Abstract

Future missions for astrophysical studies in the submillimeter region will need detectors with very high sensitivity and large fields of view. Bolometer arrays can fulfill these requirements over a very broad band. We describe a technique that enables bolometer arrays that use quarter-wave cavities to have a high spectral response over most of the submillimeter band. This technique is based on the addition on the front of the array of an antireflecting dielectric layer. The optimum parameters (layer thickness and distance to the array) are determined by a 2D analytic code. This general principle is applied to the case of Herschel PACS bolometers (optimized for the 60 to 210μm band). As an example, we demonstrate experimentally that a PACS array covered by a 138μm thick silicon layer can improve the spectral response by a factor of 1.7 in the 450μm band.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Sebring, “The Cornell Caltech Atacama Telescope: progress and plans 2010,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77331X (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Nakagawa and H. Murakami, “Mid- and far-infrared astronomy mission SPICA,” Adv. Space Res. 40, 679–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Monacelli, J. B. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. D. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 53, 745–752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

P. Agnèse, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, and J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. J. Bock, D. Chen, P. D. Mauskopf, and A. E. Lange, “A novel bolometer for infrared and millimeter-wave astrophysics,” Space Sci. Rev. 74, 229–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

R. L. Fante and M. T. McCormack, “Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 36, 1443–1454 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. J. Langley and E. A. Parker, “Equivalent circuit model for arrays of square loops,” Electron. Lett. 18, 294–296(1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. A. Matula, “Electrical resistivity of copper, gold, palladium, and silver,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 1147–1298(1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. L. Kautz, “Picosecond pulses on superconducting striplines,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 308–314 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

D. C. Mattis and J. Bardeen, “Theory of the anomalous skin effect in normal and superconducting metals,” Phys. Rev. 111, 412–417 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1175–1204 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1950 (1)

F. Abelès, “La théorie générale des couches minces,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 307–310 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès, “La théorie générale des couches minces,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 307–310 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Agnèse, P.

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Agnèse, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, and J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

André, Ph.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Auguéres, J.-L.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bardeen, J.

D. C. Mattis and J. Bardeen, “Theory of the anomalous skin effect in normal and superconducting metals,” Phys. Rev. 111, 412–417 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1175–1204 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Beck, W. A.

Béguin, A.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, P.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Billot, N.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J. J.

M. J. Griffin, J. J. Bock, and W. K. Gear, “Relative performance of filled and feedhorn-coupled focal-plane architectures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6543–6554 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bock, D. Chen, P. D. Mauskopf, and A. E. Lange, “A novel bolometer for infrared and millimeter-wave astrophysics,” Space Sci. Rev. 74, 229–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bontemps, S.

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Booth, R.

R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

B. Monacelli, J. B. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. D. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 53, 745–752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouére, A.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boulade, O.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buzzi, C.

P. Agnèse, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, and J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cara, C.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cesarsky, C.

R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

J. J. Bock, D. Chen, P. D. Mauskopf, and A. E. Lange, “A novel bolometer for infrared and millimeter-wave astrophysics,” Space Sci. Rev. 74, 229–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cloué, C.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, L. N.

J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, “Theory of superconductivity,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1175–1204 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Crone, G.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, W.

J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Breuck, C.

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dennison, D. M.

Doumayrou, E.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, D.

G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Duband, L.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ercolani, E.

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Fante and M. T. McCormack, “Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 36, 1443–1454 (1988).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gear, W. K.

Geis, N.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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Gunning, W. J.

Güsten, R.

R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
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Hamon, G.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Horeau, B.

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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B. Monacelli, J. B. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. D. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 53, 745–752 (2005).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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Lagage, P.-O.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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J. J. Bock, D. Chen, P. D. Mauskopf, and A. E. Lange, “A novel bolometer for infrared and millimeter-wave astrophysics,” Space Sci. Rev. 74, 229–235 (1995).
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N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Pennec, J.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lepennec, J.

N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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Martignac, J.

V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
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J. J. Bock, D. Chen, P. D. Mauskopf, and A. E. Lange, “A novel bolometer for infrared and millimeter-wave astrophysics,” Space Sci. Rev. 74, 229–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCammon, D.

J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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R. L. Fante and M. T. McCormack, “Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 36, 1443–1454 (1988).
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R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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B. Monacelli, J. B. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. D. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 53, 745–752 (2005).
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N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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Pryor, J. B.

B. Monacelli, J. B. Pryor, B. A. Munk, D. Kotter, and G. D. Boreman, “Infrared frequency selective surface based on circuit-analog square loop design,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 53, 745–752 (2005).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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P. Agnèse, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, and J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 284–290 (1999).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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R. Güsten, L. Å. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, “The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)—a new submillimeter facility for southern skies,” Astron. Astrophys. 454, L13–L16 (2006).
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G. L. Pilbratt, J. R. Riedinger, T. Passvogel, G. Crone, D. Doyle, U. Gageur, A. M. Heras, C. Jewell, L. Metcalfe, S. Ott, and M. Schmidt, “Herschel Space Observatory: an ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L1–L7 (2010).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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N. Billot, P. Agnèse, J.-L. Auguéres, A. Béguin, A. Bouére, O. Boulade, C. Cara, C. Cloué, E. Doumayrou, L. Duband, B. Horeau, I. le Mer, J. Lepennec, J. Martignac, K. Okumura, V. Revéret, M. Sauvage, F. Simoens, and L. Vigroux, “The Herschel/PACS 2560 bolometers imaging camera,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62650D (2006).
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Stahle, C. K.

J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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Stutzki, J.

Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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Ph. André, V. Minier, P. Gallais, V. Revéret, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, M. Talvard, C. De Breuck, G. Hamon, N. Schneider, S. Bontemps, P.-O. Lagage, E. Pantin, H. Roussel, M. Miller, C. R. Purcell, T. Hill, and J. Stutzki, “First 450 μm dust continuum mapping of the massive star-forming region NGC 3576 with the P-ArTéMiS bolometer camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 490, L27–L30 (2008).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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P. Agnèse, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, and J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 284–290 (1999).
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A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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Waelkens, C.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, L. Rodriguez, O. Krause, and E. Renotte, “The Photodetector Array camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory,” Astron. Astrophys. 518, L2–L13 (2010).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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M. Talvard, Ph. André, L. Rodriguez, J. Le Pennec, C. De Breuck, V. Revéret, P. Agnèse, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, E. Ercolani, P. Gallais, B. Horeau, P.-O. Lagage, B. Leriche, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Minier, E. Pantin, D. Rabanus, J. Relland, and G. Willmann, “Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera,” Proc. SPIE 7020, 702009 (2008).
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V. Minier, Ph. André, P. Bergman, F. Motte, F. Wyrowski, J. Le Pennec, L. Rodriguez, O. Boulade, E. Doumayrou, D. Dubreuil, P. Gallais, G. Hamon, P.-O. Lagage, M. Lortholary, J. Martignac, V. Revéret, H. Roussel, M. Talvard, G. Willmann, and H. Olofsson, “Evidence of triggered star formation in G327.3-0.6: dust-continuum mapping of an infrared dark cloud with P-ArTéMiS,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, L1–L4 (2009).
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J. Zhang, W. Cui, M. Juda, D. McCammon, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, and A. E. Szymkowiak, “Hopping conduction in partially compensated doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2312–2319 (1993).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) View of the PACS 16 × 16 bolometer arrays. (b) Microscope view of single bolometers inside an array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Side view of the quarter-wave cavity architecture (Salisbury screen) of the PACS bolometric pixel. The absorber (square loops) is deposited on the back side of the silicon grid. (b) View of the pixel grid from below. The Si:P:B thermometer is located at the center of the silicon grid. The grid is linked to the interpixel walls via narrow silicon beams ( 2 μm wide). The silicon walls are 450 μm high and 70 μm thick. The pixel pitch is 750 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simple case of a thin film with refractive index n 1 and thickness d 1 over a substrate with refractive index n s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sketch of the TiN square-loop array deposited on the structured silicon grid (light gray): p = 35 μm , s = 4.4 μm , g = 4.4 μm , and d = 30.6 μm . (b) The electrical equivalent (RLC circuit) of the square-loop array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated absorption curves for the PACS bolometers ( 20 μm cavity, 35 μm square loops) for different cases (see the legend). The PACS short photometric band is represented by the blue area (60 to 110 μm ) and the PACS long band is in purple (110 to 210 μm ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Average performance coefficient ( C abs ) in the 450 μm band as a function of airgap thickness and silicon AR layer thickness. Cases A, B, and C are described in the text. (b) Thin film representation of the PACS bolometric pixel + the   AR layer on the top of it (semi-infinite layers, not to scale).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulated spectral response for the PACS + AR layer (solution C in Fig. 6a: airgap = 450 μm , silicon AR = 138 μm ). The red surface represents the 450 μm atmospheric band. (b) Influence of the angle of incidence on the absorption coefficient in the 450 μm band.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral responses of a 20 μm λ / 4 cavity covered by different AR layer thicknesses and airgaps. Each curve corresponds to an atmospheric window defined in Table 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental spectral response of the PACS array. The gray surface corresponds to the 3 σ error bars. (b) PACS + AR experimental spectral response (solution C in Fig. 6a, 450 μm window).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Description of the Fourier transform spectrometer setup used for the spectral response characterization. The incident angle on the array has been exaggerated for clarity ( 5 ° in reality). The two curves are examples showing typical spectra from reflected reference beam (above) and reflected array beam.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Layer Parameters for PACS Bolometers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Absorption Coefficient in Different Atmospheric Bands

Equations (18)

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( E a H a ) = ( cos β 1 ( i sin β 1 ) / η 1 i η 1 sin β 1 cos β 1 ) ( E b H b ) ,
β 1 = 2 π n 1 d 1 cos θ 0 λ ,
η = H E .
( E a / E b H a / E b ) = ( M ) ( 1 η s ) ,
( B C ) = { r = 1 q ( cos β r ( i sin β r ) / η r i η r sin β r cos β r ) } ( 1 η s ) ,
r = η 0 η η 0 + η ,
r = B η 0 C B η 0 + C .
δ = 2 ω μ 0 μ r σ ,
( E a / E b + H a / E b + ) = ( B C ) = ( M ) ( 0 2 η 1 ) .
Z loop = R s + i ( X L + 1 B C ) .
X L = Z 0 d p H ( p , 2 s , λ ) ,
B C = 4 Z 0 d p H ( p , g , λ ) .
n ˜ abs = 1 2 ρ ϵ 0 ω ( 1 i ) ,
n eff = [ ( 1 f + f n Si 2 ) [ ( 1 f ) n Si 2 + f ] + n Si 2 2 [ ( 1 f ) n Si 2 + f ] ] 1 / 2 ,
H ( p , s , λ ) = p λ cos θ [ ln ( 1 sin π s 2 p ) + G ( p , s , λ ) ] ,
G ( p , s , λ ) = 1 2 ( 1 ϕ 2 ) 2 [ ( 1 ϕ 2 4 ) ( A + + A ) + 4 ϕ 2 A + A ] ( 1 ϕ 2 4 ) + ϕ 2 ( 1 + ϕ 2 2 ϕ 4 8 ) ( A + + A ) + 2 ϕ 6 A + A ,
A ± = 1 1 ± 2 p sin θ λ ( p cos θ λ ) 2 1 ,
ϕ = sin π s 2 p .

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