Abstract

We present atmospheric degradation correction of terahertz (THz) beams based on multiscale signal decomposition and a combination of a Wiener deconvolution filter and artificial neural networks. THz beams suffer from strong attenuation by water molecules in the air. The proposed signal restoration approach finds the filter coefficients from a pair of reference signals previously measured from low- humidity conditions and current background air signals. Experimental results with two material samples of different chemical compositions demonstrate that the multiscale signal restoration technique is effective in correcting atmospheric degradation compared to individual and non-multiscale approaches.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Möller, J. Federici, A. Sinyukov, C. Xie, H. C. Lim, R. C. Giles, “Data encoding on terahertz signals for communication and sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 393–395 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, B. J. Drouin, J. C. Pearson, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Technical report (JPL, 2003).
  9. R. W. Schafer, R. M. Mersereau, M. A. Richards, “Constrained iterative restoration algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 69, 432–450 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “Numerical removal of water vapour effects from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 464, 2435–2456 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, K. Kang, “Suppression of spectral interferences due to water-vapor rotational transitions in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1354–1356 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, K. Kang, B. Feng, Y. Zhang, “Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Kong, D. H. Wu, “Signal restoration from atmospheric degradation in terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Unser, T. Blu, “Wavelet theory demystified,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, 470–483 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Rao, D. L. Jones, “A denoising approach to multisensor signal estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 1225–1234 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Liang, E. W. Page, “Multiresolution learning paradigm and signal prediction,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 2858–2864 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Liang, Xu Liang, “Improving signal prediction performance of neural networks through multiresolution learning approach,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B 36, 341–352 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectron. J. 32, 943–953 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision beyond the Visible Spectrum, B. Bhanu and I. Pavlidis, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 276–311.
  21. X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Terahertz computed tomographic reconstruction and its wavelet-based segmentation by fusion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE2007), pp. 3409–3414.
  22. X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Statistical model for the classification of the wavelet transforms of T-ray pulses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE2006), pp. 236–239.
  23. Q. Wu, M. Litz, X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Garzarella, S. B. Qadri, T. J. Wieting, D. H. Wu, “Spatial and temporal sensitivity variations in photorefractive electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Vetterli, C. Herley, “Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2207–2232 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. W. Moon, S. G. Kong, “Block-based neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 12, 307–317 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1999).

2009 (2)

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “Numerical removal of water vapour effects from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 464, 2435–2456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, K. Kang, “Suppression of spectral interferences due to water-vapor rotational transitions in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1354–1356 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Kong, D. H. Wu, “Signal restoration from atmospheric degradation in terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Möller, J. Federici, A. Sinyukov, C. Xie, H. C. Lim, R. C. Giles, “Data encoding on terahertz signals for communication and sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 393–395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, K. Kang, B. Feng, Y. Zhang, “Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Liang, Xu Liang, “Improving signal prediction performance of neural networks through multiresolution learning approach,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B 36, 341–352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Garzarella, S. B. Qadri, T. J. Wieting, D. H. Wu, “Spatial and temporal sensitivity variations in photorefractive electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Unser, T. Blu, “Wavelet theory demystified,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, 470–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson, X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectron. J. 32, 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Moon, S. G. Kong, “Block-based neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 12, 307–317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. M. Rao, D. L. Jones, “A denoising approach to multisensor signal estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 1225–1234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Liang, E. W. Page, “Multiresolution learning paradigm and signal prediction,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 2858–2864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, M. Litz, X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Vetterli, C. Herley, “Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2207–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

R. W. Schafer, R. M. Mersereau, M. A. Richards, “Constrained iterative restoration algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 69, 432–450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “Numerical removal of water vapour effects from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 464, 2435–2456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectron. J. 32, 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Terahertz computed tomographic reconstruction and its wavelet-based segmentation by fusion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE2007), pp. 3409–3414.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Statistical model for the classification of the wavelet transforms of T-ray pulses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE2006), pp. 236–239.

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision beyond the Visible Spectrum, B. Bhanu and I. Pavlidis, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 276–311.

Blu, T.

M. Unser, T. Blu, “Wavelet theory demystified,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, 470–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, R. D.

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision beyond the Visible Spectrum, B. Bhanu and I. Pavlidis, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 276–311.

Chen, Z.

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, K. Kang, “Suppression of spectral interferences due to water-vapor rotational transitions in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1354–1356 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, K. Kang, B. Feng, Y. Zhang, “Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, B. J. Drouin, J. C. Pearson, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Technical report (JPL, 2003).

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dik, J.

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drouin, B. J.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, B. J. Drouin, J. C. Pearson, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Technical report (JPL, 2003).

Exter, M. v.

Fattinger, C.

Federici, J.

Feng, B.

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, K. Kang, B. Feng, Y. Zhang, “Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson, X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, “De-noising techniques for terahertz responses of biological samples,” Microelectron. J. 32, 943–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Statistical model for the classification of the wavelet transforms of T-ray pulses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE2006), pp. 236–239.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Terahertz computed tomographic reconstruction and its wavelet-based segmentation by fusion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE2007), pp. 3409–3414.

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “Numerical removal of water vapour effects from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 464, 2435–2456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision beyond the Visible Spectrum, B. Bhanu and I. Pavlidis, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 276–311.

Garzarella, A.

A. Garzarella, S. B. Qadri, T. J. Wieting, D. H. Wu, “Spatial and temporal sensitivity variations in photorefractive electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R. C.

Grischkowsky, D.

Handley, J. W.

E. Berry, R. D. Boyle, A. J. Fitzgerald, J. W. Handley, “Time-frequency analysis in terahertz-pulsed imaging,” in Computer Vision beyond the Visible Spectrum, B. Bhanu and I. Pavlidis, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 276–311.

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Herley, C.

M. Vetterli, C. Herley, “Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2207–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. L.

A. M. Rao, D. L. Jones, “A denoising approach to multisensor signal estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 1225–1234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, K. Kang, “Suppression of spectral interferences due to water-vapor rotational transitions in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1354–1356 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, Z. Chen, K. Kang, B. Feng, Y. Zhang, “Terahertz absorbance spectrum fitting method for quantitative detection of concealed contraband,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. G.

S. G. Kong, D. H. Wu, “Signal restoration from atmospheric degradation in terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Moon, S. G. Kong, “Block-based neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 12, 307–317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Xu

Y. Liang, Xu Liang, “Improving signal prediction performance of neural networks through multiresolution learning approach,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B 36, 341–352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Xu Liang, “Improving signal prediction performance of neural networks through multiresolution learning approach,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B 36, 341–352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, E. W. Page, “Multiresolution learning paradigm and signal prediction,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 2858–2864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. C.

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meloni, S.

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mersereau, R. M.

R. W. Schafer, R. M. Mersereau, M. A. Richards, “Constrained iterative restoration algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 69, 432–450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Terahertz computed tomographic reconstruction and its wavelet-based segmentation by fusion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE2007), pp. 3409–3414.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Statistical model for the classification of the wavelet transforms of T-ray pulses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE2006), pp. 236–239.

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Möller, L.

Moon, S. W.

S. W. Moon, S. G. Kong, “Block-based neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 12, 307–317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.-H.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Statistical model for the classification of the wavelet transforms of T-ray pulses,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE2006), pp. 236–239.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, “Terahertz computed tomographic reconstruction and its wavelet-based segmentation by fusion,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (IEEE2007), pp. 3409–3414.

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, M. C. Nuss, “Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 379–390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Page, E. W.

Y. Liang, E. W. Page, “Multiresolution learning paradigm and signal prediction,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 2858–2864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. C.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, B. J. Drouin, J. C. Pearson, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Technical report (JPL, 2003).

Pickett, H. M.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, B. J. Drouin, J. C. Pearson, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Technical report (JPL, 2003).

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, J. Dik, “Terahertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17, 3407–3416 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qadri, S. B.

A. Garzarella, S. B. Qadri, T. J. Wieting, D. H. Wu, “Spatial and temporal sensitivity variations in photorefractive electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

A. M. Rao, D. L. Jones, “A denoising approach to multisensor signal estimation,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 1225–1234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards, M. A.

R. W. Schafer, R. M. Mersereau, M. A. Richards, “Constrained iterative restoration algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 69, 432–450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, R. W.

R. W. Schafer, R. M. Mersereau, M. A. Richards, “Constrained iterative restoration algorithm,” Proc. IEEE 69, 432–450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schoebel, J.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, “Short-range ultra- broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag. 49, 24–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A.

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unser, M.

M. Unser, T. Blu, “Wavelet theory demystified,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51, 470–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vetterli, M.

M. Vetterli, C. Herley, “Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2207–2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Wang, Z. Chen, Z. Zhao, L. Zhang, K. Kang, Y. Zhang, “Restoration of terahertz signals distorted by atmospheric water vapor absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the time-domain terahertz spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atmospheric degradation of THz signals: (a) time waveforms, (b) Fourier spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeling of atmospheric degradation and restoration process of THz signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Level-2 discrete wavelet decomposition of a signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fourier magnitude spectra of approximation and detail components in level-2 DWT decomposition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiscale restoration filtering with Wiener filter and ANNs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency response of the Wiener deconvolution filters for approximation and detail components.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fourier magnitude spectra of the testing samples: (a) DNT, (b) DNB.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time waveforms of the approximation and detail components restored using the multiscale restoration filter for DNT: (a) approximation ( A 2 ), (b) detail ( D 2 ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fourier magnitude and absorption spectra of the multiscale restoration filter for DNT: (a) Fourier spectra, (b) absorbance.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fourier magnitude and absorption spectra of the multiscale restoration filter for DNB: (a) Fourier spectra, (b) absorbance.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Various Terahertz Signal Restoration Schemes in Relative Improvement

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u ( t ) = H [ r ( t ) ] + v ( t ) ,
x ( t ) = G [ u ( t ) ] .
x ( t ) = H 1 [ u ( t ) ] .
Absorbance = log 10 ( A sample 2 A ref 2 ) ,
A ( t ) = k = x ( t ) φ ( t k ) ,
D ( t ) = k = x ( t ) ψ ( t k ) ,
g k ( t ) = h k ( t ) * r k ( t ) + v k ( t ) , k = A , D ,
W ( ω ) = 1 H ( ω ) | H ( ω ) | 2 | H ( ω ) | 2 + | V ( ω ) | 2 / | R ( ω ) | 2 ,
G ( ω ) = W ( ω ) G ( ω ) ,
c ( t ) = f ( g ( t ) , s ) .
g ( t ) = [ g ( t m I ) , , g ( t ) , , g ( t + m I ) ] T ,
RI ( dB ) = 10 log 10 ( MSE u MSE x ) = 10 log 10 ( 1 n ε x 2 ( t ) 1 n ε u 2 ( t ) ) ,

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