Abstract

An analytic solution is derived for radiation transfer between flat quasi-Lambertian surfaces of arbitrary orientation, i.e., surfaces that radiate in a Lambertian fashion but within a numerical aperture smaller than unity. These formulas obviate the need for ray trace simulations and provide exact, physically transparent results. Illustrative examples that capture the salient features of the flux maps and the efficiency of flux transfer are presented for a few configurations of practical interest. There is also a fundamental reciprocity relation for quasi-Lambertian exchange, akin to the reciprocity theorem for fully Lambertian surfaces. Applications include optical fiber coupling, fiber-optic biomedical procedures, and solar concentrators.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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