Abstract

Telemetry data from the solar adaptive optics (AO) system at the 0.76m aperture Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) was used to estimate the long-exposure point spread function (PSF) delivered by the AO. The AO-corrected images were deconvolved ex post facto using the PSF estimate in order to improve the quantitative photometry of the images and the reliability of other derived physical quantities. Observations of the bright star Sirius obtained with the solar AO system produced direct measurements of the long-exposure PSF that were compared to the estimated PSFs. The match between estimates and direct measurements of the PSF is excellent, thus validating the implementation of the PSF estimation method for the DST AO system, which deploys a correlating Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. The beneficial effect of postprocessing long-exposure solar images with the estimated PSFs is demonstrated for several observing situations, including stable and variable seeing conditions. The advantages and limitations of the application of the PSF estimation method to solar imagery and the quantitative measurements obtained from the observations are discussed in the broader context of solar AO observations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  3. M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
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  5. J.-P. Véran, F. Rigaut, H. Maitre, and D. Rouan, “Estimation of the adaptive optics long-exposure point-spread function using control loop data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3057–3069 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. Gavel, “Suppressing anomalous localized waffle behavior in least-squares wavefront reconstructors,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 972–980 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. J. Evershed, “Radial movement in sun-spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 69, 454–457 (1909).
  14. T. Rimmele and J. Marino, “The Evershed flow: flow geometry and its temporal evolution,” Astrophys. J. 646, 593–604(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Beckers, “The Sacramento Peak Observatory Universal Birefringent Filter,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 5, 269 (1973).
  16. M. Stix, The Sun, An Introduction, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
  17. L. Delbouille, G. Roland, and L. Neven, “Atlas photometrique du spectre solaire de λ 3000 a λ 10000” (Universite de Liege, Institut d’Astrophysique, 1990).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Woeger and T. Rimmele, “Effect of anisoplanatism on the measurement accuracy of an extended-source Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 48, A35–A46(2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wöger, O. von der Lühe, and K. Reardon, “Speckle interferometry with adaptive optics corrected solar data,” Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375–381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Rimmele and J. Marino, “The Evershed flow: flow geometry and its temporal evolution,” Astrophys. J. 646, 593–604(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Véran, and J. Marino, “OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 151–163(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. T. Gavel, “Suppressing anomalous localized waffle behavior in least-squares wavefront reconstructors,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 972–980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

M. G. Lofdahl and G. B. Scharmer, “Application of phase-diversity to solar images,” Proc. SPIE 2302, 254–267 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

1978

1973

J. M. Beckers, “The Sacramento Peak Observatory Universal Birefringent Filter,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 5, 269 (1973).

1909

J. Evershed, “Radial movement in sun-spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 69, 454–457 (1909).

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “The Sacramento Peak Observatory Universal Birefringent Filter,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 5, 269 (1973).

Biérent, R.

R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J. C.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delbouille, L.

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, and L. Neven, “Atlas photometrique du spectre solaire de λ 3000 a λ 10000” (Universite de Liege, Institut d’Astrophysique, 1990).

Denker, C. J.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Didkovsky, L. V.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dolgushin, A.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evershed, J.

J. Evershed, “Radial movement in sun-spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 69, 454–457 (1909).

Fletcher, S.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

D. T. Gavel, “Suppressing anomalous localized waffle behavior in least-squares wavefront reconstructors,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 972–980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goode, P. R.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, S.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, 1st ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

Hegwer, S.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Véran, and J. Marino, “OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 151–163(2004).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, M.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lofdahl, M. G.

M. G. Lofdahl and G. B. Scharmer, “Application of phase-diversity to solar images,” Proc. SPIE 2302, 254–267 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Löfdahl, M. G.

M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maitre, H.

Makidon, R. B.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchis, F.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marino, J.

R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele and J. Marino, “The Evershed flow: flow geometry and its temporal evolution,” Astrophys. J. 646, 593–604(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Véran, and J. Marino, “OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 151–163(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Marino, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from solar adaptive optics loop data,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2007).

Markey, J. K.

Marquette, W.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moretto, G.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murray, L.

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neven, L.

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, and L. Neven, “Atlas photometrique du spectre solaire de λ 3000 a λ 10000” (Universite de Liege, Institut d’Astrophysique, 1990).

November, L. J.

Perrin, M. D.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reardon, K.

F. Wöger, O. von der Lühe, and K. Reardon, “Speckle interferometry with adaptive optics corrected solar data,” Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375–381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, D.

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, K.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

Rimmele, T.

F. Woeger and T. Rimmele, “Effect of anisoplanatism on the measurement accuracy of an extended-source Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 48, A35–A46(2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele and J. Marino, “The Evershed flow: flow geometry and its temporal evolution,” Astrophys. J. 646, 593–604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T. R.

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C. L.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, 1st ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Roland, G.

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, and L. Neven, “Atlas photometrique du spectre solaire de λ 3000 a λ 10000” (Universite de Liege, Institut d’Astrophysique, 1990).

Rouan, D.

Scharmer, G. B.

M. G. Lofdahl and G. B. Scharmer, “Application of phase-diversity to solar images,” Proc. SPIE 2302, 254–267 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stix, M.

M. Stix, The Sun, An Introduction, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

Troy, M.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Voort, L. R.

M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Noort, M.

M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J.-P.

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Véran, and J. Marino, “OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 151–163(2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Véran, F. Rigaut, H. Maitre, and D. Rouan, “Estimation of the adaptive optics long-exposure point-spread function using control loop data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3057–3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Véran, “Estimation de la Reponse Impulsionnelle et Restauration d’Image en Optique Adaptative: Application au Systeme d’Optique Adaptative du Telescope Canada-France-Hawaii,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ecole nationale supérieure des télécommunications, 1997).

von der Lühe, O.

F. Wöger, O. von der Lühe, and K. Reardon, “Speckle interferometry with adaptive optics corrected solar data,” Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375–381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Woeger, F.

Wöger, F.

F. Wöger, O. von der Lühe, and K. Reardon, “Speckle interferometry with adaptive optics corrected solar data,” Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375–381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

F. Wöger, O. von der Lühe, and K. Reardon, “Speckle interferometry with adaptive optics corrected solar data,” Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375–381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

T. Rimmele and J. Marino, “The Evershed flow: flow geometry and its temporal evolution,” Astrophys. J. 646, 593–604(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.

J. M. Beckers, “The Sacramento Peak Observatory Universal Birefringent Filter,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 5, 269 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

J. Evershed, “Radial movement in sun-spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 69, 454–457 (1909).

Proc. SPIE

T. R. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, S. Fletcher, S. Gregory, G. Moretto, L. V. Didkovsky, C. J. Denker, A. Dolgushin, P. R. Goode, M. Langlois, J. Marino, and W. Marquette, “First results from the NSO/NJIT solar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5171, 179–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Lofdahl and G. B. Scharmer, “Application of phase-diversity to solar images,” Proc. SPIE 2302, 254–267 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Véran, and J. Marino, “OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 151–163(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Roberts, Jr., M. D. Perrin, F. Marchis, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, J. C. Christou, B. A. Macintosh, L. A. Poyneer, M. A. van Dam, and M. Troy, “Is that really your Strehl ratio?,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 504–515 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Gavel, “Suppressing anomalous localized waffle behavior in least-squares wavefront reconstructors,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 972–980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Biérent, T. Rimmele, and J. Marino, “Assessment of local seeing within a telescope lab environment,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701234 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

D. Ren, T. R. Rimmele, S. Hegwer, and L. Murray, “A single-mode fiber interferometer for the adaptive optics wave-front test,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 355–361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys.

M. van Noort, L. R. van der Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228, 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-P. Véran, “Estimation de la Reponse Impulsionnelle et Restauration d’Image en Optique Adaptative: Application au Systeme d’Optique Adaptative du Telescope Canada-France-Hawaii,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ecole nationale supérieure des télécommunications, 1997).

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, 1st ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, 1st ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

J. Marino, “Long exposure point spread function estimation from solar adaptive optics loop data,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2007).

M. Stix, The Sun, An Introduction, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, and L. Neven, “Atlas photometrique du spectre solaire de λ 3000 a λ 10000” (Universite de Liege, Institut d’Astrophysique, 1990).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

KL modal variance from solar residual WFS measurements with its corresponding atmospheric Kolmogorov modal variance ( r 0 10 cm ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modal KL variance measured from DM actuator commands versus modal KL variance predicted by Kolmogorov turbulence. The data is recorded during solar observations. An r 0 of 7.1 cm is obtained from a fit to the Kolmogorov model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectrum of WFS pixel shift measurements averaged over several subapertures for the case of solar observations and Sirius observations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AO-corrected image of Sirius in logarithmic stretch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Azimuthal averages of AO-corrected images of the star Sirius and their estimated PSFs. The values of r 0 are a, 4.6; b, 3.8; c, 4.4; and d, 4.8 cm . The Strehl ratios of the star images are a, 0.21; b, 0.18; c, 0.22; and d, 0.23. The Strehl ratios of the estimated PSFs are a, 0.23; b, 0.17; c, 0.22; and d, 0.26.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top row shows a pair of unprocessed red wing images captured 10 s apart during different seeing conditions (left, r 0 = 5.4 cm ; right, r 0 = 16.5 cm ). The Strehl ratios achieved by the AO system are S = 0.48 and S = 0.88 for the red wing images on the left and right columns, respectively. Bottom row contains the images after deconvolution with their corresponding esti mated PSFs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Azimuthal average of the power spectra of the red wing images shown in Fig. 6, which were captured during different seeing conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Velocity maps obtained from subtraction of the wing images. Left column, velocity maps obtained from wing images with different seeing conditions, r 0 = 17.9 cm and r 0 = 5.4 cm for the blue and red wings, respectively. Right column, velocity maps obtained from wing images captured 10 s after, during very good seeing conditions ( r 0 = 17.9 cm and r 0 = 16.5 cm ). The top row and bottom row use wing images before and after deconvolution, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Velocity trace across the penumbra of the sunspot. Original and deconvolved are obtained from a pair of wing images captured during different seeing conditions ( r 0 = 17.9 cm and 5.4 cm ). Ground truth is obtained from wing images captured 10 s after, during very good seeing conditions ( r 0 17 cm ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependency of AO-corrected Strehl ratio with seeing conditions, characterized by the Fried parameter ( r 0 ). The upper solid curve that represents the bulk of the data points is derived from using nominal error budget terms for the DST AO system. The second solid curve attempts to model a branch of lower AO performance by adding a constant error term. The origin of this additional error term is not clear at this point, but could be caused by misalignment due to pupil wobble or additional WFS measurement noise caused by anisoplanatism.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Blue and Red Wing Images Captured during Different Seeing Conditions and Captured During Excellent Seeing Conditions Shortly After

Equations (9)

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OTF ( ρ / λ ) = 1 S P ( x ) P * ( x + ρ ) exp [ 1 2 D ϕ ( x , ρ ) ] d x ,
OTF ao ( ρ / λ ) = exp [ 1 2 D ϕ ϵ ( ρ ) ] exp [ 1 2 D ϕ ϵ ( ρ ) ] 1 S P ( x ) P * ( x , ρ ) d x
= OTF ϕ ϵ ( ρ / λ ) OTF ϕ ϵ ( ρ / λ ) OTF tel ( ρ / λ ) .
ϵ ^ i = ϵ i + n i + r i ,
ϵ ^ i ϵ ^ j = ϵ i ϵ j + n i n j + r i r j + 2 ϵ i r j .
ϵ i ϵ j = ϵ ^ i ϵ ^ j + r i r j .
D ¯ ϕ ϵ ( ρ ) = i = 1 N j = 1 N ϵ i ϵ j U i j ( ρ ) ,
OTF ϕ ϵ ( ρ / λ ) = exp [ 1 2 D ¯ ϕ ϵ ( ρ ) ] .
OTF ϕ ϵ ( ρ / λ ) = exp [ 1 2 D ¯ ϕ ϵ ( ρ ) ] .

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