Abstract

The Pascal triangle is a geometric representation of binomial coefficients in triangular form. We utilize this formalism to deterministically arrange silver nanocylinders of different sizes (30, 60, and 90nm) on a triangle and numerically study their near-field optical properties. We show that near-field intensities at specific points on this triangle depend on the wavelength and angle of incidence. From the wavelength-dependent studies at various junctions of nanocylinders, we obtain maximum near-field intensity at 350 and 380nm. By varying the angle of incidence of the TM-polarized plane wave, we find systematic variation in the near-field intensity at different junctions of the geometry. Our study will lead to insights in designing controllable electromagnetic hot spots for chip-based plasmonic devices.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Chau, Y.-J. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on the silver nanoshells connected by the nanobars,” Opt. Express 18, 3510–3518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Chau, H.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Liao, H.-F. Ho, C.-Y. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Controlling surface plasmon of several pair arrays of silver-shell nanocylinders,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1163–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Chau, H.-H. Yeh, C.-Y. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “The optical properties in a chain waveguide of an array of silver nanoshell with dielectric holes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3189–3193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-J. Sung, Y.-F. Ma, Y.-F. Chau, and D.-W. Huang, “Surface plasmon resonance in a hexagonal nanostructure formed by seven core shell nanocylinders,” Appl. Opt. 49, 920–926(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4, 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, J. J. Amsden, S. V. Boriskina, A. Gopinath, A. Mitropolous, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, and L. Dal Negro, “Spatial and spectral detection of protein monolayers with deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12086–12090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. Garcia De Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4, 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Thermoplasmonics modeling: a Green’s function approach,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 165424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. J. Borys, M. J. Walter, and J. M. Lupton, “Intermittency in second-harmonic radiation from plasmonic hot spots on rough silver films,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 161407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 17, 3741–3753 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Auguie and W. L. Barnes, “Diffractive coupling in gold nanoparticle arrays and the effect of disorder,” Opt. Lett. 34, 401–403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Halas, “Connecting the dots: reinventing optics for nanoscale dimensions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 3643–3644(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (10)

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chau, H.-H. Yeh, and D. P. Tsai, “Near-field optical properties and surface plasmon effects generated by a dielectric hole in a silver-shell nanocylinder pair,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5557–5561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Camden, J. A. Dieringer, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Controlled plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1653–1661(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dal Negro, N. N. Feng, and A. Gopinath, “Electromagnetic coupling and plasmon localization in deterministic aperiodic arrays,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina and L. Dal Negro, “Sensitive label-free biosensing using critical modes in aperiodic photonic structures,” Opt. Express 16, 12511–12522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, A. O. Pinchuk, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, L. K. Ausman, A. L. Atkinson, and G. C. Schatz, “Methods for describing the electromagnetic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1710–1720 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photon. 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005(2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Excitation and emission enhancement of single molecule fluorescence through multiple surface-plasmon resonances on metal trimer nanoantennas,” Opt. Lett. 33, 899–901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

J. W. Liaw, “New surface integral equations for the light scattering of multi-metallic nanoscatterers,” Eng. Anal. Bound. Elem. 31, 299–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7, 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Calculations of light scattering from isolated and interacting metallic nanowires of arbitrary cross section by means of Green’s theorem surface integral equations in parametric form,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2822–2830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19, 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photon. 1, 641–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296, 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. L. Tam, K. F. Li, K. W. Cheah, J. B. Xia, R. Huber, W. H. Wong, and Y. B. Pun, “Surface plasmon coupling in hexagonal textured metallic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1330–1334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. Garcia De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 149988–9999 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “The optical near-field of gold nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Commun. 248, 543–549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Gersen, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

Ali, T. A.

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4, 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

S. Y. Lee, J. J. Amsden, S. V. Boriskina, A. Gopinath, A. Mitropolous, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, and L. Dal Negro, “Spatial and spectral detection of protein monolayers with deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12086–12090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, A. L.

J. Zhao, A. O. Pinchuk, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, L. K. Ausman, A. L. Atkinson, and G. C. Schatz, “Methods for describing the electromagnetic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1710–1720 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296, 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics—a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Auguie, B.

Ausman, L. K.

J. Zhao, A. O. Pinchuk, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, L. K. Ausman, A. L. Atkinson, and G. C. Schatz, “Methods for describing the electromagnetic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1710–1720 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “The optical near-field of gold nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Commun. 248, 543–549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Baffou, G.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. Garcia De Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4, 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and C. Girard, “Thermoplasmonics modeling: a Green’s function approach,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 165424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328, 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguie and W. L. Barnes, “Diffractive coupling in gold nanoparticle arrays and the effect of disorder,” Opt. Lett. 34, 401–403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19, 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boriskina, S. V.

S. Y. Lee, J. J. Amsden, S. V. Boriskina, A. Gopinath, A. Mitropolous, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, and L. Dal Negro, “Spatial and spectral detection of protein monolayers with deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12086–12090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 17, 3741–3753 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and L. Dal Negro, “Sensitive label-free biosensing using critical modes in aperiodic photonic structures,” Opt. Express 16, 12511–12522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borys, N. J.

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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Nanoparticle optics: the importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 7337–7342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Yeh, H.-H.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. P. Camden, J. A. Dieringer, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Controlled plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1653–1661(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, A. O. Pinchuk, J. M. McMahon, S. Li, L. K. Ausman, A. L. Atkinson, and G. C. Schatz, “Methods for describing the electromagnetic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1710–1720 (2008).
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H. Gersen, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315(2000).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) First four rows of a Pascal triangle and (b) silver nanocylinders arranged according to the Pascal triangle. The arrow indicates the direction of incidence of TM-polarized plane waves. p1–p4 are the points at which the near-field intensities were calculated. The angle varies in the anticlockwise direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Near-field intensity as a function of wavelength at points p1–p4 shown in the inset. (b) Comparison of the peak intensities at λ = 350 and 380 nm for the same points. The inset shows the geometry and location of the points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field intensity maps for incident wavelength: (a) 350 (b) 380, (c) 488, and (d) 532 nm . Note that the intensity scales are different for each case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polar plots of intensity as a function of angle of incidence for points (a) p1, (b) p4, (c) p2, and (d) p3. The unit of angle is in degrees.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field intensity maps for angles of incidence: (a) 0 (b) 45 (c) 90 (d) 270—in degrees.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Near-field intensity map of silver nanocylinders arranged in hexagonal geometry (for incident wavelength = 380 nm ); the nanocylinder at the center is 60 nm in diameter, and the others are 30 nm . The arrow indicates the direction of the incident TM-polarized wave. (b) Comparison of the near-field intensity of the hexagonal array structure with the Pascal triangle (shown in Fig. 1); points a1–a4 are indicated in (a).

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