Abstract

We propose a watermarking scheme for hardcopy pictures based on computer-generated holography. A hologram of the watermark is produced using a conjugate-symmetric extension technique, and its spectrum is inserted into the discrete cosine transform domain of the image. Adjusting the watermark placement in a data array, a trade-off between transparency and robustness is achieved. Anticropping and the interference-resisting capability of holograms make the watermark robust against manipulations commonly performed on digital images during postprocessing, including contrast enhancement, moderate smoothing and sharpening, and, in particular, geometric transformation. Most importantly, the proposed hologram-based watermarking can withstand the printing-scanning attack and, therefore, is useful in protecting copyright of digital photographs both as electronic and hardcopy versions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Levy and D. Shaked, “A transform domain hardcopy watermarking scheme,” Tech. Rep. HPL-2001-309 (Hewlett-Packard, 2001).
  2. A. Levy and D. Shaked, “Hardcopy watermarking,” U.S. patent 6,775,393 (Filing date: 23 April 2001. Publication date: 10 August 2004).
  3. R. Vikas and K. K. Barman, “A report on print-scan resilient information hiding in images,” Tech. Rep. (Hewlett-Packard Labs, 2005).
  4. K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Takai and Y. Mifune, “Digital watermarking by a holographic technique,” Appl. Opt. 41, 865-873 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. T. Chang and C. L. Tsan, “Image watermarking by use of digital holography embedded in the discrete-cosine-transform domain,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6211-6219 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Computer generated hologram for semifragile watermarking with encrypted images,” Int. J. Signal Proc. 4, 133-141 (2008).
  13. G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Holographic semi-fragile watermarking combined with asymmetric cryptography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (IASTED, 2008).
  14. C.-J. Cheng and L.-C. Lin, “Correlation-based watermarking by a digital holographic technique,” Opt. Eng. 44, 010501(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L.-C. Lin, “The theoretical analysis of a nonlinear holographic watermarking system,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055305 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L.-C. Lin and C.-L. Chen, “Statistical detection of digital holographic watermarking system,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4282-4290 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. J. Sun and S. L. Zhuang, “Watermarking by encrypted Fourier holography,” Opt. Eng. 46, 085801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

2009

S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

2008

L.-C. Lin, “The theoretical analysis of a nonlinear holographic watermarking system,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin and C.-L. Chen, “Statistical detection of digital holographic watermarking system,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4282-4290 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Computer generated hologram for semifragile watermarking with encrypted images,” Int. J. Signal Proc. 4, 133-141 (2008).

2007

L. J. Sun and S. L. Zhuang, “Watermarking by encrypted Fourier holography,” Opt. Eng. 46, 085801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

C.-J. Cheng and L.-C. Lin, “Correlation-based watermarking by a digital holographic technique,” Opt. Eng. 44, 010501(2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chang and C. L. Tsan, “Image watermarking by use of digital holography embedded in the discrete-cosine-transform domain,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6211-6219 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Barman, K. K.

R. Vikas and K. K. Barman, “A report on print-scan resilient information hiding in images,” Tech. Rep. (Hewlett-Packard Labs, 2005).

Chandrasekaran, S.

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. T.

Chen, C.-L.

L.-C. Lin and C.-L. Chen, “Statistical detection of digital holographic watermarking system,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4282-4290 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-J.

C.-J. Cheng and L.-C. Lin, “Correlation-based watermarking by a digital holographic technique,” Opt. Eng. 44, 010501(2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. U.

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cozzella, L.

G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, W.-T.

C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Santis, M.

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Computer generated hologram for semifragile watermarking with encrypted images,” Int. J. Signal Proc. 4, 133-141 (2008).

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Holographic semi-fragile watermarking combined with asymmetric cryptography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (IASTED, 2008).

Huang, J.

X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

Kang, X.

X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. S.

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levy, A.

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “A transform domain hardcopy watermarking scheme,” Tech. Rep. HPL-2001-309 (Hewlett-Packard, 2001).

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “Hardcopy watermarking,” U.S. patent 6,775,393 (Filing date: 23 April 2001. Publication date: 10 August 2004).

Lin, L.-C.

L.-C. Lin, “The theoretical analysis of a nonlinear holographic watermarking system,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin and C.-L. Chen, “Statistical detection of digital holographic watermarking system,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4282-4290 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Cheng and L.-C. Lin, “Correlation-based watermarking by a digital holographic technique,” Opt. Eng. 44, 010501(2005).
[CrossRef]

Madhow, U.

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

Manjunath, B. S.

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mifune, Y.

Shaked, D.

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “Hardcopy watermarking,” U.S. patent 6,775,393 (Filing date: 23 April 2001. Publication date: 10 August 2004).

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “A transform domain hardcopy watermarking scheme,” Tech. Rep. HPL-2001-309 (Hewlett-Packard, 2001).

Simonetti, C.

G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solanki, K.

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, G. S.

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Computer generated hologram for semifragile watermarking with encrypted images,” Int. J. Signal Proc. 4, 133-141 (2008).

G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Holographic semi-fragile watermarking combined with asymmetric cryptography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (IASTED, 2008).

Sun, L. J.

L. J. Sun and S. L. Zhuang, “Watermarking by encrypted Fourier holography,” Opt. Eng. 46, 085801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takai, N.

Tsan, C. L.

Vikas, R.

R. Vikas and K. K. Barman, “A report on print-scan resilient information hiding in images,” Tech. Rep. (Hewlett-Packard Labs, 2005).

Wang, S.

S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

Yu, Y.

S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

Zeng, W.

X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, X.

X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S. L.

L. J. Sun and S. L. Zhuang, “Watermarking by encrypted Fourier holography,” Opt. Eng. 46, 085801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin.

S. Huang, S. Wang, and Y. Yu, “Computer generated holography based on Fourier transform using conjugate symmetric extension,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 952-958 (2009) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Signal Proc.

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Computer generated hologram for semifragile watermarking with encrypted images,” Int. J. Signal Proc. 4, 133-141 (2008).

J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt.

G. S. Spagnolo, C. Simonetti, and L. Cozzella, “Content fragile watermarking based on a computer generated hologram coding technique,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 333-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Lin, “The theoretical analysis of a nonlinear holographic watermarking system,” J. Optics A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055305 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.

K. T. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. U. Choi, “Holographic image watermarking for secure content,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 3184, 219-231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L.-C. Lin and C.-L. Chen, “Statistical detection of digital holographic watermarking system,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4282-4290 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Cheng, L.-C. Lin, and W.-T. Dai, “Construction and detection of digital holographic watermarks,” Opt. Commun. 248, 105-116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. J. Sun and S. L. Zhuang, “Watermarking by encrypted Fourier holography,” Opt. Eng. 46, 085801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C.-J. Cheng and L.-C. Lin, “Correlation-based watermarking by a digital holographic technique,” Opt. Eng. 44, 010501(2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. ICIP

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Estimating and undoing rotation for print-scan resilient data hiding,” in Proc. ICIP 1, 39-42(2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. Solanki, U. Madhow, B. S. Manjunath, and S. Chandrasekaran, “Modeling the print-scan process for resilient data hiding,” in Proc. SPIE 5681, 418-429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kim, J. H. Choi, J. W. Kim, J. U. Choi, and E. S. Kim, “Multiple image watermarking using 3D Fresnel holograms with off-axis,” Proc. SPIE 5404, 573-584 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Kang, X. Zhong, J. Huang, and W. Zeng, “An efficient print-scanning resilient data hiding scheme based on a novel LPM,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2008), pp. 2080-2083.
[CrossRef]

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “A transform domain hardcopy watermarking scheme,” Tech. Rep. HPL-2001-309 (Hewlett-Packard, 2001).

A. Levy and D. Shaked, “Hardcopy watermarking,” U.S. patent 6,775,393 (Filing date: 23 April 2001. Publication date: 10 August 2004).

R. Vikas and K. K. Barman, “A report on print-scan resilient information hiding in images,” Tech. Rep. (Hewlett-Packard Labs, 2005).

G. S. Spagnolo and M. De Santis, “Holographic semi-fragile watermarking combined with asymmetric cryptography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (IASTED, 2008).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of watermark hologram generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hologram-based watermark embedding process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Watermark embedding: (a) original image teapot (b) watermark, (c) extended and zero-padded watermark pattern, (d) hologram, (e) DCT of hologram, and (f) watermarked image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSNR of watermarked teapot versus mark placement in the extended watermark pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of extracted watermarks: (a) watermarked image not attacked and (b) watermarked image blurred with a 3 × 3 Gaussian mask, σ = 0.7 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Watermarked images after contrast adjustment: (a) histogram equalized, (b) contrast enhanced using the curve of (c), and (d) contrast reduced using the curve of (e).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) image cropped with 30% of the area cut off and (b) rotated by 3 ° followed by cropping.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Watermarked image and scans from printed hard copies and the extracted watermarks: (a) original watermarked image, (b) scan from a full-frame hard copy, (c)–(d) scans from cropped hard copies, and (e)–(f) scans from rotated/cropped hard copies, rotating angles being 3 ° and 5 ° , respectively. See Table 3 for parameters and R values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Watermark extracted from a scanned hard copy produced by a popular laser printer: (a) watermarked image without attack and extracted mark, (b) scan from a full-sized laserjet printout and extracted watermark, (c) scan from a cropped hard copy of half the original area and extracted watermark, and (d) scan from a rotated-cropped hard copy and extracted watermark.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Extracted Watermark after Image Processing and the Correlation Coefficient R

Tables Icon

Table 2 Extracted Watermark after Rescaling, Cropping, and Rotation and the Correlation Coefficient R with Respect to the Embedded Watermark

Tables Icon

Table 3 Correlation between Embedded and Extracted Marks under Printing-Scanning Attacks

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( m , n ) = { f 0 ( m , n ) m = 1 , 2 , , M / 2 1 ; n = 1 , 2 , , N 1 f 0 * ( M m , N n ) m = M / 2 + 1 , , M 1 ; n = 1 , 2 , , N 1 0 m = 0 , or n = 0 , or m = M / 2 .
h ( μ , ν ) = 1 M N m = 0 M 1 n = 0 N 1 f ( m , n ) exp [ j 2 π ( m μ M + n ν N ) ] , μ = 0 , 1 , , M 1 ν = 0 , 1 , , N 1 .
h ( μ , ν ) = 2 M N m = 1 M / 2 1 n = 1 N 1 { A ( m , n ) cos [ 2 π ( m μ M + n ν N ) φ ( m , n ) ] } μ = 0 , 1 , , M 1 ν = 0 , 1 , , N 1 .
Y ( m , n ) = { H ( m , n ) m [ M 2 ( M w + δ M ) , M 2 · δ M 1 ] n [ N 2 ( N w + δ N ) , N 2 · δ N 1 ] Y ( m , n ) otherwise ,
H ( m , n ) = [ H ( m , n ) H ( m , n ) ¯ + Y ( m , n ) ¯ ] std [ Y ( m , n ) ] std [ H ( m , n ) ] , m [ M 2 ( M w + δ M ) , M 2 · δ M 1 ] , n [ N 2 ( N w + δ N ) , N 2 · δ N 1 ] .
R = 1 K L k = 1 K l = 1 L [ 1 W em ( k , l ) ] W ex ( k , l ) ,

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