Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua platform has nine spectral bands with center wavelengths from 412 to 870nm that are used to produce the standard ocean color data products. Ocean scenes usually contain high contrast due to the presence of bright clouds over dark water. About half of the MODIS Aqua ocean pixels are flagged as spatial stray light contaminated. The MODIS has been characterized for stray light effects prelaunch. In this paper, we derive point-spread functions for the MODIS Aqua ocean bands based on prelaunch line-spread function measurements. The stray light contamination of ocean scenes is evaluated based on artificial test scenes and on-orbit data.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Hurt and P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 near field response,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07729 Rev. A (2000).
  11. P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 Harvey–Shack scattering model analysis,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07881 (2002).
  12. C. Morbey and J. B. Hutchings, “Telescope baffle performance for Lyman Far Ultraviolet Spectrographic Explorer,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3570–3584 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. B. Young, “Point spread function (PSF) near field response measurement methodology—revision,” SBRS internal memorandum, Ref. PL3095-N05401 (1995).
  14. Although it may be possible to restrict the photon acquisition time of the detector to only the time when the detector FOV image falls exactly in the desired pixel boundary, this would result in a very short acquisition time, and, therefore, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Allowing the detectors to acquire photons even when the FOV is not in the ideal position is a compromise between SNR and contrast resolution that was made during instrument design.
  15. M. Nishihama, “MODIS Level 1A Earth location: algorithm theoretical basis document Version 3.0,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1997).
  16. NASA, “Specifications for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” GSFC 422-20-02, Revision A (1993).
  17. I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Varnai and A. Marshak, “MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06807 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).
  23. H. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452(1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: analysis of the effects of residual instrument polarization sensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6938–6948(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Varnai and A. Marshak, “MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Bailey, S. W.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Baith, K.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Barnes, R. A.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, J. C.

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Darzi, M.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

DeFries, R. S.

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Derrick, P.

P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 Harvey–Shack scattering model analysis,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07881 (2002).

T. Hurt and P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 near field response,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07729 Rev. A (2000).

Du, T.

Early, E.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Eplee, R. E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G C.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, G.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Godden, G.

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Godden, G. D.

E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gooden, G. D.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

Gordon, H. R.

Guenther, B.

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. M.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, T.

T. Hurt and P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 near field response,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07729 Rev. A (2000).

Hutchings, J. B.

Johnson, B.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Johnson, B. C.

Kalluri, S. N. V.

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khayat, M. G.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, E. J.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knyazikhin, Y.

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koren, I.

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, L.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, R.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lykke, K. R.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshak, A.

T. Varnai and A. Marshak, “MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martins, J. V.

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meister, G.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H.

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morbey, C.

Mueller, J.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Nishihama, M.

M. Nishihama, “MODIS Level 1A Earth location: algorithm theoretical basis document Version 3.0,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1997).

Ohno, Y.

Pagano, T. S.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, C. L.

C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pilewski, P.

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, S.

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Redemann, J.

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudich, Y.

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Townshend, J. R. G.

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Varnai, T.

T. Varnai and A. Marshak, “MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waluschka, E.

E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, X.

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6796–6810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, E.

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Young, J. B.

J. B. Young, “Point spread function (PSF) near field response measurement methodology—revision,” SBRS internal memorandum, Ref. PL3095-N05401 (1995).

Zhang, Q.

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Zong, Y.

G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, “Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1111–1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewski, and W. J. Wiscombe, “Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 1419–1430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS, a data analysis system for ocean-color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, 202–205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

T. Varnai and A. Marshak, “MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Koren, L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, Y. Rudich, and J. V. Martins, “On the twilight zone between clouds and aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (3)

B. Guenther, G. D. Gooden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1)

B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra: limitations for ocean color applications,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. Redemann, Q. Zhang, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, and L. A. Remer, “Case studies of aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

S. Qiu, G. Godden, X. Wang, and B. Guenther, “Satellite-Earth remote sensor scatter effects on Earth scene radiometric accuracy,” Metrologia 37, 411–414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

G. Meister, Y. Zong, and C. R. McClain , “Derivation of the MODIS Aqua point-spread function for ocean color bands,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70811F (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. J. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W(2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Waluschka, S. Qiu, and G. D. Godden, “MODIS stray light simulation,” Proc. SPIE 2864, 350–360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, G. Meister, R. A. Barnes, and K. R. Lykke, “Characterization and correction of stray light in optical instruments,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

C. Huang, J. R. G. Townshend, S. Liang, S. N. V. Kalluri, and R. S. DeFries, “Impact of sensor’s point spread function on land cover characterization: assessment and deconvolution,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80, 203–212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. B. Young, “Point spread function (PSF) near field response measurement methodology—revision,” SBRS internal memorandum, Ref. PL3095-N05401 (1995).

Although it may be possible to restrict the photon acquisition time of the detector to only the time when the detector FOV image falls exactly in the desired pixel boundary, this would result in a very short acquisition time, and, therefore, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Allowing the detectors to acquire photons even when the FOV is not in the ideal position is a compromise between SNR and contrast resolution that was made during instrument design.

M. Nishihama, “MODIS Level 1A Earth location: algorithm theoretical basis document Version 3.0,” NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1997).

NASA, “Specifications for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” GSFC 422-20-02, Revision A (1993).

T. Hurt and P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 near field response,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07729 Rev. A (2000).

P. Derrick, “MODIS FM1 Harvey–Shack scattering model analysis,” Raytheon, Interdepartmental Correspondence, Ref. PL3095-N07881 (2002).

E. Yeh, R. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. Early, B. Johnson, J. Mueller, and C. Trees, “Case Studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, Part 4,” NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center 41, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (1997).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, NFR measurements (diamonds) and NFR modeled from PSF (solid curve) for MODIS Aqua band 11. Right, MODIS Aqua band 11 PSF in track direction (solid curve) and scan direction (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeled MODIS Aqua PSF for band 16, detector 1 (left) and detector 10 (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Artificial test images used in Section 5: large cloud (left) and small cloud (right). Hatched areas indicate clouds. Dashed line shows location where radiance error was evaluated. Length of this line and size of small cloud are not to scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contamination of TOA radiances over ocean due to a large cloud (semi-infinite) for band 11. Ratio Lcloud/Ltyp is 20.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contamination of TOA radiances over ocean due to a large cloud (semi-infinite) for bands 8–16. The cloud is at the end of the scan (EOS). Stars indicate band 11 for better readability. Ratio Lcloud/Ltyp is 20 for all bands.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contamination of TOA radiances over ocean due to a large cloud (semi-infinite) for bands 8–16. The cloud is at the EOS. Stars indicate band 11 for better readability. Ratio Lcloud/Ltyp is taken from Table 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contamination of TOA radiances over ocean due to a small cloud ( 10 × 10 pixels) at the EOS. Ratio Lcloud/Ltyp is taken from Table 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Browse images for MODIS Aqua granules A20030701810, A20030702305, and 20031271435 (left to right), provided by LAADS Web (http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of calculation of “Distance to cloud” for an area of 6 × 6 pixels with two distinct clouds. Hatched areas are pixels identified as clouds, numbers indicate “Distance to cloud” value for remaining pixels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Number of occurrences (or number of pixels) for each “Distance to cloud” in the investigated data files. The black, red, and blue curves are for Aqua granules A20030701810, A20030702305, and 20031271435, respectively. The green curves are for SeaWiFS MLAC data, files S2003070224619 and S1999117171012 (only scan lines 4712 to 7439 were used from the first file, lines 4512 to 7254 from the second file, and lines 10,000 to 12,900 from the second file (dashed curve).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average TOA radiances for each set of pixels “Distance to cloud x” (with 1 x < 40 ) for MODIS Aqua bands 8–16. Radiance unit is mW / ( cm 2 sr μm ) . The black, red, and blue curves are for granules A20030701810, A20030702305, and 20031271435, respectively. The green curves are for SeaWiFS MLAC data; see caption of Fig. 10. To fit the plotting range, SeaWiFS radiances (bands 1–3 and 5–8) were normalized to the starting point of the black curve. MODIS bands 11 and 14 (531 and 678 nm ) have no direct equivalent in SeaWiFS.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average ocean color products for each set of pixels “Distance to cloud x” (with 1 x < 40 ) for MODIS Aqua and SeaWiFS. Water-leaving radiance (nLw) unit is mW / ( cm 2 sr μm ) , chlorophyll unit is mg / m 3 , AOT (taua) and epsilon are dimensionless. The black, red, and blue curves are for granules A20030701810, A20030702305, and 20031271435, respectively. The green curves are for SeaWiFS MLAC data; see caption of Fig. 10. The missing SeaWiFS line for chlorophyll is out of the plotting range (minimum value of that curve is 0.2, with a shape similar to the black curve).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Modeled PSF of the 3 × 3 Central Pixels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications [16] for the MODIS Ocean Color Bands and Ratio of Sum of 3 × 3 Central PSF Pixels to Total PSF (i.e., Sum of PSF with 512 × 512 Elements) for MODIS Aqua a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L m ( x 0 , y 0 ) = i , j PSF ( i x 0 , j y 0 ) · L T ( i , j ) ,
i , j PSF ( i , j ) = 1.
ρ = A · ( | ( sin ( θ + ϕ 0 ) sin ( ϕ 0 ) ) | 0.01 ) m · ( IFOV · mag ) 2 ,
L e ( x 0 , y 0 ) = L m ( x 0 , y 0 ) L T ( x 0 , y 0 ) ,

Metrics