Abstract

An all-fiber sensor scheme for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement is presented. The sensing head is formed by serially connecting a polarization maintaining photonic-crystal-fiber-based inter-modal interferometer (IMI) with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The IMI, exhibiting an opposite strain response as compared to that of the FBG, is highly sensitive to strain, while it is insensitive to temperature. This has potential for improving the strain and temperature measurement resolutions. A sensor resolution of ±8.3με in strain and ±2°C in temperature are experimentally achieved within a strain range of 0957.6με and a temperature range of 24°C64°C, respectively.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Frazão and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. W. Shu, D. H. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Use of dual-grating sensors formed by different types of fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2006–2012 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16, 11369–11375(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. W. Shu, D. H. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Use of dual-grating sensors formed by different types of fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2006–2012 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Cai, Z.

Chan, H. L. W.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diogo, E.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dockney, M. L.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

Dong, X. Y.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

Hwang, D.

James, S. W.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, C.-Y.

Lit, J. W. Y.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-K.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lucas, A. B.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

Manuel, B. M.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

Maria, T. M. R. G.

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

Marques, L. M.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y. S.

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Nguyen, L. V.

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

Shum, P.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. W.

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, D. H.

Zhou, D.-P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1133–1134(1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, E. Diogo, A. B. Lucas, T. M. R. G. Maria, and B. M. Manuel, “Strain and temperature discrimination using high-birefringence erbium-doped fiber loop mirror with high pump power laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1033–1035(2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. W. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

O. Frazão and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, W.-K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–608 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the experimental setup (inset is the structure of the IMI).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical transmission spectrum of the sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial frequency spectrum of the IMI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectral response to strain.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured wavelength shifts of the FBG and IMI as functions of the strain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmission spectral response to temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured wavelength shift of the FBG as a function of the temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensor output obtained by Eq. (4) for the applied temperature and strain.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ IMI K IMI ε ε + K IMI T Δ T ,
[ Δ λ FBG Δ λ IMI ] = [ K FBG T K FBG ε K IMI T K IMI ε ] [ Δ T ε ] ,
[ δ ( Δ T ) δ ( ε ) ] = ± 1 D [ | K IMI ε | | K FBG ε | | K IMI T | | K FBG T | ] [ | δ ( Δ λ FBG ) | | δ ( Δ λ IMI ) | ] ,
[ Δ λ FBG Δ λ IMI ] = [ 10.13 1.03 0 1.91 ] [ Δ T ε ] .
[ δ T δ ε ] = ± 1 19.3483 [ 1.91 1.03 0 10.13 ] [ δ λ FBG δ λ IMI ] .

Metrics