Abstract

We propose a new type of surface wave lens that is made of a circular in-plane inhomogeneous metamaterial slab and numerically demonstrate its capability to focus surface waves at optical frequencies. This approach can achieve a smaller focal spot size than the previously demonstrated Ag plasmonic lens. The use of inhomogeneous metamaterials is to decrease the high losses that are usually associated with metamaterials that support large surface k vectors by reducing the propagation distance in high loss metamaterials.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  15. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Liu, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “All-angle negative refraction and imaging in a bulk medium made of metallic nanowires in the visible region,” Opt. Express 16, 15439-15448 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Kim and B. Lee, “Diffractive slit patterns for focusing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 16, 8969-8980(2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, D. F. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17, 7519-7524 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

W. Yan, L. Shen, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, “Surface modes at the interfaces between isotropic media and indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 530-535 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aourag, H.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

Bassou, G.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Black, C. T.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carcenac, F.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

de Fornel, F.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dufour, J. P.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elser, J.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Emley, N.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukuda, K.

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gösele, U.

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guarini, K.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, R.

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastle, G. A.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krusin-Elbaum, L.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.-W.

Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masuda, H.

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

Narimanov, E. E.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nielsch, K.

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F.

Podolskiy, V. A.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Ran, L.

Russell, T. P.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salomon, L.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schider, G.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schotter, J.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

Shibauchi, T.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurn-Albrecht, T.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuominen, M. T.

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wangberg, R.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, Q.-H.

Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, D. F. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17, 7519-7524 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “All-angle negative refraction and imaging in a bulk medium made of metallic nanowires in the visible region,” Opt. Express 16, 15439-15448 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670(2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267-297 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano. Lett. (5)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two-dimensional manipulation of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-W. Liu, Q.-H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano. Lett. 9, 2139-2143 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

W. Lee, R. Ji, U. Gösele, and K. Nielsch, “Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization,” Nat. Mater. 5, 741-747 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. Salomon, G. Bassou, H. Aourag, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, F. Carcenac, and A. V. Zayats, “Local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at discontinuities of a metal film: theoretical analysis and optical near-field measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125409 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
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H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thurn-Albrecht, J. Schotter, G. A. Kastle, N. Emley, T. Shibauchi, L. Krusin-Elbaum, K. Guarini, C. T. Black, M. T. Tuominen, and T. P. Russell, “Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates,” Science 290, 2126-2129 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the interface between air and an anisotropic medium. SMs propagate along the boundary surface of the two media, i.e., the x direction, and decay exponentially in the transverse direction, i.e., the z direction. The field maximum of SMs is at the interface, i.e., at z = 0 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Existing conditions of SMs on the interface between an anisotropic and an isotropic medium. SMs exist only in quadrant II when ε z > 1 and in quadrant III when ε x ε z > 1 . The gray line represents the values that an isotropic metal (i.e., Ag) can take.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SM wavelengths on an air–metamaterial interface versus free-space wavelengths and filling ratios: (a) normalized to λ 0 and (b) normalized to the wavelengths of the SMs on an air–Ag interface λ Ag .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized propagation length δ Ag / δ meta as a function of the filling ratio for λ 0 = 400 nm : solid curve, quadrant II; dashed curve, quadrant III.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the inhomogeneous metamaterial SM lens. The lens was designed by use of 20 coaxial cylinders, each of which has different effective permittivities that are determined by its metal filling ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a),(c) | E x | 2 and | E z | 2 of the metamaterial surface wave lens; (b),(d) | E x | 2 and | E z | 2 of a Ag plasmonic lens. The polarization of the excitation light is along the horizontal direction (x axis).

Equations (5)

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k x 2 = ω 2 c 2 ε z ( 1 ε x ) 1 ε x ε z ,
α 1 = ω c ( ε z 1 ) 1 ε x ε z ,
α 2 = α 1 ε x .
ε = p ε m + ( 1 p ) ε d ,
ε = ε d + p ε d ( ε m ε d ) ε d + q ( 1 p ) ( ε m ε d ) ,

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