Abstract

A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532nm and using a single photomultiplier tube is employed for applications of shallow water depth measurement. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system’s laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than 1 order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, an Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator, and a time-to-digital converter are used to target various water depths with an ice floor to simulate a glacial meltpond. Measurement of 1cm water depths with an uncertainty of ±3mm are demonstrated using the technique. This novel approach enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),
  2. G. Guenther and R. Thomas, “System design and performance factors for airborne laser hydrography,” in Proceedings Oceans '83 (San Francisco, California, 29 August–1 September 1983), pp. 425–430.
  3. G. Guenther, “Airborne lidar bathymetry” in Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual2nd Ed., D.Maune, ed. (ASPRS Publications, 2007), pp. 253–320.
  4. J. Irish and T. White, “Coastal engineering applications of high-resolution lidar bathymetry,” Coastal Eng. 35, 47–71(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Nayegandhi, J. Brock, and C. Wright, “Classifying vegetation using NASA’s Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) at Assateague Island National Seashore,” in Proceedings ASPRS Annual Conference (Baltimore, Maryland, 7–11 March 2005), paper 500001.
  6. S. Pe’eri and W. Philpot, “Increasing the existence of very shallow-water lidar measurements using the red-channel waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 451217–1223(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Lu and R. Chipman, “Interpretation of Mueller matrices based on polar decomposition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1106–1113 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. Pe’eri and W. Philpot, “Increasing the existence of very shallow-water lidar measurements using the red-channel waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 451217–1223(2007).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Irish and T. White, “Coastal engineering applications of high-resolution lidar bathymetry,” Coastal Eng. 35, 47–71(1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Brock, J.

A. Nayegandhi, J. Brock, and C. Wright, “Classifying vegetation using NASA’s Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) at Assateague Island National Seashore,” in Proceedings ASPRS Annual Conference (Baltimore, Maryland, 7–11 March 2005), paper 500001.

Chipman, R.

Churnside, J.

Cunningham, A.

G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),

Guenther, G.

G. Guenther and R. Thomas, “System design and performance factors for airborne laser hydrography,” in Proceedings Oceans '83 (San Francisco, California, 29 August–1 September 1983), pp. 425–430.

G. Guenther, “Airborne lidar bathymetry” in Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual2nd Ed., D.Maune, ed. (ASPRS Publications, 2007), pp. 253–320.

G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),

Irish, J.

J. Irish and T. White, “Coastal engineering applications of high-resolution lidar bathymetry,” Coastal Eng. 35, 47–71(1998).
[CrossRef]

LaRoque, P.

G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),

Lu, S.

Nayegandhi, A.

A. Nayegandhi, J. Brock, and C. Wright, “Classifying vegetation using NASA’s Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) at Assateague Island National Seashore,” in Proceedings ASPRS Annual Conference (Baltimore, Maryland, 7–11 March 2005), paper 500001.

Pe’eri, S.

S. Pe’eri and W. Philpot, “Increasing the existence of very shallow-water lidar measurements using the red-channel waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 451217–1223(2007).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W.

S. Pe’eri and W. Philpot, “Increasing the existence of very shallow-water lidar measurements using the red-channel waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 451217–1223(2007).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D.

G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),

Thomas, R.

G. Guenther and R. Thomas, “System design and performance factors for airborne laser hydrography,” in Proceedings Oceans '83 (San Francisco, California, 29 August–1 September 1983), pp. 425–430.

White, T.

J. Irish and T. White, “Coastal engineering applications of high-resolution lidar bathymetry,” Coastal Eng. 35, 47–71(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C.

A. Nayegandhi, J. Brock, and C. Wright, “Classifying vegetation using NASA’s Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) at Assateague Island National Seashore,” in Proceedings ASPRS Annual Conference (Baltimore, Maryland, 7–11 March 2005), paper 500001.

Coastal Eng. (1)

J. Irish and T. White, “Coastal engineering applications of high-resolution lidar bathymetry,” Coastal Eng. 35, 47–71(1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Pe’eri and W. Philpot, “Increasing the existence of very shallow-water lidar measurements using the red-channel waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 451217–1223(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

A. Nayegandhi, J. Brock, and C. Wright, “Classifying vegetation using NASA’s Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) at Assateague Island National Seashore,” in Proceedings ASPRS Annual Conference (Baltimore, Maryland, 7–11 March 2005), paper 500001.

G. Guenther, A. Cunningham, P. LaRoque, and D. Reid, “Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry,” in Proceedings of 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea (Dresden, Germany, 16–17 June 2000),

G. Guenther and R. Thomas, “System design and performance factors for airborne laser hydrography,” in Proceedings Oceans '83 (San Francisco, California, 29 August–1 September 1983), pp. 425–430.

G. Guenther, “Airborne lidar bathymetry” in Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual2nd Ed., D.Maune, ed. (ASPRS Publications, 2007), pp. 253–320.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Foundational setup of polarization lidar for shallow water bathymetry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of normalized received intensity for a range of quarter-wave plate orientations for targets of varying degrees of vertical linear depolarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized digital timing histograms of constant fraction detection for surface and floor returns at 3.0 cm (dashed curves) and 1.0 cm (solid curves) water depths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overlay of normalized surface and floor histograms from Fig. 3 along with inset of timing differences between the two determined floor returns.

Equations (9)

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S T x = [ 1 1 0 0 ] .
VWP ( θ , γ ) = [ 1 0 0 0 0 cos 2 ( 2 θ ) + cos ( γ ) sin 2 ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( γ ) sin ( 2 θ ) sin ( γ ) 0 cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) cos ( γ ) cos ( γ ) cos 2 ( 2 θ ) + sin 2 ( 2 θ ) cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( γ ) 0 sin ( 2 θ ) sin ( γ ) cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( γ ) cos ( γ ) ] ,
Pol ( θ ) = [ 0.5 0.5 cos ( 2 θ ) 0.5 sin ( 2 θ ) 0 0.5 cos ( 2 θ ) 0.5 cos 2 ( 2 θ ) 0.5 ( cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) ) 0 0.5 sin ( 2 θ ) 0.5 ( cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) ) 0.5 sin 2 ( 2 θ ) 0 0 0 0 0 ] .
S R x = [ Pol ( θ P + 90 ) · VWP ( θ Q , π / 2 ) · M target · VWP ( θ Q , π / 2 ) · Pol ( θ P ) · VWP ( θ H , π ) ] S T x ,
I R x = [ 1 0 0 0 ] S R x .
M target = [ 1 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 b 0 0 0 0 c ] .
P FCM ( t ) = P d ( t ) 0 t ( 1 P d ( τ ) ) d τ ,
h = c Δ t 2 n ,
Δ = 2 n l c 2 l c = 2 ( 1.33 ) ( 0.02 ) ( 3 × 10 8 ) 2 ( 0.02 ) ( 3 × 10 8 ) = 44 ps .

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