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  1. A. L. Schawlow, C. J. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 112, p. 1940, December1958.
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  3. P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 557–559, December1960.
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  4. L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.
  5. A summary of the materials work up to 1963 can be found in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloombergen, Eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.
  6. F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth, “Giant optical pulsations from ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 828, 1962.
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  7. U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.
  8. See e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Zeeman tuning of the CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 61–62, February1963.
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  9. A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, “The laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 4–29, January1963.
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  10. See, e.g., G. Birnbaum, “Optical masers,” in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, (supplement 2). New York: Academic, 1964.
  11. A. A. Kaminsky, B. B. Osiko, “Inorganic ionic crystalline laser materials,” Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials, vol. 1, p. 2049, December1965.
  12. R. C. Linares, “Properties and growth of flux ruby,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 26, p. 1817, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. E. Paladino, R. D. Reiter, “Chochralski growth of sapphire,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 47, p. 465, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, e.g., H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 2482, 1963.
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  15. K. Napan, A. M. Broger, “Calcium tungstate: Czochralski growth, perfection and substitution,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 3064, 1962.
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  16. See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. R. Charvat, R. M. Youmans, “Characteristics of melt pulled rare-earth garnets,” American Ceramic Soc. Bull., p. 409, April1965.
  18. D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Linewidth and temperature shift of the Rlines in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 1682, June1963.
    [CrossRef]
  19. See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.
  20. See, e.g., S. Yatsiv, “Spontaneous emission of phonons and spectral linewidths of some rare-earth ions in crystals,” Physica, vol. 28, p. 521, 1962.
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  21. A. Kiel, “Multi-phonon spontaneous emission in paramagnetic crystals.” [5, p. 765].
  22. See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Energy levels of Dy3+in CaF2, SrF2and BaF2,” Phys. Rev., vol. 137, pp. A 1749–1760, March1965.
  23. See, e.g., G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare-earths,” in Proc. of the Symposium on Optical Masers. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–346.
  24. See, e.g., B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
  25. E. Loh, “Lowest 4f-5d transition of trivalent rare-earth ions in CaF2,” Phys. Rev., to be published.
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  27. N. C. Change, “Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, 3500, 1963.
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  28. R. Solomon, L. Mueller, “Stimulated emission at 5983 Å from Pr3+in LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 135, 1963.
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  29. D. S. McClure, Z. J. Kiss, “Survey of the spectra of the divalent rare-earth ions in cubic crystals,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 39, p. 3251, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  30. See, e.g., P. P. Feofilov, “Monocristaux du type Fluorite Activds comme Mileux pour produire une Emission Stimulee,” [5, p. 1079].
  31. See, e.g., P. P. Sorokin, “Transitions of Re3+ions in alkaline earth halide lattices,” [5, p. 985].
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  33. W. Hayes, J. W. Twidell, “Paramagnetic resonance of divalent lanthanum in irradiated CaF2,” Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 82, p. 330, 1963.
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  34. See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, H. A. Weakliem, “Stark effect of 4f state and linear crystal field in BaCIF: Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. Letts., vol. 15, p. 457, 1965.
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  35. L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
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  36. L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
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  37. Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+:Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 200, 1964.
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  38. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phvs., vol. 21, p. 836, 1953.
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  39. L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. B. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Energy transfer and CW laser action in Tm3+:Er2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 200, 1965.
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  41. R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
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  42. F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
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  43. I. Wieder, L. R. Sarles, “Stimulated optical emission from exchange-coupled ions of Cr+++in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 95, 1961.
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  44. A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, “Simultaneous optical maser action in two ruby satellite lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 96, 1961.
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  45. E. G. Woodbury, W. K. Nag, “Ruby laser operation in the near IR,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 2367, November1962.
  46. L. F. Johnson, R. A. Thomas, “Maser oscillations at 0.9 and 1.35 microns in CaWO4:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, p. 2038, 1963.
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  47. L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of Nd3+in CaF2,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 756, 1962.
    [CrossRef]
  48. R. C. Duncan, “Continuous room-temperature Nd3+:CaMoO4laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, p. 874, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  49. J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  50. L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 897, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  51. A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
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  52. C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  53. C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  54. Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2: Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.
  55. A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
    [CrossRef]
  56. G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
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  57. S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Excitation, relaxation and optical maser action at 2.407 μin SrF2:U3+,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, p. 153, 1962.
  58. P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenon, “Stimulated emission from CaF2:U3++CaF2:Sm2+,” in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. New York: Columbia University Press, N. Y., and London, England: pp. 65–77, 1961.
  59. P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
    [CrossRef]
  60. Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2:Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.
  61. Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaF2:Tm2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1532–1533, June1962.
  62. R. C. Duncan, Z. J. Kiss, “Continuously operating CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 23, 1963.
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  63. R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.
  64. J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)
  65. J. E. Geusic, “A repetitively Qswitched continuously pumped YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 175, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  66. J. E. Geusic, “Materials for solid state optical devices,” NEREM Rec., p. 78, 1966.
  67. S. A. Ochs, J. I. Pankove, “Injection-luminescence pumping of a CaF2:Dy2+laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 713–714, June1964.
    [CrossRef]
  68. D. Roess, “Exfocal pumping of optical masers in elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 259, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  69. D. Roess, “Room temperature CW ruby laser,” Microwaves, p. 5, April1966.
  70. V. Evtuhov, “Continuous operation of a ruby laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 75, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  71. I. J. D’Haenens, V. Evtuhov, “Temperature and concentration effects in a ruby laser,” [5, p. 1131].
  72. R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, “A high efficiency, high power solid state laser,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Device Meeting, Washington, D. C.
  73. R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.
  74. J. E. Jackson, D. M. Yenni, “High power laser operation,” Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., Indianapolis, Ind. Second Interim Tech. Rept., Contract SRCR-66-4, May1966.
  75. W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].
  76. Korad Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., advertised data on K-1500 ruby system.
  77. H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
    [CrossRef]
  78. R. Daly, S. D. Sims, “An improved method of mechanical Qswitching using total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1063, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  79. J. L. Wentz, “Novel laser Q-switching mechanism,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 716–717, June1964.
    [CrossRef]
  80. P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  81. B. H. Soffer, “Giant pulse laser operation by a passive reversibly bleachable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2551, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  82. D. Roess, G. Zeitler, “Quasicontinuous ruby giant pulse laser using a saturable absorber as a Qswitch,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 10, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  83. J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “A study of the YAG:Nd oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 1965 Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, P. Kelley, B. Lax, P. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 725.
  84. D. E. McCumber, “Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators I,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, p. 306, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  85. L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  86. M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
    [CrossRef]
  87. M. Didomenico, “Small signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2870, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  88. A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl Phys., vol. 36, p. 388, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  89. M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  90. D. Roess, “Single mode operation of a room-temperature CW ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 8, p. 109, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  91. W. W. Rigrod, “The optical ring resonator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, p. 907, 1965.
  92. V. Evtuhov, A. E. Siegman, “A twisted mode technique for obtaining axially uniform energy density in a laser cavity,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, p. 142, 1965.
    [CrossRef]
  93. C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
    [CrossRef]
  94. See, e.g., the collection of articles on applications from the Laser Physics and Applications Symposium, Bern, Switzerland, 1964, published in Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik & Physik, vol. 16, 1965, as well as the Digest of Technical Papers from the 1966 International Quantum Electronics Conference in Phoenix, Ariz., April 12, 1966, IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lix, April1966.
  95. An indication of the continuing rapid progress in this field was the announcement just before publication of this improvement in the operation of a Nd3+: YAG laser pumped with a 2500 watt tungsten lamp to obtain 15 watts output. J. E. Geusic, private communication.

1966 (8)

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, “Materials for solid state optical devices,” NEREM Rec., p. 78, 1966.

D. Roess, G. Zeitler, “Quasicontinuous ruby giant pulse laser using a saturable absorber as a Qswitch,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 10, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, “Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators I,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, p. 306, 1966.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. Roess, “Single mode operation of a room-temperature CW ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 8, p. 109, 1966.
[CrossRef]

R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

D. Roess, “Room temperature CW ruby laser,” Microwaves, p. 5, April1966.

1965 (17)

V. Evtuhov, “Continuous operation of a ruby laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 75, 1965.
[CrossRef]

V. Evtuhov, A. E. Siegman, “A twisted mode technique for obtaining axially uniform energy density in a laser cavity,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, p. 142, 1965.
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical ring resonator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, p. 907, 1965.

J. E. Geusic, “A repetitively Qswitched continuously pumped YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 175, 1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl Phys., vol. 36, p. 388, 1965.
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Duncan, “Continuous room-temperature Nd3+:CaMoO4laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, p. 874, 1965.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminsky, B. B. Osiko, “Inorganic ionic crystalline laser materials,” Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials, vol. 1, p. 2049, December1965.

R. C. Linares, “Properties and growth of flux ruby,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 26, p. 1817, 1965.
[CrossRef]

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
[CrossRef]

F. R. Charvat, R. M. Youmans, “Characteristics of melt pulled rare-earth garnets,” American Ceramic Soc. Bull., p. 409, April1965.

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Energy levels of Dy3+in CaF2, SrF2and BaF2,” Phys. Rev., vol. 137, pp. A 1749–1760, March1965.

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, H. A. Weakliem, “Stark effect of 4f state and linear crystal field in BaCIF: Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. Letts., vol. 15, p. 457, 1965.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
[CrossRef]

M. B. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Energy transfer and CW laser action in Tm3+:Er2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 200, 1965.
[CrossRef]

1964 (15)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+:Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 200, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, P. N. Yocom, “Stable divalent rare-earth alkaline earth halide systems,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, p. 1511, 1964.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

A. E. Paladino, R. D. Reiter, “Chochralski growth of sapphire,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 47, p. 465, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ochs, J. I. Pankove, “Injection-luminescence pumping of a CaF2:Dy2+laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 713–714, June1964.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wentz, “Novel laser Q-switching mechanism,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 716–717, June1964.
[CrossRef]

P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Soffer, “Giant pulse laser operation by a passive reversibly bleachable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2551, 1964.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, “Small signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2870, 1964.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

D. Roess, “Exfocal pumping of optical masers in elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 259, 1964.
[CrossRef]

R. Daly, S. D. Sims, “An improved method of mechanical Qswitching using total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 1063, 1964.
[CrossRef]

1963 (14)

R. C. Duncan, Z. J. Kiss, “Continuously operating CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 23, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 897, 1963.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 2482, 1963.
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Linewidth and temperature shift of the Rlines in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 1682, June1963.
[CrossRef]

See e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Zeeman tuning of the CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 61–62, February1963.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, “The laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 4–29, January1963.
[CrossRef]

W. Hayes, J. W. Twidell, “Paramagnetic resonance of divalent lanthanum in irradiated CaF2,” Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 82, p. 330, 1963.
[CrossRef]

N. C. Change, “Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, 3500, 1963.
[CrossRef]

R. Solomon, L. Mueller, “Stimulated emission at 5983 Å from Pr3+in LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 135, 1963.
[CrossRef]

D. S. McClure, Z. J. Kiss, “Survey of the spectra of the divalent rare-earth ions in cubic crystals,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 39, p. 3251, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. A. Thomas, “Maser oscillations at 0.9 and 1.35 microns in CaWO4:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, p. 2038, 1963.
[CrossRef]

1962 (15)

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of Nd3+in CaF2,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 756, 1962.
[CrossRef]

E. G. Woodbury, W. K. Nag, “Ruby laser operation in the near IR,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 2367, November1962.

F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., S. Yatsiv, “Spontaneous emission of phonons and spectral linewidths of some rare-earth ions in crystals,” Physica, vol. 28, p. 521, 1962.
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 750–761, August1962.
[CrossRef]

K. Napan, A. M. Broger, “Calcium tungstate: Czochralski growth, perfection and substitution,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 3064, 1962.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth, “Giant optical pulsations from ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 828, 1962.
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Excitation, relaxation and optical maser action at 2.407 μin SrF2:U3+,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, p. 153, 1962.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2:Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaF2:Tm2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1532–1533, June1962.

A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2: Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

1961 (2)

I. Wieder, L. R. Sarles, “Stimulated optical emission from exchange-coupled ions of Cr+++in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 95, 1961.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, “Simultaneous optical maser action in two ruby satellite lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 96, 1961.
[CrossRef]

1960 (3)

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby masers,” Nature, vol. 187, pp. 493–494, August1960.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 557–559, December1960.
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. J. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 112, p. 1940, December1958.
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phvs., vol. 21, p. 836, 1953.
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, G.

See, e.g., G. Birnbaum, “Optical masers,” in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, (supplement 2). New York: Academic, 1964.

Bond, W.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Broger, A. M.

K. Napan, A. M. Broger, “Calcium tungstate: Czochralski growth, perfection and substitution,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 3064, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Change, N. C.

N. C. Change, “Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, 3500, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Charvat, F. R.

F. R. Charvat, R. M. Youmans, “Characteristics of melt pulled rare-earth garnets,” American Ceramic Soc. Bull., p. 409, April1965.

Church, C. H.

R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

Collard, J. R.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

Collins, R. J.

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

Congleton, R. S.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].

Crowell, M. H.

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

D’Haenens, I. J.

I. J. D’Haenens, V. Evtuhov, “Temperature and concentration effects in a ruby laser,” [5, p. 1131].

Daly, R.

Dearborn, E. F.

See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
[CrossRef]

DeMars, G. A.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Devlin, G. E.

A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, “Simultaneous optical maser action in two ruby satellite lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 96, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phvs., vol. 21, p. 836, 1953.
[CrossRef]

Didomenico, M.

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, “Small signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2870, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

See, e.g., G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare-earths,” in Proc. of the Symposium on Optical Masers. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–346.

Dietz, R. E.

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Dobratz, B. E.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].

Duncan, R. C.

R. C. Duncan, “Continuous room-temperature Nd3+:CaMoO4laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, p. 874, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+:Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 200, 1964.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Duncan, Z. J. Kiss, “Continuously operating CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 23, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2: Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2:Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaF2:Tm2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1532–1533, June1962.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

Evtuhov, V.

V. Evtuhov, A. E. Siegman, “A twisted mode technique for obtaining axially uniform energy density in a laser cavity,” Appl. Opt., vol. 4, p. 142, 1965.
[CrossRef]

V. Evtuhov, “Continuous operation of a ruby laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 75, 1965.
[CrossRef]

I. J. D’Haenens, V. Evtuhov, “Temperature and concentration effects in a ruby laser,” [5, p. 1131].

Feofilov, P. P.

See, e.g., P. P. Feofilov, “Monocristaux du type Fluorite Activds comme Mileux pour produire une Emission Stimulee,” [5, p. 1079].

Fork, R. F.

L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Garrett, C. G. B.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic, “Materials for solid state optical devices,” NEREM Rec., p. 78, 1966.

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, “A repetitively Qswitched continuously pumped YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 175, 1965.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “A study of the YAG:Nd oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 1965 Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, P. Kelley, B. Lax, P. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 725.

Goedertier, P. V.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, “A high efficiency, high power solid state laser,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Device Meeting, Washington, D. C.

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

Gordon, J. P.

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, “The laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 4–29, January1963.
[CrossRef]

Grodkiewicz, W. J.

See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H.

See, e.g., H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 2482, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. S.

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Hargreves, W. A.

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Hargrove, L. E.

L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Hayes, W.

W. Hayes, J. W. Twidell, “Paramagnetic resonance of divalent lanthanum in irradiated CaF2,” Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 82, p. 330, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth, “Giant optical pulsations from ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 828, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Hoskins, R. H.

M. B. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Energy transfer and CW laser action in Tm3+:Er2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 200, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Imbush, G. F.

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

Jackson, J. E.

J. E. Jackson, D. M. Yenni, “High power laser operation,” Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., Indianapolis, Ind. Second Interim Tech. Rept., Contract SRCR-66-4, May1966.

Johnson, C. F.

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 897, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. A. Thomas, “Maser oscillations at 0.9 and 1.35 microns in CaWO4:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, p. 2038, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of Nd3+in CaF2,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 756, 1962.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 750–761, August1962.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Kaiser, W.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

Kalafas, P.

P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Kaminsky, A. A.

A. A. Kaminsky, B. B. Osiko, “Inorganic ionic crystalline laser materials,” Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials, vol. 1, p. 2049, December1965.

Kamynsky, A. A.

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

Kiel, A.

A. Kiel, “Multi-phonon spontaneous emission in paramagnetic crystals.” [5, p. 765].

Kiss, Z. J.

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, H. A. Weakliem, “Stark effect of 4f state and linear crystal field in BaCIF: Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. Letts., vol. 15, p. 457, 1965.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Energy levels of Dy3+in CaF2, SrF2and BaF2,” Phys. Rev., vol. 137, pp. A 1749–1760, March1965.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+:Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 200, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, P. N. Yocom, “Stable divalent rare-earth alkaline earth halide systems,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, p. 1511, 1964.
[CrossRef]

D. S. McClure, Z. J. Kiss, “Survey of the spectra of the divalent rare-earth ions in cubic crystals,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 39, p. 3251, 1963.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Duncan, Z. J. Kiss, “Continuously operating CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 23, 1963.
[CrossRef]

See e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Zeeman tuning of the CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 61–62, February1963.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaF2:Tm2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1532–1533, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2: Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2:Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

Lankard, J. R.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. A.

R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

Linares, R. C.

R. C. Linares, “Properties and growth of flux ruby,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 26, p. 1817, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Loh, E.

E. Loh, “Lowest 4f-5d transition of trivalent rare-earth ions in CaF2,” Phys. Rev., to be published.

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby masers,” Nature, vol. 187, pp. 493–494, August1960.
[CrossRef]

Marcos, H. M.

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “A study of the YAG:Nd oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 1965 Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, P. Kelley, B. Lax, P. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 725.

Marcos, H. W.

J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Masters, J. I.

P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
[CrossRef]

McClung, F. J.

F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth, “Giant optical pulsations from ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 828, 1962.
[CrossRef]

McCluny, F. J.

F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
[CrossRef]

McClure, D. S.

D. S. McClure, Z. J. Kiss, “Survey of the spectra of the divalent rare-earth ions in cubic crystals,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 39, p. 3251, 1963.
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators I,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, p. 306, 1966.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Linewidth and temperature shift of the Rlines in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 1682, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Meyers, F. J.

F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
[CrossRef]

Mueller, L.

R. Solomon, L. Mueller, “Stimulated emission at 5983 Å from Pr3+in LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 135, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Murray, E. M. E.

P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Nag, W. K.

E. G. Woodbury, W. K. Nag, “Ruby laser operation in the near IR,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 2367, November1962.

Napan, K.

K. Napan, A. M. Broger, “Calcium tungstate: Czochralski growth, perfection and substitution,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 3064, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

Nelson, D. F.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. K.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].

Ochs, S. A.

S. A. Ochs, J. I. Pankove, “Injection-luminescence pumping of a CaF2:Dy2+laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 713–714, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Osiko, B. B.

A. A. Kaminsky, B. B. Osiko, “Inorganic ionic crystalline laser materials,” Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials, vol. 1, p. 2049, December1965.

Osiko, V. V.

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

Paladino, A. E.

A. E. Paladino, R. D. Reiter, “Chochralski growth of sapphire,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 47, p. 465, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Pandey, B.

See, e.g., G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare-earths,” in Proc. of the Symposium on Optical Masers. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–346.

Pankove, J. I.

S. A. Ochs, J. I. Pankove, “Injection-luminescence pumping of a CaF2:Dy2+laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 713–714, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Pawel, H.

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Petht, D. C.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Pollack, M. A.

L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
[CrossRef]

S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Excitation, relaxation and optical maser action at 2.407 μin SrF2:U3+,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, p. 153, 1962.

A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Pressley, R. J.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, “A high efficiency, high power solid state laser,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Device Meeting, Washington, D. C.

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

Prokhorov, A. N.

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

Reiter, R. D.

A. E. Paladino, R. D. Reiter, “Chochralski growth of sapphire,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 47, p. 465, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical ring resonator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, p. 907, 1965.

Roess, D.

D. Roess, “Single mode operation of a room-temperature CW ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 8, p. 109, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. Roess, “Room temperature CW ruby laser,” Microwaves, p. 5, April1966.

D. Roess, G. Zeitler, “Quasicontinuous ruby giant pulse laser using a saturable absorber as a Qswitch,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 10, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. Roess, “Exfocal pumping of optical masers in elliptical mirrors,” Appl. Opt., vol. 3, p. 259, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Sanford, J. R.

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Sarles, L. R.

I. Wieder, L. R. Sarles, “Stimulated optical emission from exchange-coupled ions of Cr+++in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 95, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, “Simultaneous optical maser action in two ruby satellite lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 96, 1961.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, C. J. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 112, p. 1940, December1958.
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, R. G.

R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

Schwartz, S. E.

F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

Sims, S. D.

Smith, R. G.

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Soden, R. R.

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, “Giant pulse laser operation by a passive reversibly bleachable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2551, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Soffer, M. B.

M. B. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Energy transfer and CW laser action in Tm3+:Er2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 200, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Solomon, R.

R. Solomon, L. Mueller, “Stimulated emission at 5983 Å from Pr3+in LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 135, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 557–559, December1960.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenon, “Stimulated emission from CaF2:U3++CaF2:Sm2+,” in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. New York: Columbia University Press, N. Y., and London, England: pp. 65–77, 1961.

See, e.g., P. P. Sorokin, “Transitions of Re3+ions in alkaline earth halide lattices,” [5, p. 985].

Statz, H.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Sterzer, F.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

Stevenon, M. J.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenon, “Stimulated emission from CaF2:U3++CaF2:Sm2+,” in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. New York: Columbia University Press, N. Y., and London, England: pp. 65–77, 1961.

Stevenson, M. J.

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 557–559, December1960.
[CrossRef]

Sturge, M. D.

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Linewidth and temperature shift of the Rlines in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 1682, June1963.
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. A.

L. F. Johnson, R. A. Thomas, “Maser oscillations at 0.9 and 1.35 microns in CaWO4:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, p. 2038, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. J.

A. L. Schawlow, C. J. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 112, p. 1940, December1958.
[CrossRef]

Twidell, J. W.

W. Hayes, J. W. Twidell, “Paramagnetic resonance of divalent lanthanum in irradiated CaF2,” Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 82, p. 330, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, C. G.

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “A study of the YAG:Nd oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 1965 Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, P. Kelley, B. Lax, P. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 725.

Voronko, U. K.

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

Walsh, T.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

Weakliem, H. A.

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, H. A. Weakliem, “Stark effect of 4f state and linear crystal field in BaCIF: Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. Letts., vol. 15, p. 457, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Wentz, J. L.

J. L. Wentz, “Novel laser Q-switching mechanism,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 716–717, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, J. H.

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Wieder, I.

I. Wieder, L. R. Sarles, “Stimulated optical emission from exchange-coupled ions of Cr+++in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 95, 1961.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. T.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Wittke, J. P.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

Wolga, G. J.

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, E. G.

E. G. Woodbury, W. K. Nag, “Ruby laser operation in the near IR,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 2367, November1962.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl Phys., vol. 36, p. 388, 1965.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, “The laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 4–29, January1963.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
[CrossRef]

S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Excitation, relaxation and optical maser action at 2.407 μin SrF2:U3+,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, p. 153, 1962.

A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Yatsiv, S.

See, e.g., S. Yatsiv, “Spontaneous emission of phonons and spectral linewidths of some rare-earth ions in crystals,” Physica, vol. 28, p. 521, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Yenni, D. M.

J. E. Jackson, D. M. Yenni, “High power laser operation,” Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., Indianapolis, Ind. Second Interim Tech. Rept., Contract SRCR-66-4, May1966.

Yeu, W. M.

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

Yocom, P. N.

Z. J. Kiss, P. N. Yocom, “Stable divalent rare-earth alkaline earth halide systems,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, p. 1511, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Youmans, R. M.

F. R. Charvat, R. M. Youmans, “Characteristics of melt pulled rare-earth garnets,” American Ceramic Soc. Bull., p. 409, April1965.

Zeitler, G.

D. Roess, G. Zeitler, “Quasicontinuous ruby giant pulse laser using a saturable absorber as a Qswitch,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 10, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Zernik, W.

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

American Ceramic Soc. Bull. (1)

F. R. Charvat, R. M. Youmans, “Characteristics of melt pulled rare-earth garnets,” American Ceramic Soc. Bull., p. 409, April1965.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Left. (1)

D. Roess, “Single mode operation of a room-temperature CW ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 8, p. 109, 1966.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

L. E. Hargrove, R. F. Fork, M. A. Pollack, “Locking of He–Ne laser modes induced by synchronous intra-cavity modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 4, 1964.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, R. G. Smith, “Generation of ultrashort optical pulses by mode locking in YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 180, 1966.
[CrossRef]

D. Roess, G. Zeitler, “Quasicontinuous ruby giant pulse laser using a saturable absorber as a Qswitch,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 10, 1966.
[CrossRef]

See e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Zeeman tuning of the CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 2, pp. 61–62, February1963.
[CrossRef]

R. Solomon, L. Mueller, “Stimulated emission at 5983 Å from Pr3+in LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 135, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Spontaneous and stimulated emission from Co2+ions in MgF2& ZnF2,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 21, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Cross-pumped Cr3+:Nd3+:YAG laser system,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 5, p. 200, 1964.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, L. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+, Yb3+, and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 127–129, September1965.
[CrossRef]

M. B. Soffer, R. H. Hoskins, “Energy transfer and CW laser action in Tm3+:Er2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 200, 1965.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. W. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum, yttrium gallium, and gadolinium garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 4, p. 182, 1964.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Coherent oscillations from Tm3+, Ho3+and Er3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 7, p. 127, 1965.
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnson, J. E. Geusic, C. G. Van Uitert, “Efficient high-power coherent emission from Ho3+ions in yttrium aluminum garnet, assisted by energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 8, p. 200, 1966.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Duncan, Z. J. Kiss, “Continuously operating CaF2:Tm2+optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 3, p. 23, 1963.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, “A repetitively Qswitched continuously pumped YAG:Nd laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 175, 1965.
[CrossRef]

V. Evtuhov, “Continuous operation of a ruby laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 6, p. 75, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

W. W. Rigrod, “The optical ring resonator,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 44, p. 907, 1965.

IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics (1)

R. G. Schlecht, C. H. Church, D. A. Larson, “High efficiency Nal pumping of a continuous Nd3+:YAG laser,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. xiviii, April1966; also presented at 1966 Internat’l Quantum Electronics Conference, Phoenix, Ariz.

IEEE J. Quantum Electronics (1)

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-1, pp. 12–20, April1965.
[CrossRef]

Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials (1)

A. A. Kaminsky, B. B. Osiko, “Inorganic ionic crystalline laser materials,” Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR Inorganic Materials, vol. 1, p. 2049, December1965.

J-Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Yariv, S. P. S. Porto, K. Nassau, “Optical maser emission from trivalent praseodymium in calcium tungstate,” J-Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 2519, 1962.
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

A. E. Paladino, R. D. Reiter, “Chochralski growth of sapphire,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 47, p. 465, 1964.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., L. G. Van Uitert, W. J. Grodkiewicz, E. F. Dearborn, “Growth of large optical quality yttrium and rare-earth aluminum garnets,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 48, p. 105, 1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl Phys. (1)

A. Yariv, “Internal modulation in multimode laser oscillators,” J. Appl Phys., vol. 36, p. 388, 1965.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phlys. (1)

A. A. Ballman, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Calcium niobate Ca(NbO3)2—a new laser host material,” J. Appl. Phlys., vol. 34, p. 3155, 1963.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (12)

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 897, 1963.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, “Optical maser characteristics of Nd3+in CaF2,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 756, 1962.
[CrossRef]

R. C. Duncan, “Continuous room-temperature Nd3+:CaMoO4laser,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, p. 874, 1965.
[CrossRef]

F. J. McCluny, S. E. Schwartz, F. J. Meyers, “R2line optical maser action in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, pp. 3139–3140, October1962.
[CrossRef]

N. C. Change, “Fluorescence and stimulated emission from trivalent europium in yttrium oxide,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, 3500, 1963.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 2482, 1963.
[CrossRef]

K. Napan, A. M. Broger, “Calcium tungstate: Czochralski growth, perfection and substitution,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 3064, 1962.
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Linewidth and temperature shift of the Rlines in ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 34, p. 1682, June1963.
[CrossRef]

F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth, “Giant optical pulsations from ruby,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33, p. 828, 1962.
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, “Small signal analysis of internal (coupling type) modulation of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2870, 1964.
[CrossRef]

P. Kalafas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murray, “Photosensitive liquid used as a nondestructive passive Qswitch,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2349, 1964.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Soffer, “Giant pulse laser operation by a passive reversibly bleachable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, p. 2551, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phvs. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phvs., vol. 21, p. 836, 1953.
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. S. McClure, Z. J. Kiss, “Survey of the spectra of the divalent rare-earth ions in cubic crystals,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 39, p. 3251, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Kiss, P. N. Yocom, “Stable divalent rare-earth alkaline earth halide systems,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 41, p. 1511, 1964.
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

R. C. Linares, “Properties and growth of flux ruby,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 26, p. 1817, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor) (1)

U. K. Voronko, A. A. Kamynsky, V. V. Osiko, A. N. Prokhorov, Jour. of Exp. and Theor. Phys. USSR (Letters to the Editor), vol. 1, no. 1, p. 5, 1965.

Microwaves (1)

D. Roess, “Room temperature CW ruby laser,” Microwaves, p. 5, April1966.

Nature (1)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby masers,” Nature, vol. 187, pp. 493–494, August1960.
[CrossRef]

NEREM Rec. (1)

J. E. Geusic, “Materials for solid state optical devices,” NEREM Rec., p. 78, 1966.

Phys. Rev. (8)

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, J. R. Lankard, D. C. Petht, “Spectroscopy and optical maser action in SrF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, p. 503, 1962.
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, R. A. Thomas, “Maser oscillations at 0.9 and 1.35 microns in CaWO4:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev., vol. 131, p. 2038, 1963.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., G. F. Imbush, W. M. Yeu, A. L. Schawlow, D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, “Temperature dependence of the width and position of the 2E→4A2fluorescence lines of Cr3+and V2+in MgO,” Phys. Rev., vol. 133, p. A 1029, February1964.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev., vol. 127, pp. 750–761, August1962.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, C. J. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev., vol. 112, p. 1940, December1958.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, “Energy levels of Dy3+in CaF2, SrF2and BaF2,” Phys. Rev., vol. 137, pp. A 1749–1760, March1965.

D. E. McCumber, “Intensity fluctuations in the output of CW laser oscillators I,” Phys. Rev., vol. 141, p. 306, 1966.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. A. DeMars, D. T. Wilson, “Spectral properties of a single mode ruby laser: evidence of homogeneous broadening of the zero-phonon lines in solids,” Phys. Rev., vol. 136, p. A1, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

L. F. Johnson, R. E. Dietz, H. S. Guggenheim, “Optical maser oscillation ion of Ni2+in MgF2involving simultaneous emission of phonons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 11, p. 318, 1963.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 557–559, December1960.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, “Coherence, narrowing, directionality, and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 303–305, October1960.
[CrossRef]

I. Wieder, L. R. Sarles, “Stimulated optical emission from exchange-coupled ions of Cr+++in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 95, 1961.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Schawlow, G. E. Devlin, “Simultaneous optical maser action in two ruby satellite lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 6, p. 96, 1961.
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, R. J. Collins, S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, W. A. Hargreves, “Excitation, relaxation, and continuous maser action in the 2.613 micron transition of CaF2:U3+masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 269–272, April1962.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Letts. (1)

See, e.g., Z. J. Kiss, H. A. Weakliem, “Stark effect of 4f state and linear crystal field in BaCIF: Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. Letts., vol. 15, p. 457, 1965.
[CrossRef]

Physica (1)

See, e.g., S. Yatsiv, “Spontaneous emission of phonons and spectral linewidths of some rare-earth ions in crystals,” Physica, vol. 28, p. 521, 1962.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. Yariv, J. P. Gordon, “The laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 4–29, January1963.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ochs, J. I. Pankove, “Injection-luminescence pumping of a CaF2:Dy2+laser,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, pp. 713–714, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (Correspondence) (2)

H. Pawel, J. R. Sanford, J. H. Wenzel, G. J. Wolga, “Use of dielectric etalon as a reflector for Q-switched laser operation,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 1048–1049, September1964.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wentz, “Novel laser Q-switching mechanism,” Proc. IEEE (Correspondence), vol. 52, pp. 716–717, June1964.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

S. P. S. Porto, A. Yariv, “Excitation, relaxation and optical maser action at 2.407 μin SrF2:U3+,” Proc. IRE, vol. 50, p. 153, 1962.

Proc. IRE (Correspondence) (5)

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2:Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Optical maser action in CaF2:Tm2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1532–1533, June1962.

E. G. Woodbury, W. K. Nag, “Ruby laser operation in the near IR,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 2367, November1962.

Z. J. Kiss, R. C. Duncan, “Pulsed and continuous optical maser action in CaF2: Dy2+,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, pp. 1531–1532, June1962.

L. F. Johnson, G. D. Boyd, K. Nassau, R. R. Soden, “Continuous operation of the CaWO4:Nd3+optical maser,” Proc. IRE (Correspondence), vol. 50, p. 213, February1962.

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

W. Hayes, J. W. Twidell, “Paramagnetic resonance of divalent lanthanum in irradiated CaF2,” Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 82, p. 330, 1963.
[CrossRef]

Other (19)

See, e.g., P. P. Feofilov, “Monocristaux du type Fluorite Activds comme Mileux pour produire une Emission Stimulee,” [5, p. 1079].

See, e.g., P. P. Sorokin, “Transitions of Re3+ions in alkaline earth halide lattices,” [5, p. 985].

See, e.g., G. H. Dieke, B. Pandey, “Spectroscopy of trivalent rare-earths,” in Proc. of the Symposium on Optical Masers. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Polytechnic Press, 1963, pp. 327–346.

See, e.g., B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

E. Loh, “Lowest 4f-5d transition of trivalent rare-earth ions in CaF2,” Phys. Rev., to be published.

A summary of the materials work up to 1963 can be found in Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Quantum Electronics, P. Grivet, N. Bloombergen, Eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

See, e.g., G. Birnbaum, “Optical masers,” in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, (supplement 2). New York: Academic, 1964.

A. Kiel, “Multi-phonon spontaneous emission in paramagnetic crystals.” [5, p. 765].

R. J. Pressley, J. R. Collard, P. V. Goedertier, F. Sterzer, W. Zernik, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-66-129, Contract AF33(615)2645, June1966.

J. P. Wittke, J. R. Collard, R. C. Duncan, P. V. Goedertier, Z. J. Kiss, R. J. Pressley, F. Sterzer, T. Walsh, “Solid state laser explorations.” RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., Tech. Rept. AFAL-TR-64-334, Contract AF33(615)1096, Final Rept., January1965 (also R. J. Pressley, J. P. Wittke, to be published.)

P. P. Sorokin, M. J. Stevenon, “Stimulated emission from CaF2:U3++CaF2:Sm2+,” in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. New York: Columbia University Press, N. Y., and London, England: pp. 65–77, 1961.

I. J. D’Haenens, V. Evtuhov, “Temperature and concentration effects in a ruby laser,” [5, p. 1131].

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, “A high efficiency, high power solid state laser,” presented at the 1965 Internat’l Electron Device Meeting, Washington, D. C.

J. E. Jackson, D. M. Yenni, “High power laser operation,” Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., Indianapolis, Ind. Second Interim Tech. Rept., Contract SRCR-66-4, May1966.

W. R. Sooy, R. S. Congleton, B. E. Dobratz, W. K. Ng, “Dynamic limitation on the attainable inversion in ruby lasers,” [5, p. 1103].

Korad Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., advertised data on K-1500 ruby system.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, “A study of the YAG:Nd oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 1965 Physics of Quantum Electronics Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, P. Kelley, B. Lax, P. Tannenwald, Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 725.

See, e.g., the collection of articles on applications from the Laser Physics and Applications Symposium, Bern, Switzerland, 1964, published in Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik & Physik, vol. 16, 1965, as well as the Digest of Technical Papers from the 1966 International Quantum Electronics Conference in Phoenix, Ariz., April 12, 1966, IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics, vol. QE-2, p. lix, April1966.

An indication of the continuing rapid progress in this field was the announcement just before publication of this improvement in the operation of a Nd3+: YAG laser pumped with a 2500 watt tungsten lamp to obtain 15 watts output. J. E. Geusic, private communication.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram of four different laser systems, illustrating the different types of crystalline lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser transitions of trivalent rare earth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The fractional pump lamp output above a given wavelength for four characteristic optical sources.

Tables (3)

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TABLE I Laser Host Materials

Tables Icon

TABLE II Crystalline Laser System

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TABLE III Continuous Solid State Laser Powers and Efficiencies

Equations (3)

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Δ N = 3 Δ ν 8 π 2 ν h c ( 1 - R ) μ 2 L
P = h ν Δ N t ,
Δ N V = S α π 2 c 1 λ 3 Δ ν ν τ rad τ

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