Abstract

A compact, lightweight, and efficient fiber laser lidar system has been developed to measure water vapor profiles in the lower atmosphere of Earth or Mars. The line narrowed laser consist of a Tm:germanate fiber pumped by two 792nm diode arrays. The fiber laser transmits 0.5mJ Q- switched pulses at 5Hz and can be tuned to water vapor lines near 1.94μm with linewidth of 20pm. A lightweight lidar receiver telescope was constructed of carbon epoxy fiber with a 30cm Fresnel lens and an advanced HgCdTe APD detector. This system has made preliminary atmospheric measurements.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Weitkamp, ed., LIDAR Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005).
  2. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. The hitran database, http://www.hitran.com.
  5. G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

2009

G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Compton, M. A.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeYoung, R. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsen, K. A.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Huntington, A. S.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lamarre, P. A.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Marciniec, J. W.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Mullarkey, J. D.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Parodos, T.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Reichle, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reine, M. B.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Tobin, S. P.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Walsh, B. M.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Wong, K. K.

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

Appl. Phys. B

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. Jiang, “Tm:germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89299-304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichle, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germanate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

G. M. Williams, M. A. Compton, and A. S. Huntington, “High-speed photon counting with linear-mode APD receivers,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 732012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. B. Reine, J. W. Marciniec, K. K. Wong, T. Parodos, J. D. Mullarkey, P. A. Lamarre, S. P. Tobin, K. A. Gustavsen, and G. M. Williams, “HgCdTe MWIR back-illuminated electron-initiated avalanche photodiode arrays,” SPIE Optics and Photonics Meeting, San Diego, California, 13-17 August, 2006.

C. Weitkamp, ed., LIDAR Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005).

The hitran database, http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy manifolds of Tm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic and photo of the Tm:germanate fiber laser transmitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line strength of water vapor lines near 1.94 μm . The on- and off-line wavelengths are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulsed laser output versus pump diode current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump diode optical energy and pulsed laser output energy versus pulse repetition frequency.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Q-switched laser output energy and pulse length versus pump diode current in amperes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of two Q-switched pulses from a single diode pump pulse.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normal mode laser energy out versus pump diode input energy demonstrating a slope efficiency of 0.28 and an inferred quantum efficiency of 1.75.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram and photo of the lidar receiver system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of atmospheric lidar return and the corresponding laser pulse entering the atmosphere.

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