Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a noninvasive credit card verifier with a low false rejection rate (FRR). Our key idea is based on the use of three broadband light sources in our data-nonintrusive photonics-based credit card verifier structure, where spectral components of the embossed hologram images are registered as red, green, and blue. In this case, nine distinguishable variables are generated for a feed-forward neural network (FFNN). In addition, we investigate the center of mass of the image histogram projected onto the x axis (Icolor), making our system more tolerant of the intensity fluctuation of the light source. We also reduce the unwanted signals on each hologram image by simply dividing the hologram image into three zones and then calculating their corresponding Icolor values for red, green, and blue bands. With our proposed concepts, we implement our field test prototype in which three broadband white light light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a two-dimensional digital color camera, and a four-layer FFNN are used. Based on 249 genuine credit cards and 258 counterfeit credit cards, we find that the average of differences in Icolor values between genuine and counterfeit credit cards is improved by 1.5 times and up to 13.7 times. In this case, we can effectively verify credit cards with a very low FRR of 0.79%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

M. T. Eismann, A. D. Stocker, N. M. Nasrabadi, “Automated hyperspectral cueing for civilian search and rescue,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1031–1055 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

S. Nakariyakul, D. Casasent, “Fusion algorithm for poultry skin tumor detection using hyperspectral data,” Appl. Opt. 46, 357–364 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon. News 18(4), 20–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

J. Legault, M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82–88 (2005).

2004 (1)

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y.-R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Metternicht, J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61–67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, M. M. K. Howlader, N. Madamopoulos, “Photonic security system using spatial codes and remote coded coherent optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2487–2498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, K.

K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Lasers Technol. 38, 117–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahouzi, E.

Alados-Arboledas, L.

Brauns, E. B.

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Casasent, D.

Cazorla, A.

Chamberland, M.

J. Legault, M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82–88 (2005).

Chao, K.

Chen, T.-J.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

Chen, Y.-R.

Chhachhia, D. P.

K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Lasers Technol. 38, 117–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daukantas, P.

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon. News 18(4), 20–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dausmann, G.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, F.

Dyer, R. B.

Eismann, M. T.

M. T. Eismann, A. D. Stocker, N. M. Nasrabadi, “Automated hyperspectral cueing for civilian search and rescue,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1031–1055 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnädig, K.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

Hernández-Andrés, J.

Howlader, M. M. K.

N. A. Riza, M. M. K. Howlader, N. Madamopoulos, “Photonic security system using spatial codes and remote coded coherent optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2487–2498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. P.

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61–67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-J.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

Intaravanne, Y.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “Hyperspectral imaging-based credit card verifier structure with adaptive learning,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6594–6600 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “Non-intrusive hyperspectral imaging-based credit card verifier with histogram analysis approaches,” presented at AsiaSense 2009: Fourth International Conference on Sensors, Bangkok, Thailand, 29–31 July 2009.

Javidi, B.

Kaura, S. K.

K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Lasers Technol. 38, 117–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

Kuan, M.-T.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

Lefcourt, A. M.

Legault, J.

J. Legault, M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82–88 (2005).

López-Álvarez, M. A.

Luna, C.

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

N. A. Riza, M. M. K. Howlader, N. Madamopoulos, “Photonic security system using spatial codes and remote coded coherent optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2487–2498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, S.

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, S. D.

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

McGrew, S. P.

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Menz, I.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metternicht, G. I.

G. I. Metternicht, J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakariyakul, S.

Nasrabadi, N. M.

M. T. Eismann, A. D. Stocker, N. M. Nasrabadi, “Automated hyperspectral cueing for civilian search and rescue,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1031–1055 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’ Doherty, P.

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’ Doherty, P. A.

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

Odinokov, S. B.

Olmo, F. J.

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, M. M. K. Howlader, N. Madamopoulos, “Photonic security system using spatial codes and remote coded coherent optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2487–2498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Lasers Technol. 38, 117–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. J.

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

Stocker, A. D.

M. T. Eismann, A. D. Stocker, N. M. Nasrabadi, “Automated hyperspectral cueing for civilian search and rescue,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1031–1055 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “Hyperspectral imaging-based credit card verifier structure with adaptive learning,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6594–6600 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “Non-intrusive hyperspectral imaging-based credit card verifier with histogram analysis approaches,” presented at AsiaSense 2009: Fourth International Conference on Sensors, Bangkok, Thailand, 29–31 July 2009.

Tsai, C.-H.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

Wen, C.-H.

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

Yang, Z.

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zinck, J. A.

G. I. Metternicht, J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

International Patent Application (1)

P. A. O’ Doherty, P. J. Smith, C. Luna, S. D. McCarthy, “A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card,” International Patent Application WO2005/057506 (2005).

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

N. A. Riza, M. M. K. Howlader, N. Madamopoulos, “Photonic security system using spatial codes and remote coded coherent optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2487–2498 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532–2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Technol. (1)

K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, D. P. Chhachhia, A. K. Sharma, “Concealed moiré pattern encoded security holograms readable by a key hologram,” Opt. Lasers Technol. 38, 117–121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

P. Daukantas, “Optics in forensics: separating science from fiction,” Opt. Photon. News 18(4), 20–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra (1)

J. Legault, M. Chamberland, “Passive hyperspectral imagers see chemical clouds,” Photonics Spectra 39(9), 82–88 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. T. Eismann, A. D. Stocker, N. M. Nasrabadi, “Automated hyperspectral cueing for civilian search and rescue,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1031–1055 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts,” Proc. SPIE 7003, 700318, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. McGrew, “Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions,” Proc. SPIE 1210, 66–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Huang, “Holographic anti-counterfeit method and device with encoded pattern,” Proc. SPIE 3633, 61–67 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Smith, P. O’ Doherty, C. Luna, S. McCarthy, “Commercial anti-counterfeit products using machine vision,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 237–243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W.-J. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, T.-J. Chen, M.-T. Kuan, C.-H. Wen, “Development of the random-retardation-encoding anticounterfeiting technology,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750H-1 (2006).

G. Dausmann, I. Menz, K. Gnädig, Z. Yang, “Copy proof machine readable holograms for security application,” Proc. SPIE 2659, 198–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

G. I. Metternicht, J. A. Zinck, “Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85, 1–20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

“Visa card sticker,” available online, http://www.tootoo.com/d-p23788610-Visa_card_sticker (June 2009).

APACS, “Fraud facts 2008,” available online, http://www.cardwatch.org.uk (April 2008).

“Credit card fraud statistics and facts,” available online, http://www.spamlaws.com/credit-fraud-stats.html (February 2009).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, Y. Intaravanne, “Non-intrusive hyperspectral imaging-based credit card verifier with histogram analysis approaches,” presented at AsiaSense 2009: Fourth International Conference on Sensors, Bangkok, Thailand, 29–31 July 2009.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

MatLab 7.0, The MathWorks Inc., 3 Apple Drive, Natick, Massachusetts 01760-2098, USA.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Our proposed data-nonintrusive photonics-based credit card verifier architecture, (b) feed-forward neural-network configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Our field test prototype, (b) measured optical intensity spectrum of the LED used in our field prototype.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Snapshot hologram images from (a) a genuine credit card and (b) a counterfeit credit card.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured I color along three color planes from 507 embossed holograms with (a) only the broadband white light LED1 at the ON state, (b) only the broadband white light LED2 at the ON state, and (c) only the broadband white light LED3 at the ON state. Data in the left area are from genuine credit cards.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Our color-based area selectivity that divides the hologram image into three zones for calculating I color values for red, green, and blue for each hologram image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Digital output level obtained from the output layer of our four-layer FFNN.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I color = g g n g g n g .
y i q = ϕ ( w i k I m + b i q ) .

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