Abstract

The Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations. The 2.6m primary mirror is supported both axially and laterally and is surrounded by several safety devices for earthquake protection. We describe the mirror support system and discuss the results of the qualification test campaign.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” Messenger 113, 2-9 (2003).
  2. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762-772 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Bennet and F. Baine, “Active mirror support using pneumatic actuators,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 91-102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Salas, L. Gutierrez, M. H. Pedrayes, J. Valdez, C. Carrasco, M. Carrillo, B. Orozco, B. Garcıa, E. Luna, E. Ruiz, S. Cuevas, A. Iriarte, A. Cordero, O. Harris, F. Quiroz, E. Sohn, and L. A. Martınez, “Active primary mirror support for the 2.1 m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3708-3716 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3-69 (2002).
  21. K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Noethe, “Use of minimum energy modes for modal-active optics corrections of thin meniscus mirrors,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1043-1066 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active Optics Correction Forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Molfese, P. Schipani, and L. Marty, “VST telescope primary mirror active optics actuators firmware implementation,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701926 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Schwesinger, “Lateral support of very large telescope mirrors by edge forces only,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1507-1516(1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, and L. Marty, “VST telescope primary mirror active optics actuators firmware implementation,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active Optics Correction Forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Bennet and F. Baine, “Active mirror support using pneumatic actuators,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 91-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” Messenger 113, 2-9 (2003).

2002 (1)

L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3-69 (2002).

1998 (1)

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762-772 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwesinger, “Lateral support of very large telescope mirrors by edge forces only,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1507-1516(1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, “Use of minimum energy modes for modal-active optics corrections of thin meniscus mirrors,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1043-1066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anaclerio, E.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, S.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, G.

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, A. A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, P.

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baine, F.

R. Bennet and F. Baine, “Active mirror support using pneumatic actuators,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 91-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baty, A.

S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, R.

R. Bennet and F. Baine, “Active mirror support using pneumatic actuators,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 91-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biocca, A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, D.

N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonoli, C.

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bortoletto, F.

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brescia, M.

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burley, G.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, S. P.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Capaccioli, M.

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caputi, O.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, C.

Carrillo, M.

Castro, J.

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Citterio, O.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. W.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, A.

Cuerden, B.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

D'Alessandro, M.

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

De Paris, G.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeRigne, S. T.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Dettmann, L. R.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

D'Orsi, S.

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fantinel, D.

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferragina, L.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franck, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Franza, F.

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fuertes, J. M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fumi, P.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, G.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, B.

Giordano, P.

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

Goble, L.

N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, L.

Harris, O.

Hill, J. M.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hovsepian, T.

S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, E.

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hull, C.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iriarte, A.

Iye, M.

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762-772 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jared, R. C.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keane, M.

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodaira, K.

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762-772 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuijken, K.

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarini, P.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lefort, B.

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, P.

S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
[CrossRef]

Liacer, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luna, E.

Magagna, C.

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, B.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, L. A.

Marty, L.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, and L. Marty, “VST telescope primary mirror active optics actuators firmware implementation,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active Optics Correction Forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mattaini, E.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, F.

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Merrick, T.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Minor, R.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Molfese, C.

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, and L. Marty, “VST telescope primary mirror active optics actuators firmware implementation,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, I.

M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C.

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3-69 (2002).

L. Noethe, “Use of minimum energy modes for modal-active optics corrections of thin meniscus mirrors,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1043-1066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Orayani, M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Orozco, B.

Parodi, G.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedrayes, M. H.

Perrotta, F.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active Optics Correction Forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Price, R.

M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
[CrossRef]

Quiroz, F.

Ragazzoni, R.

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, C.

N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, N.

N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, E.

Ruthven, G.

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salas, L.

Salz, P.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, B.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, S.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schechter, P. L.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schipani, P.

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, and L. Marty, “VST telescope primary mirror active optics actuators firmware implementation,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active Optics Correction Forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwesinger, G.

G. Schwesinger, “Lateral support of very large telescope mirrors by edge forces only,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1507-1516(1991).
[CrossRef]

Sedmak, G.

C. Molfese, P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, G. Sedmak, and S. D'Orsi, “VST primary mirror active optics electronics,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 701927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shectman, S. A.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, E.

Stanghellini, S.

S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
[CrossRef]

Stepp, L.

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarenghi, M.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trebisky, T. J.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Valdez, J.

West, S. C.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. T.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

R. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” Messenger 113, 2-9 (2003).

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Witebsky, C.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996-1008 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zolcinski-Couet, M. C.

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (6)

L. Noethe, “Use of minimum energy modes for modal-active optics corrections of thin meniscus mirrors,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1043-1066 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “Active optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II: results of an experiment with a thin 1 m test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457(1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, P. Giordano, L. Noethe, and M. Tarenghi, “Active optics III: final results with the 1 m test mirror and NTT 3.56 m primary in the workshop,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1415-1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219-243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Schwesinger, “Lateral support of very large telescope mirrors by edge forces only,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1507-1516(1991).
[CrossRef]

Messenger (1)

R. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” Messenger 113, 2-9 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (21)

K. Kuijken, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, and C. Magagna, “The OmegaCAM real-time image analysis system,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 494-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, F. Franza, P. Giordano, F. Merkle, and R. N. Wilson, “Latest development of active optics in the ESO NTT and the implications for the ESO VLT,” Proc. SPIE 1542, 293-296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Stanghellini, P. Legrand, A. Baty, and T. Hovsepian, “Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 314-325(1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223-238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762-772 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bortoletto, D. Fantinel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Bonoli, and M. D'Alessandro, “Active optics handling inside Galileo telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 212-222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Neufeld, M. C. Zolcinski-Couet, M. Keane, and G. Ruthven, “The active primary mirror system for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 870-880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. Cho, R. Price, and I. Moon, “Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62731E(2006).
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N. Roddier, D. Blanco, L. Goble, and C. Roddier, “The WIYN telescope active optics system,” Proc. SPIE 2479, 364-376(1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412-423(1998).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619-627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826-837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Prog. Opt. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Axial and lateral support systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mirror elastic modes considered in the active optics system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between Zernike and elastic mode symmetry 2, order 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Axial actuator—simplified concept.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Position reading system: Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 are used to compute Z, θ x , and θ y ; L 1 and L 2 are used to compute X and Y.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mirror dummy in the cell during tests.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results from a sequence of force pattern applications.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Active Telescopes with a Monolithic Primary Mirror

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Table 2 Axial Support Geometry

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Table 3 Mirror Parameters

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Table 4 Calibration Forces [N] to Compensate 1 nm Aberration Coefficients

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W z = W cos ( z ) .
{ D 2 2 w + 1 R 2 F 2 ξ w = 0 2 2 F + E h R 2 w = 0 ,
ξ = 1 2 h γ ω 2 ,
{ w ( r , ϑ ) = u n ( r ) cos ( n ϑ ) F ( r , ϑ ) = F n ( r ) cos ( n ϑ ) .

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