Abstract

Width-increased dual-pump enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (WIDECARS) is a technique that is capable of simultaneously measuring temperature and species mole fractions of N2, O2, H2, C2H4, CO, and CO2. WIDECARS is designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows fueled with hydrogen and hydrogen/ethylene mixtures. The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Keistler and H. A. Hassan, “Simulation of supersonic combustion involving H2/air and C2H4/air,” presented at the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA-2009-28, Orlando, Florida, 5-8 January 2009.
  2. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, 1996).
  3. S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.
  6. S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. V. Flores, “Analysis of lean premixed turbulent combustion using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 2003).
  9. R. P. Lucht, “Three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of two species,” Opt. Lett. 12, 78-80 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Y. Yueh and E. J. Beiting, “Simultaneous N2, CO, and H2 multiplex CARS measurements in combustion environments using a signal dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3233-3243 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Development of a simplified dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Raman scattering system,” Appl. Opt. 48, B43-B50 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propulsion 8, 7-15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. E. Palmer, “The CARSFT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information,” SAND89-8206 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1989).
  16. D. R. Snelling, A. A. Sawchuck, and T. Parameswaran, “Measurements of the total third-order nonresonant susceptibilities of C3H8, CO2, and C2H4, and their application to N2 CARS thermometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7546-7550 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. D. Cutler and G. Magnotti, “CARS spectral fitting of multiple resonant species using sparse libraries,” presented at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 4-7 January 2010.
  18. S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Development of a simplified dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Raman scattering system,” Appl. Opt. 48, B43-B50 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propulsion 8, 7-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Yueh and E. J. Beiting, “Simultaneous N2, CO, and H2 multiplex CARS measurements in combustion environments using a signal dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3233-3243 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Anderson, T. J.

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propulsion 8, 7-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beiting, E. J.

Belovich, V. M.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.

Beyrau, F.

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Bivolaru, D.

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Bood, J.

Brackmann, C.

Brown, M. S.

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cong, Y.

Corporan, E.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, A. D.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

A. D. Cutler and G. Magnotti, “CARS spectral fitting of multiple resonant species using sparse libraries,” presented at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 4-7 January 2010.

Danehy, P. M.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Datta, A.

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propulsion 8, 7-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

Flores, D. V.

D. V. Flores, “Analysis of lean premixed turbulent combustion using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 2003).

Frederickson, K.

S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasser, T. W.

S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, H. A.

P. Keistler and H. A. Hassan, “Simulation of supersonic combustion involving H2/air and C2H4/air,” presented at the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA-2009-28, Orlando, Florida, 5-8 January 2009.

Jackson, M. N.

S. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, S.

S. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, S. P.

S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
[CrossRef]

Keistler, P.

P. Keistler and H. A. Hassan, “Simulation of supersonic combustion involving H2/air and C2H4/air,” presented at the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA-2009-28, Orlando, Florida, 5-8 January 2009.

Leipertz, A.

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Development of a simplified dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Raman scattering system,” Appl. Opt. 48, B43-B50 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, “Three-laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of two species,” Opt. Lett. 12, 78-80 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnotti, G.

A. D. Cutler and G. Magnotti, “CARS spectral fitting of multiple resonant species using sparse libraries,” presented at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 4-7 January 2010.

Malarski, A.

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Byrne, S.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. E.

R. E. Palmer, “The CARSFT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information,” SAND89-8206 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1989).

Parameswaran, T.

Patnaik, A. K.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sawchuck, A. A.

Schenk, M.

Seeger, T.

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Development of a simplified dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Raman scattering system,” Appl. Opt. 48, B43-B50 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames,” Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Snelling, D. R.

Tedder, S. A.

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Velur, V. N.

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weikl, M. C.

M. C. Weikl, Y. Cong, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Development of a simplified dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Raman scattering system,” Appl. Opt. 48, B43-B50 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

Yueh, F. Y.

AIAA J. (2)

S. O'Byrne, P. M. Danehy, A. D. Cutler, and S. A. Tedder, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 45, 922-933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kearney and M. N. Jackson, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in heavily sooting flames,” AIAA J. 45, 2947-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, and G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen-fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215-223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Comb. Flame (1)

T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband CARS for exhaust-gas and CO2─O2─N2 mole-fraction measurements in model gas-turbine combustors,” Comb. Flame 142, 52-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, V. M. Belovich, E. Corporan, and J. R. Gord, “Temperature and CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled combustor using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 138, 273-274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Propulsion (1)

T. J. Anderson and A. C. Eckbreth, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion,” J. Propulsion 8, 7-15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Malarski, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, “Interference effects of C2-radicals in nitrogen vibrational CARS thermometry using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 102-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Roy, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, and J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131-137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

S. P. Kearney, K. Frederickson, and T. W. Grasser, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in a sooting turbulent pool fire,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 871-878(2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and A. K. Patnaik, “Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 280-306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. V. Flores, “Analysis of lean premixed turbulent combustion using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 2003).

S. A. Tedder, D. Bivolaru, P. M. Danehy, M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, and A. D. Cutler, “Characterization of a combined CARS and interferometric Rayleigh scattering system,” presented at the 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2007-871, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January 2007.

P. Keistler and H. A. Hassan, “Simulation of supersonic combustion involving H2/air and C2H4/air,” presented at the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA-2009-28, Orlando, Florida, 5-8 January 2009.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

R. E. Palmer, “The CARSFT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information,” SAND89-8206 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1989).

A. D. Cutler and G. Magnotti, “CARS spectral fitting of multiple resonant species using sparse libraries,” presented at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, Florida, 4-7 January 2010.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Other CARS techniques spectral probing regions compared to WIDECARS. The solid curves show the spectral region probed by the broadband dye (Stokes) laser and Nd:YAG (pump) laser frequency combination. For dual-pump techniques, the dashed curves represent the regions probed by the broadband dye laser (Stokes) and narrowband dye laser (pump) frequency combination. Flores did not use dual-pump CARS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the square root of the theoretical CARS signal peak height of rotational S-branch H 2 lines as a function of temperature. The square root of the theoretical CARS signal peak heights were calculated in CARSFT with 100% hydrogen. The vertical lines indicate the lowest temperature at which the H 2 S(5) and H 2 S(6) curves can be detected.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Square root of the theoretical CARS signal peak height from CARSFT plotted as a function of the hydrogen mole fraction. This relationship is plotted for H 2 S-branch lines at room temperature with a balance gas of ethylene. The measurement limit is a lower bound on the detectable peak height and was obtained from the application of the O’Byrne et al. system in a hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion flow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized amplitude of laser output versus wavelength. The curve with circles shows the spectral output of the oscillator of the broadband dye laser with no polarizer in the oscillator cavity. The square-dotted curve is the spectral output of the oscillator cavity containing the polarizer. The thick solid curve shows the spectral output of the broadband laser after amplification. The polarizer transmittance of unpolarized white light is shown with a dashed curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-shot CARS spectrum of gas mixture 40% H 2 , 1% CO 2 , 1% CO, 1% C 2 H 4 , and 57% N 2 at room temperature. The fit does not include C 2 H 4 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-shot CARS spectrum of gas mixture 3% H 2 , 20% CO 2 , 8% CO, 10% C 2 H 4 , and 59% N 2 at room temperature. The fit does not include C 2 H 4 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Single-shot CARS spectrum of unlit water welder gases mixing in air; concentrations are unknown.

Equations (1)

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( sin Δ k l 2 Δ k l 2 ) 2 ,

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