Abstract

A laser wire ion beam profile monitor system has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex. The laser wire system uses a single laser source to measure the horizontal and vertical profiles of a pulsed hydrogen ion (H) beam along a 230m long superconducting linac, which accelerates H from 200MeV to 1GeV. In this paper, we describe the laser optics requirement for the system, the performance of the profile measurement, and the effects of laser parameters on the measurement reliability. The result provides a practical guideline for the development of a large-scale, operational, laser-based diagnostics in accelerator facilities.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Alton and Y. Zhang, “An experimental apparatus proposed for efficient removal of isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4020–4026 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.
  15. Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.
  16. P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
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2010 (1)

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

G. D. Alton and Y. Zhang, “An experimental apparatus proposed for efficient removal of isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Manzello, E. J. Lee, and G. W. Mulholland, “Use of laser-induced ionization to detect soot inception in premixed flames,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5105–5111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agapov, I.

I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, A.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.

Alstrin, A. L.

Alton, G. D.

G. D. Alton and Y. Zhang, “An experimental apparatus proposed for efficient removal of isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Araki, S.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Assadi, S.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Beene, J. R.

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blair, G. A.

I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blokland, W.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Chouffani, K.

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. T.

W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. Y.

Connolly, R. C.

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deibele, C.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, C.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giulietti, A.

P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
[CrossRef]

Giulietti, D.

P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
[CrossRef]

Grice, W.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, R.

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Harmon, F.

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Havener, C. C.

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayano, H.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S.

S. Henderson, “Status of the Spallation Neutron Source: machine and science,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2007), Vols.  1–11, pp. 1252–1256.

Higashi, Y.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Honda, Y.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jakob, A.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T. F.

W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. F.

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J.

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. E.

Kuan, W. H.

W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, K.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, G.

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. J.

Leone, S. R.

Liang, J. F.

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Long, C.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Manzello, S. L.

Meusel, O.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mulholland, G. W.

Nomura, M.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okugi, T.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelaia, T.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C.

Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.

Pozimski, J.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ratzinger, U.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandovai, D. P.

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasao, N.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, J.

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smilgys, R. V.

Strupp, P. G.

Takano, M.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terunuma, N.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomassini, P.

P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
[CrossRef]

Urakawa, J.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Webster, A.

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Wells, D.

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodley, M.

I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, Y.

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, M.

Yuan, V.

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

G. D. Alton and Y. Zhang, “An experimental apparatus proposed for efficient removal of isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Tomassini, A. Giulietti, and D. Giulietti, “Thomson backscattering x-rays from ultra-relativistic electron bunches and temporally shaped laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 419–436(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, J. R. Beene, C. C. Havener, and J. F. Liang, “Isobar suppression by photodetachment in a gas-filled rf quadrupole ion guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 113504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams (1)

K. Chouffani, F. Harmon, D. Wells, J. Jones, and G. Lancaster, “Laser-Compton scattering as a tool for electron beam diagnostics,” Laser Part. Beams 24, 411–419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. A (2)

R. C. Connolly, K. F. Johnson, D. P. Sandovai, and V. Yuan, “A transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness H− beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 312, 415–419 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, A. Aleksandrov, S. Assadi, W. Blokland, C. Deibele, W. Grice, C. Long, T. Pelaia, and A. Webster, “Laser wire beam profile monitor in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 612, 241–253(2010).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. B (1)

G. D. Alton and Y. Zhang, “An experimental apparatus proposed for efficient removal of isobaric contaminants in negative ion beams,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4020–4026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. H. Kuan, T. F. Jiang, and K. T. Chung, “Photodetachment of H−,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 364–369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (3)

I. Agapov, G. A. Blair, and M. Woodley, “Beam emittance measurement with laser wire scanners in the International Linear Collider beam delivery system,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 112801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakai, Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, Y. Higashi, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, J. Urakawa, and M. Takano, “Measurement of an electron beam size with a laser wire beam profile monitor,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 022801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Honda, N. Sasao, S. Araki, H. Hayano, Y. Higashi, K. Kubo, T. Okugi, T. Taniguchi, N. Terunuma, J. Urakawa, Y. Yamazaki, K. Hirano, M. Nomura, M. Takano, and H. Sakai, “Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 092802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Gabor, A. Jakob, O. Meusel, J. Pozimski, J. Schäfer, and U. Ratzinger, “Design of nondestructive emittance measurement device for H− beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 998–1000 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Henderson, “Status of the Spallation Neutron Source: machine and science,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 2007), Vols.  1–11, pp. 1252–1256.

R. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, and W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” submitted for publication.

Y. Liu, C. Long, C. Peters, and A. Aleksandrov, “Parasitic profile measurement of 1 MW neutron production beam at SNS superconducting linac,” Proceedings of IPAC’10, Kyoto, Japan (IPAC’10 OC/ACFA, 2010), pp. 1221–1223.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the laser-based H beam profile monitor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the laser wire system installed in the SCL at the SNS. Cryomodules 1–4, 12–15, and 32 are equipped with laser wire profile monitors, and cryomodules 5 and 17 have image sensors perceiving laser beam positions. Distances are from the laser room. Mirrors A and B steer the laser beam with motor-driven actuators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Far-field pattern of the laser (scale bars correspond to 1 mrad ). (b) Temporal waveforms of the laser pulse with and without the injection seeder. The graph shows an overlap of 10 laser pulses. The time shift ( 20 ns ) between two waveforms indicates the reduction of the Q-switch buildup time in the seeded operation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of optical setup of the profile measurement station: M, mirror; L, lens; FM, flipper mirror; W, vacuum window; BD, beam dump; and PD, photodiode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal structure of the SNS H beam and the laser pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of 1 MW neutron production beam along the SCL measured on 30 April 2010. The marks are measured data, and the solid lines are Gaussian fitting curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Horizontal and (b) vertical profiles measured at different laser pulse energy levels (75, 150, 225, and 300 mJ , from bottom to top). The measurement station is 12. The measured beam parameters are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Laser beam spot positions on the vacuum window used in the experiment. The large circle corresponds to the clear aperture size ( ϕ 4 cm ) of the focusing lens, while the inner circle ( ϕ 2 cm ) shows the laser beam position variation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured beam parameters as a function of ion beam positions. (a) Measured beam sizes and (c) center positions as a function of horizontal position of the ion beam. (b) Measured beam sizes and (d) center positions as a function of vertical position of the ion beam.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured H Beam Parameters, Beam Size σ H ( σ V ) , Beam Center Position C H ( C V ) , and Profile Amplitude A H ( A V ) , at Different Laser Pulse Energy Levels a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured H Beam Parameters at Different Laser Beam Positions a

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