Abstract

We developed a method for characterizing atmospheric properties from ground-based, spectral measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation under clear sky conditions. A compact spectroradiometer is employed for radiation measurement in the wavelength range between 350 and 1050nm with a resolution of 10nm. Spectral matching of measured and simulated spectra yields a set of optical parameters that describe optical characteristics of tropospheric aerosols. We utilize the radiative transfer code MODTRAN4 for constructing realistic atmospheric models. Details of the system calibration, analysis procedure, and the results of its performance test are described.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  2. R. M. Harrison and J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health?,” Sci. Total Environ. 249(1-3), 85-101(2000).
  3. T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672-2686 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Opt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303-3308 (2004).
  7. F. J. Olmo, A. Cazorla, L. Alados-Arboledas, M. A. López-Álvarez, J. Hernández-Andrés, and J. Romero, “Retrieval of the optical depth using an all-sky CCD camera,” Appl. Opt. 47, H182-H189 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Kreuter, M. Zangerl, M. Schwarzmann, and M. Blumthaler, “All-sky imaging: a simple, versatile system for atmospheric research,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1091-1097 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kouremeti, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, and R. Schmitt, “Charge-coupled device spectrograph for direct solar irradiance and sky radiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1594-1607 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Bassani, V. Estellés, M. Campanelli, R. M. Cavalli, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano, “Performance of a FieldSpec spectroradiometer for aerosol optical depth retrieval: method and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1969-1978 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Zieger, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Dual-aureole and Sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8542-8552 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).
  13. B. Schmid and C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500-4512 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Kasten and A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735-4738 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Kurucz, “The solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, and J. H. Chetwind, eds. (1995), pp. 333-334.
  16. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, and S. Goldenberg, “Multiple scattering LOWTRAN and FASCODE models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272-1281 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Levoni, M. Cervino, R. Guzzi, and F. Torricella, “Atmospheric aerosol optical properties: a database of radiative characteristics for different components and classes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8031-8041 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. World Meteorological Organization, A Preliminary Cloudless Standard Atmosphere for Radiation Computation, WCP-112, WMO/TD-24 (1986).
  20. T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).
  22. T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  26. P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics--integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568-6584 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. James, MINUIT--Function Minimization and Error Analysis, CERN Program Library Long Writeup D506 (CERN, 1994).
  28. E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).
  29. P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).
  30. D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Levy, and A. Lyapustin, “Radiative transfer codes for atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval: intercomparison study,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2215-2226 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. H. Kaplan, “NOVAS,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 22, 930-931(1990).
  33. W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

2009 (3)

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kreuter, M. Zangerl, M. Schwarzmann, and M. Blumthaler, “All-sky imaging: a simple, versatile system for atmospheric research,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1091-1097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bassani, V. Estellés, M. Campanelli, R. M. Cavalli, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano, “Performance of a FieldSpec spectroradiometer for aerosol optical depth retrieval: method and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1969-1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

P. Zieger, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Dual-aureole and Sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8542-8552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

2005 (1)

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

2004 (1)

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Opt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303-3308 (2004).

2002 (1)

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. M. Harrison and J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health?,” Sci. Total Environ. 249(1-3), 85-101(2000).

W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

1998 (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

G. H. Kaplan, “NOVAS,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 22, 930-931(1990).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1980 (1)

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Adler-Golden, S. M.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Alados-Arboledas, L.

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. T.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bagtasa, G.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Bais, A.

Bassani, C.

Berk, A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Bernstein, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Blumthaler, M.

Boi, P.

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campanelli, M.

Cavalli, R. M.

Cazorla, A.

Cervino, M.

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

de Vries, J.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Deng, M.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dobber, M. R.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Dothe, H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Dubovik, O.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Durden, S. L.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Estellés, V.

Felde, G. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Feng, G.

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

Feng, Q.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

Fukagawa, S.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Gardner, J. A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Goldenberg, S.

Guzzi, R.

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. M.

R. M. Harrison and J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health?,” Sci. Total Environ. 249(1-3), 85-101(2000).

Hernández-Andrés, J.

Heymsfield, A. J.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M. L.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Holben, B.

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Isaacs, R. G.

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

James, F.

F. James, MINUIT--Function Minimization and Error Analysis, CERN Program Library Long Writeup D506 (CERN, 1994).

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jeong, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Jiang, J. H.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, G. H.

G. H. Kaplan, “NOVAS,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 22, 930-931(1990).

Kasten, F.

Kattawar, G. W.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

King, M. D.

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

Kinne, S.

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kotchenova, S. Y.

Kouremeti, N.

Kreuter, A.

Kurucz, R. L.

R. L. Kurucz, “The solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, and J. H. Chetwind, eds. (1995), pp. 333-334.

Kuze, H.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Lambert, A.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lapyonok, T.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laszlo, I.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levelt, P. F.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Levoni, C.

Levy, R.

Li, J.-L.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

Liu, Z.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N. J.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

López-Álvarez, M. A.

Lucht, W.

W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

Lundell, J. O. V.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Lyapustin, A.

Malkki, A.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

Matsui, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

McFarquhar, G. M.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Moody, E. G.

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

Munoz, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naito, S.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Nakajima, T.

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Opt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303-3308 (2004).

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672-2686 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olmo, F. J.

Pittman, J. V.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Platnick, S.

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

Preusker, R.

Rao, R.

Ratkowski, A. J.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richtsmeier, S. C.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Romero, J.

Ruhtz, T.

Saari, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaaf, C. B.

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

Schmid, B.

Schmitt, R.

Schwarzmann, M.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinyuk, A.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Stamnes, K.

Stephens, G. L.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strahler, A. H.

W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takamura, T.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Opt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303-3308 (2004).

Takemura, T.

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Tanelli, S.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tonna, G.

Torricella, F.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Tsay, S.-C.

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van den Oord, G. H. J.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vane, D. G.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

Visser, H.

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

Volten, H.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waliser, D. E.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-C.

Wehrli, C.

Wiscombe, W.

Wiscombe, W. J.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Won, J.-G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Worsham, R. D.

Wu, D. L.

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yabuki, M.

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Yang, P.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics--integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568-6584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

R. M. Harrison and J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health?,” Sci. Total Environ. 249(1-3), 85-101(2000).

Yoon, S.-C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Zangerl, M.

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zieger, P.

Appl. Opt. (14)

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672-2686 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Olmo, A. Cazorla, L. Alados-Arboledas, M. A. López-Álvarez, J. Hernández-Andrés, and J. Romero, “Retrieval of the optical depth using an all-sky CCD camera,” Appl. Opt. 47, H182-H189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kreuter, M. Zangerl, M. Schwarzmann, and M. Blumthaler, “All-sky imaging: a simple, versatile system for atmospheric research,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1091-1097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kouremeti, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, and R. Schmitt, “Charge-coupled device spectrograph for direct solar irradiance and sky radiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1594-1607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Bassani, V. Estellés, M. Campanelli, R. M. Cavalli, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano, “Performance of a FieldSpec spectroradiometer for aerosol optical depth retrieval: method and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1969-1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zieger, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Dual-aureole and Sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8542-8552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid and C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500-4512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Kasten and A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735-4738 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502-2509 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, and S. Goldenberg, “Multiple scattering LOWTRAN and FASCODE models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272-1281 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Levoni, M. Cervino, R. Guzzi, and F. Torricella, “Atmospheric aerosol optical properties: a database of radiative characteristics for different components and classes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8031-8041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics--integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568-6584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Levy, and A. Lyapustin, “Radiative transfer codes for atmospheric correction and aerosol retrieval: intercomparison study,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2215-2226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

S. Fukagawa, H. Kuze, G. Bagtasa, S. Naito, M. Yabuki, T. Takamura, and N. Takeuchi, “Characterization of seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosols in Chiba, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40, 2160-2168 (2006).

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

G. H. Kaplan, “NOVAS,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 22, 930-931(1990).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (3)

W. Lucht, C. B. Schaaf, and A. H. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 977-998(2000).

E. G. Moody, M. D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and G. Feng, “Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-added datasets derived from terra modis land products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 144-158(2005).

P. F. Levelt, G. H. J. van den Oord, M. R. Dobber, A. Malkki, H. Visser, J. de Vries, P. Stammes, J. O. V. Lundell, and H. Saari, “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 1093-1101(2006).

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995-1014(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (1)

T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15, 333-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wu, R. T. Austin, M. Deng, S. L. Durden, A. J. Heymsfield, J. H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J.-L. Li, N. J. Livesey, G. M. McFarquhar, J. V. Pittman, G. L. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. G. Vane, and D. E. Waliser, “Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Pura Apl. (1)

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Opt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303-3308 (2004).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd, H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4 version 2: Radiative transfer modeling,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 455-459(2001).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Total Environ. (1)

R. M. Harrison and J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health?,” Sci. Total Environ. 249(1-3), 85-101(2000).

Other (5)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

R. L. Kurucz, “The solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, and J. H. Chetwind, eds. (1995), pp. 333-334.

World Meteorological Organization, A Preliminary Cloudless Standard Atmosphere for Radiation Computation, WCP-112, WMO/TD-24 (1986).

F. James, MINUIT--Function Minimization and Error Analysis, CERN Program Library Long Writeup D506 (CERN, 1994).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Baffle tube connected with a spectroradiometer MS-720. Baffle tubes are for (b) SSR, (c) AUR, and (d) DSR measurements. Units are in mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Detection efficiency of the spectroradiometer (with no baffles) and the whole instrument (with the baffle tubes for DSR/AUR/SSR measurements) as a function of the incidence angle. (b)–(d) Division of the radial and azimuthal directions into 4 and 16 subsections for radiative corrections to (b) SSR, (c) AUR, and (d) DSR. The circles stand for the representative points, and the scales stand for the radiance ( mW / m 2 / nm / sr ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of spectral irradiance around 725 nm water absorption band for various values of the water scale factor S w . Solid and dashed lines represent observed and simulated spectra, respectively. The 12 channels marked with filled circles were used for the analysis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol models assumed in the scheme of the three-component aerosol model (TCAM). (a) Real part and (b) imaginary part of the complex refractive indices as a function of wavelength: component 1 (water soluble, solid line), component 2 (oceanic, dashed line), and component 3 (soot, dotted line). (c)–(e) Possible range of aerosol optical parameters calculated from each component of the TCAM (gray area, component 1; 45 ° lines, component 2; 135 ° lines, component 3), assuming that the particle size changes between 10 2.5 and 10 + 1.5 μm . (c) Extinction coefficient normalized at 550 nm , (d) single-scattering albedo, and (e) asymmetry parameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol extinction cross section as a function of particle radius r. The dashed line shows the smoothed function used in the TCAM analysis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between effective radius r i eff ( λ ) and the width parameter w i of the log-normal size distribution. The solid line is for wavelength λ = 550 nm , the dashed line for λ = 350 nm , and the dotted line for λ = 1050 nm . Parameter values in the parentheses stand for the fixed values (a) common logarithm of the mode radius r i and (b) effective radius r i eff ( λ 550 ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flow chart of the parameter optimization based on the TCAM method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral matching for the spectra observed at 12:30 on 30 December 2008: (a) DSR, (b) SSR, and (c) AUR. The channels marked with circles were used for the analysis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aerosol optical parameters derived from the DSR, SSR, and AUR observations on 30 December 2008: (a) extinction coefficient normalized at 550 nm , (b) single-scattering albedo, (c) asymmetry parameter, and (d) phase function at 550 nm . Error bars indicate one standard deviation. (Meteorological data at the observation site: temperature 13.7 ° C , relative humidity 47%, atmospheric pressure 1002.6 hPa , and wind speed 1.3 m / s .)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sensitivity analysis of the TCAM approach. Aerosol optical parameters, namely the normalized extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter, are plotted as functions of wavelength for the following three cases: (a) 1% systematic error is assumed in DSR, (b) 1% systematic error is assumed in SSR/AUR, and (c) 1% statistical (random) error is assumed in DSR/SSR/AUR. The solid lines represent the originally postulated values, while the dotted and dashed lines are for the turbid ( τ 550 = 0.37 ) and clear ( τ 550 = 0.10 ) case, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of MS-720

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters Derived from the Spectrum Matching (12:30 JST on 30 December 30 2008)

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C ( θ ) = ( 1 C 1 θ C 2 θ 2 ) cos θ       ( θ < 30 ° ) .
m eff ( θ , λ ) = ln [ I calc ( θ , λ ) / I t calc ( λ ) ] / ln [ I calc ( 0 , λ ) / I t calc ( λ ) ] .
I ( λ ) = L ( λ , θ , ϕ ) C ( θ ) G ( θ ) d Ω ,
I ( λ ) = i L i ( λ ) Ω i ,
Ω i = C ( θ ) G ( θ ) d Ω i .
m i = C m n i σ ¯ i ext ( λ 550 ) ,
M i = log ( m i m 1 ) , i = 2 , 3 ,
σ i ext ( r i eff ( λ ) , λ ) = σ ¯ i ext ( λ ) .
R i = log [ r i eff ( λ 550 ) ] , i = 1 , 2 , 3.
f ( p ) = 1 N i N j i j [ I i ( λ j , p ) I i ( λ j ) ] 2 e i j 2 .
σ i ext , sca ( r , λ ) = π r 2 Q i ext , sca ( r , λ ) .
d n i d log r = n i 2 π w i exp [ ( log r log r i ) 2 2 w i 2 ] .
σ ¯ i ext , sca ( λ ) = σ i ext , sca ( r , λ ) ( d n i d log r ) d log r n i .
f ¯ i s , p ( λ , χ ) = f i s , p ( r , λ , χ ) ( d n i d log r ) d log r n i ,
f ¯ i n ( λ , χ ) = [ f ¯ i s ( λ , χ ) + f ¯ i p ( λ , χ ) ] / [ f ¯ i s ( λ , χ ) + f ¯ i p ( λ , χ ) ] d Ω .
σ ext , sca ( λ ) = i = 1 3 n i σ ¯ i ext , sca ( λ ) / i = 1 3 n i ,
f n ( λ , χ ) = i = 1 3 n i σ ¯ i sca ( λ ) f ¯ i n ( λ , χ ) / i = 1 3 n i σ ¯ i sca ( λ ) .
α ext , sca ( λ ) = σ ext , sca ( λ ) σ ext ( λ 550 ) ,
f ( λ , χ ) = f n ( λ , χ ) f n ( λ , χ ) d Ω .

Metrics