Abstract

In a previously proposed method for wavefront detection and correction, a deformable mirror is ideally constructed with segmentations using the polar coordinate system. The method is based on the detection and removal of binary aberration modes, in the form of modified Walsh functions, with the help of a single-mode optical fiber. This paper extends the technique to adaptive optics systems that employ the more common type of deformable mirrors: the Cartesian-style deformable mirrors. A study indicates that the deviation from the orthogonality between the fiber propagation mode and the aberration modes is negligible for practical purposes. An iterative algorithm is proposed for wavefront correction by means of successive suppression of the binary aberration modes in the wavefronts. A numerical model is constructed and employed to carry out a large number of trials. The results demonstrate that the system can remove aberrations from the wavefronts in few cycles of the routine and settle the deformable mirror in configurations that are theoretically optimal.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. Girardet, F. Wildi, and G. Brusa, “Off-line and on-line modal optimization of the MMT-AO system,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 108–119 (2005).

2003

2000

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1988

Adamson, A. J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
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K. G. Beauchamp, Walsh Functions and Their Applications (Academic, 1975).

Berthod, C.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, “Direct measurement of Zernike aberration modes with a modal wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5162, 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Brient, B.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brusa, G.

B. Girardet, F. Wildi, and G. Brusa, “Off-line and on-line modal optimization of the MMT-AO system,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 108–119 (2005).

Chaffee, F.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

Collin, C.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coude du Foresto, V.

V. Coude du Foresto 1, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crétenet, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

Dauny, F.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delage, L.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deléglise, C.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucherre, M.

V. Coude du Foresto 1, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fédou, P.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gathright, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavel, D. T.

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron and P. Lena, “Astronomical adaptive optics, I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347 (1994).

Girardet, B.

B. Girardet, F. Wildi, and G. Brusa, “Off-line and on-line modal optimization of the MMT-AO system,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 108–119 (2005).

Gitton, P.

V. Coude du Foresto 1, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goeltzenlichter, T.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guérin, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyon, O.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hrynevych, M.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubin, N.

V. Coude du Foresto 1, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, R.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Kotani, T.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, O.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Mignant, D.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lena, P.

E. Gendron and P. Lena, “Astronomical adaptive optics, I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347 (1994).

Léna, P.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, N.

Macintosh, B.

Marlot, C.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marteaud, M.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melse, B.-T.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholls, T. W.

Nishikawa, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, G.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poyneer, L. A.

Rao, C.

Reess, J.-M.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, F.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, S. T.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigaut, F.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roddier, F.

Roth, K.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaklan, S.

Spivey, C.

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

Tokunaga, A. T.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, M.

Vergnole, S.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, “Wavefront sensing through measurements of binary aberration modes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2865–2870 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

Wildi, F.

B. Girardet, F. Wildi, and G. Brusa, “Off-line and on-line modal optimization of the MMT-AO system,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 108–119 (2005).

Wizinowich, P. L.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

Zhong, G.

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

Ziegler, D.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
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Astron. Astrophys.

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

B. Girardet, F. Wildi, and G. Brusa, “Off-line and on-line modal optimization of the MMT-AO system,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 108–119 (2005).

M. J. Booth, “Direct measurement of Zernike aberration modes with a modal wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 5162, 79–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, A. J. Adamson, C. Berthod, B. Brient, C. Collin, J. Crétenet, F. Dauny, C. Deléglise, P. Fédou, T. Goeltzenlichter, O. Guyon, R. Hulin, C. Marlot, M. Marteaud, B.-T. Melse, J. Nishikawa, J.-M. Reess, S. T. Ridgway, F. Rigaut, K. Roth, A. T. Tokunaga, and D. Ziegler, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. G. Beauchamp, Walsh Functions and Their Applications (Academic, 1975).

F. Wang, C. Spivey, G. Zhong, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “New modal wavefront sensing employing binary basis functions,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 2009), paper AOThC2.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the adaptive optics system: DM is a deformable mirror; BS is a beam splitter. An optical detector is coupled to the other termination of the single-mode fiber, SM fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional Walsh functions as the binary aberration modes, W m , n . These functions can have only two values, 1 and 1 , indicated by the bright and dark fields.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Square moduli of the overlap integral of the binary aberration modes W m , n , whose indices are shown by the row and column numbers, and the fiber propagation mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cycling pattern of the modal evaluation and correction routine.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of wavefront through correction cycles. Top row from left to right: original wavefront, wavefront after the first correction cycle, that after the second cycle, and that after the third cycle, respectively. Middle row: absolute values of the modal coefficients (which the AO system has no knowledge of); the height of the bar at row m and column n indicates the magnitude of coefficient a m , n . Bottom row: light-intensity distributions associated with the wavefronts above in the focal plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerically simulated performance of the AO system. Data in each row represent an independent trial. The three surface graphs in each row show the intensity distributions in the focal plane computed from the original wavefront, wavefront after the first compensation cycle, and wavefront after the second cycle, respectively. The plots between two intensity graphs indicate the evolution of the Strehl ratio through the cycles.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ ( x , y ) = m , n a m , n W m , n ,
E ( x , y ) = E o e j m , n a m , n W m , n = E o m , n B m , n W m , n ,
A e x 2 + y 2 σ 2 W m , n d x d y ,
I = f · ( cos a m , n ) 2 ,
S 0 [ cos ( a ϕ ) ] 2 S 1 ( cos a ) 2 = 0 ;
S 0 = D 2 | A e x 2 + y 2 σ 2 e j Φ ( x , y ) d x d y | 2 ,
S 1 = D 2 | A e x 2 + y 2 σ 2 e j [ Φ ( x , y ) ϕ W m , n ] d x d y | 2 ,
W 1 , 0 , W 0 , 1 , W 2 , 0 , W 1 , 1 , W 0 , 2
a m , n = 1 A A Φ ( x , y ) W m , n d x d y .
e j a W m , n = cos ( a ) + j sin ( a ) W m , n .
E ( x , y ) = E o e j m ' , n ' a m , n W m , n = E o [ cos ( a m , n ) + j sin ( a m , n ) W m , n ] m m n n [ cos ( a m , n ) + j sin ( a m , n ) W m , n ] .
E ( x , y ) = E o [ cos ( a m , n ) + j sin ( a m , n ) W m , n ] ( α j β W m , n + m m n n χ m , n W m , n ) ,
E ( x , y ) | piston = E o [ α cos ( a m , n ) + β sin ( a m , n ) ] .
E ( x , y ) | piston = E o α cos ( a m , n ) ,

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