Abstract

In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary sources, depending on circumstances. The system is controlled by a light detector. We used optical simulation tools to design and simulate the efficiency of the active module. Finally, we used the natural light illumination system to provide natural illumination for a traffic tunnel. This system will provide a great number of benefits for the people who use it.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Andre and J. Schade, “Daylighting by optical fiber,” Masters thesis (Luleå University of Technology, 2002).
  3. Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).
  4. Y. Wu, “Research and development of solar light pipes in China,” in 2008 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 3, pp. 146–149.
  5. A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. L. Martin, “An overview of daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 73, 77–82 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Bouchet and M. Fontoynont, “Day-lighting of underground spaces: design rules,” Energ. Buildings 23, 293–298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Rosemann and H. Kaase, “Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 78, 772–780 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (9)

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

2005 (1)

A. Rosemann and H. Kaase, “Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 78, 772–780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. L. Martin, “An overview of daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 73, 77–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Bouchet and M. Fontoynont, “Day-lighting of underground spaces: design rules,” Energ. Buildings 23, 293–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andre, E.

E. Andre and J. Schade, “Daylighting by optical fiber,” Masters thesis (Luleå University of Technology, 2002).

Bouchet, B.

B. Bouchet and M. Fontoynont, “Day-lighting of underground spaces: design rules,” Energ. Buildings 23, 293–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. A.

C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. N.

C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Y.

C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, K. H.

K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontoynont, M.

B. Bouchet and M. Fontoynont, “Day-lighting of underground spaces: design rules,” Energ. Buildings 23, 293–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

Kaase, H.

A. Rosemann and H. Kaase, “Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 78, 772–780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

Li, Y. C.

Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

Martin, K. L.

K. L. Martin, “An overview of daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 73, 77–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, P. H.

P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosemann, A.

A. Rosemann and H. Kaase, “Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 78, 772–780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schade, J.

E. Andre and J. Schade, “Daylighting by optical fiber,” Masters thesis (Luleå University of Technology, 2002).

Wang, C. C.

A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whang, A. J. W.

A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. Y.

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

Y. Wu, “Research and development of solar light pipes in China,” in 2008 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 3, pp. 146–149.

Yang, S. H.

S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

Energ. Buildings (1)

B. Bouchet and M. Fontoynont, “Day-lighting of underground spaces: design rules,” Energ. Buildings 23, 293–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

Y. Wu, R. Jin, D. Li, W. Zhang, and C. Ma, “Experimental investigation of top lighting and side lighting solar light pipes under sunny conditions in winter in Beijing,” Proc. SPIE 7157, 1–6 (2008).

S. H. Yang, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Using prismatic structure and brightness enhancement film to design cascadable unit of static solar concentrator in natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230J (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Pan, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical coupler of natural light guiding system based on prismatic structure and microlens array,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230I (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Chou, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An optical switch of natural light guiding system based on cubic structure with Fresnel surface,” Proc. SPIE 7428, 74280O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Li, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “A beam splitter of natural light guiding system based on dichroic prism for ecological illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 742909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Lee, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and optimization of dot pattern in illumination lightpipe of natural light guiding system,” Proc. SPIE 7429, 74290A (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7422, 74220Z(2009).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Chen, Y. Y. Chen, and A. J. W. Whang, “Design and evaluation of natural light guiding system in ecological illumination of traffic tunnel,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 742300(2009).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energy (1)

A. J. W. Whang, C. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design of cascadable optical unit to compress light for light transmission used for indoor illumination,” Renew. Energy 34, 2280–2295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (2)

K. L. Martin, “An overview of daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 73, 77–82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosemann and H. Kaase, “Lightpipe applications for daylighting systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. 78, 772–780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (1)

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and B. Y. Wu, “Innovative design of cassegrain solar concentrator system for indoor illumination utilizing chromatic aberration to filter out ultraviolet and infrared in sunlight,” Solar Energy 83, 1115–122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Andre and J. Schade, “Daylighting by optical fiber,” Masters thesis (Luleå University of Technology, 2002).

Y. Wu, “Research and development of solar light pipes in China,” in 2008 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (IEEE, 2008), Vol. 3, pp. 146–149.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (27)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of an indoor lighting system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the natural light illumination system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sunlight path in a static light concentrator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the cascadable unit, which is a prismatic structure and can be separated into two parts.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Static prism concentrator with prism array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Efficiency of the concentrator with different incident angles θ i .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Traditional coupler 2 × 1 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Redesigned stepped coupler.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of coupler ray tracing.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

To find the best length and width rate, we changed the length and width ratios from 1 1 to 10 1 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cubic structure under changing direction condition.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Rays of the original optical switch.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Rays of the optical switch after second optimization.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The ray tracing of the optical switch under real conditions.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Pictures of dichroic mirror (left) and dichroic prism (right).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Model of the beam splitter.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Simulation.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Diagram of the simulation.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Ray tracing of the simulation.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Dynamic lighting module with five lightpipes and 100 LEDs.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Illumination distribution (left) and detected flux (right) for Condition 1.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Illumination distribution (left) and detected flux (right) for Condition 2.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Illumination distribution (left) and detected flux (right) for Condition 3.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Illustration of the ecological illumination system.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

This is a frontal view of the tunnel.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Simulation results for one lamp.

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

Simulation results for six lamps.

Tables (10)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Incident Angle of Sunlight at Different Times a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best Coupling Efficiency is 50.28% while Length Width is 1 1

Tables Icon

Table 3 Schematic Diagrams of the Components

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of Uniformity With and Without Optical Design

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of Different Dot Patterns

Tables Icon

Table 6 Summary of Simulations for Each Condition

Tables Icon

Table 7 Parameters of Traffic Tunnels

Tables Icon

Table 8 Requirements for Illumination

Tables Icon

Table 9 Chinese National Standards of Illumination in Traffic Tunnels

Tables Icon

Table 10 Numbers of Collecting Units in Each Section of the Traffic Tunnel

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = F × U × M × N K × L × W .

Metrics