fluorescent lifetime and other properties,” 1964 American Ceramic Soc. Meeting, Chicago, to be published.

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

M. W. Shafer, J. C. Suits, “Preparation and Faraday rotation of divalent europium glasses,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 44, p. 349, April1965.

Am. J. Sci. (1)

P. W. Bridgman, Am. J. Sci., vol. 10, p. 359, 1925; Proc. Am. Acad. Sci., vol. 63, p. 401, 1929.
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (1)

F. Pockels, Ann. Physik, vol. 9, p. 220, 1902; Ann. Physik vol. 11, p. 651, 1903.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

C. C. Robinson, “The Faraday rotation of diamagnetic glasses from 0.334 μ. to 1.9 μ,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1163–1166, October1964.
[CrossRef]

C. J. Koester, E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 1182–1186, October1964.
[CrossRef]

P. C. Fletcher, D. L. Weisman, “Circulators for optical radar systems,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 867–873, July1965.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Frequency control of a Nd3+glass laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 121–125, January1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Quelle, “Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements,” Appl. Opt., vol. 5, pp. 633–637, April1966.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium activated silicate glass,” Appl. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 534–536, July1962.
[CrossRef]

R. D. Maurer, “Operation of a Nd3+glass optical maser at 9180Å,” Appl. Opt., vol. 2, pp. 87–88, January1963.
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mauer, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass at 1.37 microns,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 153, January1963.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Keene, J. A. Weiss, “The time-resolved spectrum of a neodymium glass laser,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, pp. 545–547, April1964.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Robinson, R. E. Graf, “Faraday rotation m praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium alumina silicate glasses,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1190, October1964.
[CrossRef]

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, “Saturation operation and gain coefficient of a neodymium-glass amplifier,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, pp. 1675–1677, December1965.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

P. V. Avizonis, T. Farrington, “Internal self-damage of ruby and Nd-glass lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 205–206, October1965.
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G. E. Peterson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Application of resonance cooperation of rare-earth ions Nd3+and Yb3+to lasers (Na0.5RE0.5WO4),” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 201–202, June1964.
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Yb3+-Er3+glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 45–46, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO22+to Nd3+in coactivated barium crown glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 188–190, June1964.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, E. K. David, “Laser action in neodymium-doped glass produced through energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 170–172, September1965.
[CrossRef]

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, “Sensitization of Nd3+luminescence by Mn2+and Ce3+in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 117–118, March1965.
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A. Y. Cabezas, L. G. DeShazer, “Radiative transfer of energy between rare-earth ions in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 37–39, January1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, “Nonradiative energy exchange and laser oscillation in Yb3+-, Nd3+-doped borate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 202–204, June1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 220–222, December1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer and Ho3+laser action in silicate glass coactivated with Yb3+and Ho3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 237–239, June1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in triply activated glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 46–49, February1965.
[CrossRef]

N. T. Melamed, C. Hirayama, “Laser action in uranyl-sensitized Nd-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 43–45, February1965.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 233–236, November1965.
[CrossRef]

C. G. Young, “Continuous glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 151–152, April1963.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (5)

C. J. Koester, “Laser action by enhanced total internal reflection,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

J. H. Boyden, G. L. Clark, “Spectral hole burning in neodymium doped glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lvii–lviii, April1966.

E. Snitzer, R. Woodcock, “Saturable absorption of color centers in Nd3+-Yb3+laser glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lxx, April1966.

G. Dauge, “Nonradiative energy transfer in silicate glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, pp. lviii–lix, April1966.

E. Snitzer, “Laser emission at 1.06 μm from Nd3+-Yb3+glass,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lviii, April1966.

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence) (1)

H. Welling, C. Bickart, H. G. Andresen, “Change of optical path length in laser rods within the pumping period,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (Correspondence), vol. QE-1, pp. 223–224, August1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

G. E. Peterson, A. David Pearson, P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Energy exchange from Nd3+to Yb3+in calibo glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1962–1966, June1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Szabo, R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 1562–1566, May1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Martinelli, “Laser-induced damage thresholds for various glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1939–1940, March1966.
[CrossRef]

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, “A comparison of the optical Faraday roatation and magnetic susceptibility of cerous phosphate glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1798–1801, June1964.
[CrossRef]

A. D. Pearson, S. P. S. Porto, W. R. Northovcr, “Laser oscillations at 0.918, 1.057, and 1.401 microns in Nd3+-doped borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 1704–1706, June1964.
[CrossRef]

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. VanUitert, W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 2338–2340, August1964.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Suits, B. E. Argyle, M. J. Freiser, “Magneto-optical properties of materials containing divalent europium,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, pp. 1391–1397, March1966.
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels of Er3+in LaF3and coherent emission at 1.61 μ,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 1225–1232, September1964.
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borreli, “Faraday rotation in glasses,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, pp. 3289–3293, December1964.
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 836–850, May1953.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

JETP (1)

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokov, “Laser with nonresonant feedback,” JETP, vol. 3, pp. 167–169, March1966.

Nature (1)

B. H. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Generation of giant pulses from a neodymium laser by a reversibly bleachable absorber,” Nature, vol. 204, p. 276, October1964.
[CrossRef]

Opt. and Spectr. (2)

G. O. Karapetyan, V. P. Kovalyov, S. G. Lunter, “Chromium sensitization of the neodymium luminescence in glass,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. 19, pp. 529–531, December1965.

V. P. Kovalev, G. O. Karapetyan, “Sensitizing of the luminescence of trivalent ytterbium by neodymium in silicate glasses,” Opt. and Spectr., vol. xviii, pp. 102–10J, January1965.

Phys. and Chem. of Glasses (1)

L. Prod’Homme, “A new approach to the thermal change in the refractive index of glasses,” Phys. and Chem. of Glasses, vol. 1, pp. 119–122, August1960.

Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses (2)

D. W. Harper, “Assessment of neodymium optical maser glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 11–16, February1964.

C. Hirayama, D. W. Lewis, “The effect of neodymium environment on its absorption and emission characteristics in glass,” Phys. and Chemistry of Glasses, vol. 5, pp. 44–51, April1964.

Phys. Lett. (2)

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and neodymium,” Phys. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 213–214, August1964.
[CrossRef]

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, J. F. Weller, “Laser oscillations in erbium activated silicate glass,” Phys. Lett., vol. 16 pp. 266–267, June1965.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. B. Berger, C. B. Rubinstein, C. R. Kurkjian, A. W. Treptow, “Faraday rotation of rare-earth (III) phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, pp. A723–A727, February1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Snitzer, “Optical maser action of Nd3+in a barium crown glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 444–446, December1961.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE, (Correspondence) (1)

S. A. Pollack, “Stimulated emission in CaF2: Er3+,” Proc. IEEE, (Correspondence), vol. 51, pp. 1793–1794, December1963.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (Correspondence) (4)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaWO4:Er3+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 1531, June1962.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Simultaneous laser action of neodymium and ytterbium ions in silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2114–2115, October1962.

H. W. Gandy, “Redistribution of stimulated emission energy in ytterbium activated glass etalons,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2375–2376, November1962.

H. W. Gandy, R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission from holmium activated silicate glass,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 2113–2114, October1962.

Radiation Res. (1)

T. Förster, “Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation energy,” Radiation Res., Suppl. 2, pp. 326–329, 1960.

Other (14)

P. J. Botden, “Transfer and transport of energy by resonance processes in luminescent solids,” Philips Research Repts., vol.7, pp. 197–235, June1952.

H. Gandy, private communication.

G. W. Morey, The Properties of Glass. New York: Reinhold, 1938, pp. 423–431.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses. New York: Wiley, 1960, pp. 244–246.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, ibid., pp. 288–306.

T. Bates, “Ligand field theory and absorption spectra of transition-metal ions in glasses,” in Modern Aspects of the Vitreous State, vol. 2, J. D. MacKenzie, Ed. Washington: Butterworths, 1962, pp. 195–254.

S. Shionoya, E. Nakazawa, 1963 Meeting, Phys. Soc. of Japan, Tokyo.

E. Snitzer, “Neodymium glass laser,” in Quantum Electronics III, P. Grivet, N. Bloembergen, Eds., New York: Columbia University Press, 1964, pp. 999–1019.

R. W. Young, R. E. Graf, N. M. Brandt, “Influence of alkali oxides on fluorescent lifetime and other properties,” 1964 American Ceramic Soc. Meeting, Chicago, to be published.

R. D. Maurer, “Nd3+fluorescence and stimulated emission in oxide glasses,” in Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, pp. 435–447.

G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare earths,” Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. New York: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–345.

C. G. Young, J. W. Kantorski, E. O. Dixon, “Optical avalanche laser,” to be published.

K. Shimoda, “Amplitude and frequency variations in ruby optical masers,” in Optical Masers, vol. XIII, by J. Fox, Ed. Brooklyn, New York: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 95–108.

E. Snitzer, C. G. Young, “Glass Lasers,” in Advances in Lasers, vol. 2, by A. Levine, Ed. New York: Dekker, to be published.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nd3+ absorption spectrum for a 6.4 mm thick sample of a glass with the composition 66 wt.% SiO2, 5 Nd2O3, 16 Na2O, 5 BaO, 2 Al2O3, and 1 Sb2O3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The absorption and fluorescent spectrum of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in a silicate glass base.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescent intensity as a function of time following a 10 μs pump pulse for various concentrations of Nd3+ in a silicate glass. The insert shows the cross relaxation (solid arrows) and quenching mechanisms (dotted arrows).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The lifetimes as functions of concentration for two glass series.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical time traces for Nd3+ laser emission at 1.06 μm. A. Random spiking in an unclad rod. B. Limit cycles in a clad rod. C. Damped oscillations in a clad rod.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The energy transfer rate from Nd3+ to Yb3+ as a function of Nd3+ concentration. Since the rate is proportional to the Yb3+ concentration, the data are given in terms of the wt.% of Yb2O3 needed to get equal fluorescence in Yb3+ and Nd3+ after pumping only in Nd3+. At low rare earth concentrations, 1 wt.% is equivalent to 0.9×1020 ions/cm3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption and fluorescent spectra of Er3+.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The upper graph is the lifetime of Er3+ fluorescence in a silicate glass with 0.25 wt.% Er2O3 as a function of Yb2O3 concentration. The solid curve in the lower graph is the dependence on Yb2O3 concentration of the ratio of Er3+ fluorescent photons emitted to those emitted by Yb3+ after pumping only in Yb3+ for a silicate glass containing 0.25 wt.% Er2O3. For Yb3+ concentrations below those at which quenching of Er3+ fluorescence occurs, the ratio is equal to the transfer rate C′ divided by the radiative emission rate A2 of Yb3+. The dashed curve was calculated from the shortening of the lifetime of Yb3+ fluorescence.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Laser Ions in Glass*

Tables Icon

TABLE II Sensitized Emission of Laser Ions

Tables Icon

TABLE III Lifetimes of Nd3+ in Various Glasses

Tables Icon

TABLE IV The Reported Rates C for Transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ in Various Hosts

Tables Icon

TABLE V Verdet Constant V and Absorbance A for Faraday Rotation Glasses. The Verdet Constant is Defined as the Angle through which the Plane of Polarization is Rotated for a Unit Length Sample in Unit Magnetic Field. Positive Rotation is the Same as that of a Current which Could Produce the Magnetic Field.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B 1 N 1 + B 2 N 2 = l
P r ( r ) = n L { 1 + [ α n T - p v ( z + θ ) - q v r ] } ,
P θ ( r ) = n L { 1 + [ α n T - p v ( z + r ) - q v θ ] } .
r = E - 1 [ σ r - s ( σ θ + σ z ) ] θ = E - 1 [ σ θ - s ( σ r + σ z ) ] z = E - 1 [ σ z - s ( σ r + σ θ ) ]
σ r = α E 1 - s ( F - R ) σ θ = α E 1 - s ( F + R - T ) σ z = α E 1 - s ( 2 F - T ) .
F = a - 2 0 a T r d r R = r - 2 0 r T r d r .
Δ P r ( r ) = n L T { α n - α 1 - s [ R T ( 1 + s ) ( p v - q v ) - 2 ( 1 - s ) p v + 2 s q v ] }
Δ P θ ( r ) = n L T { α n - α 1 - s [ - R T ( 1 + s ) ( p v - q v ) - ( 1 - 3 s ) p v - ( 1 - s ) q v ] }
Δ P r ( r ) + Δ P θ ( r ) 2 = n L T { α n - α 1 - s [ - 3 - 5 s 2 p v - 1 - 3 s 2 q v ] } .
P r ( r ) = n L { 1 + [ α n T + n - n n ( α T + z ) - p v ( z + θ ) - q v r ] } .
σ r = α E ( F - R ) σ θ = α E ( F + R - T ) σ z = 0.
Δ P r = n L T { α n - α [ - n - n n ( 1 + s ) + R T ( 1 + s ) · ( p v - q v ) - ( 1 - s ) p v + s q v ] }
Δ P θ = n L T { α n - α [ - n - n n ( 1 + s ) - R T ( 1 + s ) · ( p v - q v ) + 2 s p v - q v ] }
Δ P r ( r ) + Δ P θ ( r ) 2 = n L T { α n - α [ - n - n n ( 1 + s ) - 1 - 3 s 2 p v - 1 - s 2 q v ] } .

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