Abstract

We demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials in the terahertz (THz) range using the microfluidic-jetted technique. This technique has proven a convenient technique to fabricate metamaterial structures at the micrometer scale. The metamaterials are fabricated using dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles on flexible polyimide substrates. The metamaterials consist of alternate layers of single split-ring resonator and microstrip arrays that are stacked to form a 3D metamaterial medium. The fabricated metamaterials, with lattice sizes of 180μm, are characterized using THz time-domain spectroscopy within 0.1 to 2THz in the transmission mode. Numerical simulation is performed to calculate the effective metamaterials parameter.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Wong, “Inkjet printer draws the line in manufacturing technology,” Electronic Design 53, 25 (2005).
  6. J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Koltover, “Material matters--chemistry driving performance,” Sigma Aldrich handbook 2, 3 (2007).
  11. Y. L. Hor, “Terahertz response of microfluidic-jetted fabricated 3D flexible metamaterials,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2009).
  12. C. Menzel, A. Bibl, and P. Hoisington, “MEMS solutions for precision micro-fluidic dispensing application,” in Imaging Science and Technology NIP 20: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 20, pp. 169-175.
  13. J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. L. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. L. Wample, “Non-destructive evaluation of cork enclosures using terahertz/millimeter wave spectroscopy and imaging,” Appl. Opt. 47, 72-78(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. R. Simovski, “Analytical modelling of double-negative composites,” Metamaterials 2, 169-185 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. R. Simovski, “Analytical modelling of double-negative composites,” Metamaterials 2, 169-185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. L. Wample, “Non-destructive evaluation of cork enclosures using terahertz/millimeter wave spectroscopy and imaging,” Appl. Opt. 47, 72-78(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wong, “Inkjet printer draws the line in manufacturing technology,” Electronic Design 53, 25 (2005).

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharathan, J.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Bibl, A.

C. Menzel, A. Bibl, and P. Hoisington, “MEMS solutions for precision micro-fluidic dispensing application,” in Imaging Science and Technology NIP 20: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 20, pp. 169-175.

Bieri, N. R.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozzelli, J. W.

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-C.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cottam, B. F.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Mello, A. J.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dockendorf, C.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

Y. L. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. L. Wample, “Non-destructive evaluation of cork enclosures using terahertz/millimeter wave spectroscopy and imaging,” Appl. Opt. 47, 72-78(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fratoddi, I.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C. Z.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hebner, T. R.

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoisington, P.

C. Menzel, A. Bibl, and P. Hoisington, “MEMS solutions for precision micro-fluidic dispensing application,” in Imaging Science and Technology NIP 20: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 20, pp. 169-175.

Hor, Y. L.

Y. L. Hor, J. F. Federici, and R. L. Wample, “Non-destructive evaluation of cork enclosures using terahertz/millimeter wave spectroscopy and imaging,” Appl. Opt. 47, 72-78(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hor, “Terahertz response of microfluidic-jetted fabricated 3D flexible metamaterials,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2009).

Kido, J.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koltover, I.

I. Koltover, “Material matters--chemistry driving performance,” Sigma Aldrich handbook 2, 3 (2007).

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. C.

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R.

R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Medina, F.

R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

C. Menzel, A. Bibl, and P. Hoisington, “MEMS solutions for precision micro-fluidic dispensing application,” in Imaging Science and Technology NIP 20: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 20, pp. 169-175.

Mirenghi, L.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E.

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onohara, J.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellegrini, G.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piscopiello, E.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poulikakos, D.

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pschenitzka, F.

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quan, B. G.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rafii-El-Idrissi, R.

R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russo, M. V.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalom, D.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C. R.

C. R. Simovski, “Analytical modelling of double-negative composites,” Metamaterials 2, 169-185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturm, J. C.

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapfer, L.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trave, E.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Troian, S.

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilar, R.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vitale, F.

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wample, R. L.

Wang, L.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, C. P.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkle, R. F.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.

W. Wong, “Inkjet printer draws the line in manufacturing technology,” Electronic Design 53, 25 (2005).

Wootton, R. C. R.

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, X. X.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. L.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. F.

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S.-C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734-737(1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. G. Quan, X. L. Xu, H. F. Yang, X. X. Xia, Q. Wang, L. Wang, C. Z. Gu, and F. Li, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of split ring resonators in terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. L. Hor, H. C. Lim, J. F. Federici, E. Moore, and J. W. Bozzelli, “Terahertz study of trichloroanisole by time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 353, 185-188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electronic Design (1)

W. Wong, “Inkjet printer draws the line in manufacturing technology,” Electronic Design 53, 25 (2005).

J. Heat Transfer (1)

J. Chung, S. Ko, C. P. Grigoropoulos, N. R. Bieri, C. Dockendorf, and D. Poulikakos, “Damage-free low temperature pulsed laser printing of gold nanoinks on polymers,” J. Heat Transfer 127, 724-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

D. Shalom, R. C. R. Wootton, R. F. Winkle, B. F. Cottam, R. Vilar, A. J. de Mello, and C. P. Wilde, “Synthesis of thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles using a continuous flow microfluidic reactor,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1146-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

F. Vitale, L. Mirenghi, E. Piscopiello, G. Pellegrini, E. Trave, G. Mattei, I. Fratoddi, M. V. Russo, L. Tapfer, and P. Mazzoldi, “Gold nanoclusters-organometallic polymer nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 1300-1304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (1)

C. R. Simovski, “Analytical modelling of double-negative composites,” Metamaterials 2, 169-185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Marques, F. Medina and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, “Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-hand metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. C. Sturm, F. Pschenitzka, T. R. Hebner, M. H. Lu, and S. Troian, “Printing approaches for large-area color organic LED displays,” Proc. SPIE 3797, 266-274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303, 1494(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

I. Koltover, “Material matters--chemistry driving performance,” Sigma Aldrich handbook 2, 3 (2007).

Y. L. Hor, “Terahertz response of microfluidic-jetted fabricated 3D flexible metamaterials,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2009).

C. Menzel, A. Bibl, and P. Hoisington, “MEMS solutions for precision micro-fluidic dispensing application,” in Imaging Science and Technology NIP 20: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 20, pp. 169-175.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calculated cartridge setting angle versus deposited drop spacing for 21.5 and 9 μm nozzle sizes. The inset is the diagram of the nozzles; large and small circles indicate 21.5 μm nozzles and 9 μm nozzles with 254 μm spacing and 266.5 μm spacing, respectively. (b) Image of the SRR structure deposited with an imprecise angle setting used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Drop diameter versus distance between nozzle and substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveform setting of DDT-AuNPs solution. V max for DDT-AuNPs was 15 17 V .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image taken by the built-in camera of the deposition system shows the droplet with (a) a perfect drop and (b) a split droplet due to the incorrect waveform setting. (c) Image of the deposition resulting from the split droplet, in which a secondary small dot is formed next to the main drop.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time of flight of DDT-AuNPs droplet jetting. Image taken by the system’s built-in drop watcher camera. The relatively long “tailing” effect was due to its low surface tension and viscosity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Fabricated result of SRR (up) and rod (down). (b) SRR and microstrip parameters in micrometers. (c) Illustration of stacking layers of 3D metamaterials.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental result of 3D DDT-AuNPs with incident wave perpendicular to the sample plane. In the inset, the direction of the microstrips relative to the THz E field is indicated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured data of 3D DDT-AuNPs metamaterials with a variable angle of incidence (denoted by angle ϕ relative to the plane of the sample).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extract absorbance compared to measured absorbance.

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