Abstract

We use a laser high-harmonics-based extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) polarimeter to determine the optical constants of elemental uranium in the wavelength range from 10 to 47 nm. The constants are extracted from the measured ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance from a thin uranium film deposited in situ. The film thickness is inferred from a spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement of the sample after complete oxidation in room air. Uranium has been used as a high-reflectance material in the EUV. However, difficulties with oxidation prevented its careful characterization previous to this study. We find that measured optical constants for uranium vary significantly from previous estimates.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. T. Chiu and J. M. Shaw , “Optical lithography: introduction,” http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/411/chiu.html (accessed 21 January 2008).
  3. A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Sae-Lao and R. Soufli , “Measurements of the refractive index of yttrium in the 50-1300 eV energy region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7309-7316 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Soufli and E. Gullikson , “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Brimhall , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Measured optical constants of copper from 10 nm to 35 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 23873-23879 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Faldt and P. O. Nilsson , “Optical properties of uranium in the range 0.6-25 eV,” J. Phys. F 10, 2573-2580 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Wendin and N. Kerr del Grande , “On the photoabsorption cross section of uranium metal,” Phys. Scr. 32, 286-290 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Scofield , “Hartree-Slater subshell photoionization cross sections at 1254 and 1487 eV,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 8, 129-137 (1976).
  13. E. Plechaty , D. E. Cullen, and R. J. Howerton, “Tables and graphs of photon interaction cross sections from 100 eV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL evaluated Nuclear Data Library,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 2 (1978).
  14. N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Brimhall , N. Heilmann , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Polarization-ratio reflectance measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1429-1431 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Gullikson , “X-ray interactions with matter,” http://henke.lbl.gov/opticalconstants/ (accessed 16 June 2009).
  17. R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).
  18. G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Haschke , “Corrosion of uranium in air and water vapor: consequences for environmental dispersal,” J. Alloys Compd. 278, 149-160 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).
  21. N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

2004 (1)

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. M. Haschke , “Corrosion of uranium in air and water vapor: consequences for environmental dispersal,” J. Alloys Compd. 278, 149-160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli and E. Gullikson , “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. Wendin and N. Kerr del Grande , “On the photoabsorption cross section of uranium metal,” Phys. Scr. 32, 286-290 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Faldt and P. O. Nilsson , “Optical properties of uranium in the range 0.6-25 eV,” J. Phys. F 10, 2573-2580 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. H. Scofield , “Hartree-Slater subshell photoionization cross sections at 1254 and 1487 eV,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 8, 129-137 (1976).

1974 (1)

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Allred, D. D.

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allred, D.

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Allred, D. D.

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

Anderson, E.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aznarez, J.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brimhall, N.

N. Brimhall , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Measured optical constants of copper from 10 nm to 35 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 23873-23879 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broadfoot, A. L.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W.

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Fernandez-Perea, M.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, D. L.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, R. C.

G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

Gullikson, E.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haschke, J. M.

J. M. Haschke , “Corrosion of uranium in air and water vapor: consequences for environmental dispersal,” J. Alloys Compd. 278, 149-160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, N.

Hettwer, M.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. H.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, P.

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Kerr del Grande, N.

G. Wendin and N. Kerr del Grande , “On the photoabsorption cross section of uranium metal,” Phys. Scr. 32, 286-290 (1985).
[CrossRef]

King, R. A.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, J.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, K.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

Plechaty, E.

E. Plechaty , D. E. Cullen, and R. J. Howerton, “Tables and graphs of photon interaction cross sections from 100 eV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL evaluated Nuclear Data Library,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 2 (1978).

Raffanti, R.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sae-Lao, B.

Sandel, B. R.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. M.

G. L. T. Chiu and J. M. Shaw , “Optical lithography: introduction,” http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/411/chiu.html (accessed 21 January 2008).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T. C.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turley, R. S.

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turley, R. S.

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Turner, M.

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vidal-Dasilva, M.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ware, M.

Wendin, G.

G. Wendin and N. Kerr del Grande , “On the photoabsorption cross section of uranium metal,” Phys. Scr. 32, 286-290 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wuilleumier, F.

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Allred, D. D.

Allred, D. D.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allred, D. D.

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

Brimhall, N.

Brimhall, N. F.

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

Chiu, G. L. T.

G. L. T. Chiu and J. M. Shaw , “Optical lithography: introduction,” http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/411/chiu.html (accessed 21 January 2008).

Cukier, M.

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, D. E.

E. Plechaty , D. E. Cullen, and R. J. Howerton, “Tables and graphs of photon interaction cross sections from 100 eV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL evaluated Nuclear Data Library,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 2 (1978).

Curtis, C. C.

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Faldt, A.

A. Faldt and P. O. Nilsson , “Optical properties of uranium in the range 0.6-25 eV,” J. Phys. F 10, 2573-2580 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fierro, J. L. G.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geeson, D. A.

G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grigg, A. B.

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

E. Gullikson , “X-ray interactions with matter,” http://henke.lbl.gov/opticalconstants/ (accessed 16 June 2009).

Heilmann, N.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, N.

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howerton, R. J.

E. Plechaty , D. E. Cullen, and R. J. Howerton, “Tables and graphs of photon interaction cross sections from 100 eV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL evaluated Nuclear Data Library,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 2 (1978).

Kern, D. P.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kihara, H.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larruquert, J. I.

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, S.

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

McGillivray, G. W.

G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, P. O.

A. Faldt and P. O. Nilsson , “Optical properties of uranium in the range 0.6-25 eV,” J. Phys. F 10, 2573-2580 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

N. Brimhall , N. Heilmann , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Polarization-ratio reflectance measurements in the extreme ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1429-1431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, R.

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Sandberg, R. L.

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

Scofield, J. H.

J. H. Scofield , “Hartree-Slater subshell photoionization cross sections at 1254 and 1487 eV,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 8, 129-137 (1976).

Soufli, R.

Soufli, R.

Takemoto, K.

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turley, R. S.

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turley, R. S.

Turley, R. S.

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

Urry, M. K.

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

Ware, M.

N. Brimhall , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Measured optical constants of copper from 10 nm to 35 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 23873-23879 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke , E. M. Gullikson , and J. C. Davis , “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

J. M. Haschke , “Corrosion of uranium in air and water vapor: consequences for environmental dispersal,” J. Alloys Compd. 278, 149-160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

G. W. McGillivray , D. A. Geeson , and R. C. Greenwood , “Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air: a model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapor pressures,” J. Nucl. Mater. 208, 81-97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Hirai , K. Takemoto , K. Nishino , B. Niemann , M. Hettwer , D. Rudolph , E. Anderson , D. Attwood , D. P. Kern , Y. Nakayama , and H. Kihara , “Transmission x-ray microscopy with 50 nm resolution installed at Ritsumeikan Synchrotron Radiation Center,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 274-278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. H. Scofield , “Hartree-Slater subshell photoionization cross sections at 1254 and 1487 eV,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 8, 129-137 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

M. Fernandez-Perea , J. I. Larruquert , J. Aznarez , J. Mendez , M. Vidal-Dasilva , E. Gullikson , A. Aquila , R. Soufli , and J. L. G. Fierro , “Optical constants of electron-beam evaporated boron films in the 6.8-900 eV photon energy range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3800-3807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. F (1)

A. Faldt and P. O. Nilsson , “Optical properties of uranium in the range 0.6-25 eV,” J. Phys. F 10, 2573-2580 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

J. Johnson , D. Allred , R. S. Turley , W. Evans , and R. Sandberg , “Thorium-based thin films as highly reflective mirrors in the EUV,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 893, 207-214 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

M. Cukier , P. Dhez , F. Wuilleumier , and P. Jaegle , “Photoionization cross section of uranium in the soft x-ray region,” Phys. Lett. A 48, 307-308 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

G. Wendin and N. Kerr del Grande , “On the photoabsorption cross section of uranium metal,” Phys. Scr. 32, 286-290 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

N. F. Brimhall , A. B. Grigg , R. S. Turley , and D. D. Allred , “Thorium dioxide thin films in the extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631710 (2006).

R. L. Sandberg , D. D. Allred , S. Lunt , M. K. Urry , and R. S. Turley , “Optical properties and application of uranium-based thin films for the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 107-118 (2004).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Brimhall , M. Turner , N. Herrick , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , M. Ware , and J. Peatross , “Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

B. R. Sandel , A. L. Broadfoot , C. C. Curtis , R. A. King , T. C. Stone , R. H. Hill , J. Chen , O. H. W. Siegmund , R. Raffanti , D. D. Allred , R. S. Turley , and D. L. Gallagher , “The extreme ultraviolet Imager investigation for the IMAGE mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 91, 197-242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. L. T. Chiu and J. M. Shaw , “Optical lithography: introduction,” http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/411/chiu.html (accessed 21 January 2008).

E. Plechaty , D. E. Cullen, and R. J. Howerton, “Tables and graphs of photon interaction cross sections from 100 eV to 100 MeV derived from the LLL evaluated Nuclear Data Library,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL50400, Vol. 6, Rev. 2 (1978).

E. Gullikson , “X-ray interactions with matter,” http://henke.lbl.gov/opticalconstants/ (accessed 16 June 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarimeter schematic (top view). Laser pulses of 800 nm , 35 fs , and 10 mJ are focused into a gas cell to generate harmonics. Thin films are deposited and polarized reflectance measurements are made in situ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance and fit of uranium at two representative wavelengths: 18.6 and 34.8 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solid curves: the measured optical constants of uranium; dashed curves: the extent of the change when errors due to uncertainty in thickness are included.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical constants of uranium determined using the ratio reflectance technique. Total error bars are also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical constants of uranium compared with constants for uranium measured by Faldt and Nilsson [8] and Cukier et al. [9]. Also shown are optical constants for uranium determined by Henke et al. [10] based on theoretical calculations [11, 12, 13].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured reflectance (dots) for the IMAGE mirror (described in Ref. [1]) compared with the theoretical reflectance computed with our measured optical constants for uranium (solid curve) and computed with the theoretical CXRO constants (dashed curve) at a wavelength of 30.4 nm . Both computed models use the CXRO data for silicon and assume perfectly sharp boundaries between the layers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Constants of Uranium

Metrics