Abstract

Field-induced guiding (FIG) has been known for several decades. Many advanced optical FIG devices (light modulators, splitters, scanners, etc.) were proposed, but due to high fabrication cost and/or high operation voltages they were considered impractical. For the first time to our knowledge we propose to use electro-optic (EO) polymers for the fabrication of FIG devices. This alleviates these limitations and makes this powerful device fabrication paradigm applicable in practice. We theoretically predict and experimentally demonstrate FIG in EO polymers. We also propose the idea of new class of devices— multifunctional optical devices that can completely change their functionality on the fly.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Channin, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 128-130 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. A. F. Jaeger and L. Young, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide modulator in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 720-728 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).
  8. J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

N. A. F. Jaeger and L. Young, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide modulator in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 720-728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1971

D. J. Channin, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 128-130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Akelaitis, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Bale, D.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Bhatambrekar, N.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Bhattacharjee, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Buker, N.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Channin, D. J.

D. J. Channin, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 128-130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eichinger, B.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Firestone, K.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Haller, M.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Haller, M. A.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Huang, T. C.

T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.-Ch.

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

N. A. F. Jaeger and L. Young, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide modulator in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 720-728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.-H.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Jen, A. K.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakita, Ya.

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-D.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lingwood, M.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Liu, S.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Machida, D.

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G.

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ried, P.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Robinson, B.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Robinson, B. H.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rommel, H.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, K.

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimotaya, S.

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simonis, G. J.

T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sinness, J.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Snoeberger, R.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Steier, W.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

Tang, H.-Z.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N.

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. B.

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

N. A. F. Jaeger and L. Young, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide modulator in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 720-728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Channin, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 128-130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, G. Meredith, N. Peyghambarian, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator fabricated by all-wet etching process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4692-4694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. C. Huang, G. J. Simonis, and L. A. Coldren, “Directional coupler optical switch constructed from field-induced waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2288-2289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. A. F. Jaeger and L. Young, “Voltage-induced optical waveguide modulator in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 720-728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T.-Ch. Huang, Y. Chung, L. A. Coldren, and N. Dagli, “Field-induced waveguides and their application to modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1131-1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. C. Huang, Y. Chung, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, and L. A. Coldren, “A field induced guide-antiguide modulator on GaAs-AlGaAs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 141-143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

Ya. Kawakita, S. Shimotaya, D. Machida, and K. Shimomura, “Wavelength demultiplexing and optical deflection in variable refractive-index waveguide array based on selectively grown GaInAs/InP MQW structure,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1013-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. R. Dalton, B. Robinson, A. Jen, P. Ried, B. Eichinger, P. Sullivan, A. Akelaitis, D. Bale, M. Haller, J. Luo, S. Liu, Y. Liao, K. Firestone, N. Bhatambrekar, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Sinness, S. Hammond, N. Buker, R. Snoeberger, M. Lingwood, H. Rommel, J. Amend, S.-H. Jang, A. Chen, and W. Steier, “Electro-optic coefficients of 500 pm/V and beyond for organic materials,” Proc. SPIE 5935, 1-12 (2005).

J. Luo, S. Liu, M. A. Haller, J.-W. Kang, T.-D. Kim, S.-H. Jang, B. Chen, N. Tucker, H. Li, H.-Z. Tang, L. R. Dalton, Y. Liao, B. H. Robinson, and A. K. Jen, “Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics,” Proc. SPIE 5351, 36-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device design: (a) crosscut and (b) top views.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of the mode propagation and output intensity at the end of the waveguide for (a) guiding and (b) antiguiding configurations and (c) simulated transfer function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental mode profile for the guiding (solid line) and antiguiding (dashed line) conditions. (b) Experimental transfer function. (c) Response to the triangular wave.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Different configurations of electrodes for different device functions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Width of the Mode Versus Width of the Waveguide Core

Metrics