Abstract

A new diagnostic technique for measurements of temperature and pressure distribution in gaseous flows has been developed. The technique, based on infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence (IR-PLIF), is applicable to all IR-active species. A simple two-line excitation approach is used for measurements of temperature, while pressure measurements utilize online excitation on one rotational line and offline excitation on another. A demonstration of the technique in a supersonic underexpanded jet of 30% CO2 and 70% N2 was performed, and the results are, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of temperature and pressure imaging using IR-PLIF. The developed diagnostic shows potential for single-shot two-dimensional measurements of temperature and pressure in gaseous flows.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2007

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, “High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 41–47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Boguszko and G. S. Elliott, “On the use of filtered Rayleigh scattering for measurements in compressible flows and thermal fields,” Exp. Fluids 38, 33–49 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

P. Birkby and G. J. Page, “Numerical predictions of turbulent underexpanded sonic jets using a pressure-based methodology,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G 215, 165–173(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Panda, “An experimental investigation of screech noise generation,” J. Fluid Mech. 378, 71–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Panda, “Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 363, 173–198 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Lachney and N. T. Clemens, “PLIF imaging of mean temperature and pressure in a supersonic bluff wake,” Exp. Fluids 24, 354–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Lemoine and B. Leporcq, “An efficient optical pressure measurement in compressible flows—laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 19, 150–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

1990

1989

S. G. Chuech, M. C. Lai, and G. M. Faeth, “Structure of turbulent sonic underexpanded free jets,” AIAA J. 27, 549–559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, “Temperature-measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 12, 16–18 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, and P. Logan, “Measurements of temperature, density, pressure, and their fluctuations in supersonic turbulence using laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 5, 372–380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. M. Dash, D. E. Wolf, and J. M. Seiner, “Analysis of turbulent underexpanded jets. Part I: Shock noise features using SCIPVIS,” AIAA J. 23, 505–514 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, “Tunable diode-laser absorption-measurements of nitric-oxide in combustion gases,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81–99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1948

D. C. Pack, “On the formation of shock-waves in supersonic gas jets (2-dimensional flow),” Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 1, 1–17(1948).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, “High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 41–47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alwahabi, Z. T.

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, “High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm,” Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 41–47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, P. A.

M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birkby, P.

P. Birkby and G. J. Page, “Numerical predictions of turbulent underexpanded sonic jets using a pressure-based methodology,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G 215, 165–173(2001).
[CrossRef]

Boguszko, M.

M. Boguszko and G. S. Elliott, “On the use of filtered Rayleigh scattering for measurements in compressible flows and thermal fields,” Exp. Fluids 38, 33–49 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bouche, T.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R.

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chuech, S. G.

S. G. Chuech, M. C. Lai, and G. M. Faeth, “Structure of turbulent sonic underexpanded free jets,” AIAA J. 27, 549–559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, N. T.

E. R. Lachney and N. T. Clemens, “PLIF imaging of mean temperature and pressure in a supersonic bluff wake,” Exp. Fluids 24, 354–363 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dash, S. M.

S. M. Dash, D. E. Wolf, and J. M. Seiner, “Analysis of turbulent underexpanded jets. Part I: Shock noise features using SCIPVIS,” AIAA J. 23, 505–514 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, G. S.

M. Boguszko and G. S. Elliott, “On the use of filtered Rayleigh scattering for measurements in compressible flows and thermal fields,” Exp. Fluids 38, 33–49 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faeth, G. M.

S. G. Chuech, M. C. Lai, and G. M. Faeth, “Structure of turbulent sonic underexpanded free jets,” AIAA J. 27, 549–559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, P. K.

P. K. Falcone, R. K. Hanson, and C. H. Kruger, “Tunable diode-laser absorption-measurements of nitric-oxide in combustion gases,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 35, 81–99 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Fletcher, D. G.

Fujimoto, T.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

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A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

Lee, L.

E. Love, L. Grisgsby, L. Lee, and M. Woodling, “Experimental and theoretical studies of axisymmetric free jets,” Tech. Rep. (NASA Langley Research Center, 1959).

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F. Lemoine and B. Leporcq, “An efficient optical pressure measurement in compressible flows—laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 19, 150–158 (1995).
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Leporcq, B.

F. Lemoine and B. Leporcq, “An efficient optical pressure measurement in compressible flows—laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 19, 150–158 (1995).
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K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, and P. Logan, “Measurements of temperature, density, pressure, and their fluctuations in supersonic turbulence using laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 5, 372–380 (1987).
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E. Love, L. Grisgsby, L. Lee, and M. Woodling, “Experimental and theoretical studies of axisymmetric free jets,” Tech. Rep. (NASA Langley Research Center, 1959).

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M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
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Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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McKenzie, R. L.

K. P. Gross, R. L. McKenzie, and P. Logan, “Measurements of temperature, density, pressure, and their fluctuations in supersonic turbulence using laser-induced fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 5, 372–380 (1987).
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McMillin, B. K.

Monkhouse, P.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothamer, D. A.

D. A. Rothamer, J. A. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 371–384 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouche, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, and J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature-fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Smith, G. P.

M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. A.

D. A. Rothamer, J. A. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steeper, R. R.

D. A. Rothamer, J. A. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

M. Tamura, J. Luque, J. E. Harrington, P. A. Berg, G. P. Smith, J. B. Jeffries, and D. R. Crosley, “Laser-induced fluorescence of seeded nitric oxide as a flame thermometer,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 503–510 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of absorption cross sections for the R(22) and R(10) lines of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 near 2.0 μm plotted as a function of temperature for several different pressures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of simple ratio relation of Eq. (6) relative to detailed calculations, including pressure broadening.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption cross-section ratio for offset and online excitation on the same rotational line, the R(22) line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 , with an offset frequency of Δ ν off = 0.040 cm 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption cross-section ratio calculated using the simple relation of Eq. (13), as well as detailed calculations for the case of offset excitation ( Δ ν off = 0.025 cm 1 ) on the R(22) and on-line excitation on the R(10) line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption cross-section ratio calculated using the simple relation of Eq. (13) for the case of offset excitation ( Δ ν off = 0.05 cm 1 ) on the R(22) and on-line excitation on the R(10) line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 . A curve is also shown for the case of isentropic expansion from 300 K and 740   Torr .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic showing the flow-field features for an underexpanded jet.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for IR-PLIF imaging of temperature and pressure in a supersonic underexpanded jet.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Single-shot IR-PLIF image of an underexpanded jet of 30% CO 2 and 70% N 2 injected into 100% N 2 . Excitation performed on line center of the R(10) rotational line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Single-shot IR-PLIF image of an underexpanded jet of 30% CO 2 and 70% N 2 injected into 100% N 2 . Excitation performed on line center of the R(22) rotational line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Single-shot IR-PLIF image of an underexpanded jet of 30% CO 2 and 70% N 2 injected into 100% N 2 . Excitation performed offset from line center of the R(22) rotational line of the 20 0 1 I I 00 0 0 I combination band of CO 2 . Frequency offset Δ ν off = 0.025 cm 1 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Centerline temperature profile and (b) temperature image, measured using the average of five images from the R(10) online excitation and the R(22) online excitation for the underexpanded jet of CO 2 and N 2 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Centerline pressure profile and (b) pressure image, measured using the average of five images from R(10) on-line excitation and R(22) offset excitation for the underexpanded jet of CO 2 and N 2 . Excitation offset of Δ ν off = 0.025 cm 1 on the R(22) line.

Equations (14)

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S f = E h c ν d V c [ χ abs P k T ] σ ( T , P , ν η η , ν 0 ) ϕ ( T , P , χ i ) η coll ,
ϕ ( τ ) = i j 0 τ A i j Δ n i ( t ) N abs ,
σ ( ν 0 , T , P ) = S tot ( ν , T , P ) g ( ν , ν 0 ) d ν ,
S tot ( ν , T , P ) = η η S η η ( T ) f ( ν , ν η η , T , P ) ,
S f 2 S f 1 = E 2 / h c ν 2 E 1 / h c ν 1 d V c 2 d V c 1 σ ( T , P , ν η η 2 , ν 0 2 ) σ ( T , P , ν η η 1 , ν 0 1 ) = C cal σ ( T , P , ν η η 1 , ν 0 ) σ ( T , P , ν η η 2 , ν 0 ) ,
S f 2 S f 1 = C cal exp ( h c Δ ϵ 21 / k T ) ,
δ T T = k T h c Δ ϵ 21 δ R R ,
σ 2 ( ν η η 2 , ν 0 2 , T , P ) σ 1 ( ν η η 1 , ν 0 1 , T , P ) = S η η 2 ( T ) f 2 ( ν , ν η η 2 , T , P ) g 2 ( ν , ν 0 2 ) d ν S η η 1 ( T ) f 1 ( ν , ν η η 1 , T , P ) g ( ν , ν 0 1 ) d ν ,
σ 2 ( ν η η 2 , ν 0 2 , T , P ) σ 1 ( ν η η 1 , ν 0 1 , T , P ) = S η η 2 ( T ) f 2 ( ν 0 2 , ν η η 2 , T , P ) S η η 1 ( T ) f 1 ( ν 0 1 , ν η η 1 , T , P ) .
f ( ν , ν η η , T , P ) = 1 π γ ( T , P ) ( ν ν η η ) 2 + γ ( T , P ) 2 ,
σ 2 ( ν η η 2 , ν 0 2 , T , P ) σ 1 ( ν η η 1 , ν 0 1 , T , P ) = S η η 2 ( T ) S η η 1 ( T ) γ 2 ( T , P ) Δ ν off 2 + γ 2 ( T , P ) ,
S η η 2 ( T ) S η η 1 ( T ) = C exp ( h c Δ ϵ 21 / k T ) ,
σ 2 ( ν η η 2 , ν 0 2 , T , P ) σ 1 ( ν η η 1 , ν 0 1 , T , P ) = C exp ( h c Δ ϵ 21 / k T ) 1 + ( Δ ν off / γ ( T , P ) ) 2 .
R σ 21 ( T , P , ν η η 2 , ν η η 1 , ν 0 2 , ν 0 1 ) = S f 2 / S f 2 cal S f 1 / S f 1 cal R σ 21 ( T cal , P cal , ν η η 2 , ν η η 1 , ν 0 2 , ν 0 1 ) ,

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