Abstract

We present the results of a comparison made between standard charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and low-light-level (LLL) CCDs in the framework of pyramid wavefront sensing for astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems on 8m class telescopes. This comparison is based on detailed end-to-end numerical simulations of the first-light AO system of the Large Binocular Telescope, a relevant example of a pyramid-based AO system. While the model used for simulating the standard CCD is the usual well-established one, mainly based on the consideration of Poisson photon noise and Gaussian readout noise (RON), the model used for the LLLCCD is not only made through the simplistic consideration of a subelectron equivalent RON, but also through the establishment of a gamma distribution. Moreover, an additional dark current component, also resulting from the peculiar architecture of LLLCCDs, is considered. The results obtained clearly show a gain of roughly 0.8 magnitude when considering K-band Strehl ratios ranging from 15% to 60%, at least in the particular case study chosen (Fried parameter characterizing the turbulent atmosphere above the telescope r0=15cm and low light levels).

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Basden and C. A. Haniff, “Low light level CCDs and visibility parameter estimation,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1187–1197 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave-front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).
  11. S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optics systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Carbillet and A. Riccardi, “Numerical modeling of atmospherically perturbed phase screens: new solutions for classical fast Fourier transform and Zernike methods,” Appl. Opt. 49, G47–G52 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet and A. Riccardi, “Numerical modeling of atmospherically perturbed phase screens: new solutions for classical fast Fourier transform and Zernike methods,” Appl. Opt. 49, G47–G52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden and C. A. Haniff, “Low light level CCDs and visibility parameter estimation,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1187–1197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optics systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave-front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

1996 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agapito, G.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anconelli, B.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baffa, C.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basden, A. G.

A. G. Basden and C. A. Haniff, “Low light level CCDs and visibility parameter estimation,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1187–1197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bertero, M.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boccacci, P.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowring, S.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briguglio, R.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brusa-Zappellini, G.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J. G.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buey, T.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burt, D. J.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carbillet, M.

M. Carbillet and A. Riccardi, “Numerical modeling of atmospherically perturbed phase screens: new solutions for classical fast Fourier transform and Zernike methods,” Appl. Opt. 49, G47–G52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Catlett, N.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, G.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demers, R.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optics systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave-front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Feautrier, P.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Femenía, B.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fini, L.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, Th.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giani, E.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guarracino, M.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, J. C.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haniff, C. A.

A. G. Basden and C. A. Haniff, “Low light level CCDs and visibility parameter estimation,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1187–1197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hazelwood, M.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heyes, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jerram, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korkiakoski, V.

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, B.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, C. D.

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marano, B.

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moody, I.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, F. Quirós

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pieralli, F.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pinna, E.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pool, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puget, P.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puglisi, A.

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puglisi, A. T.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave-front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet and A. Riccardi, “Numerical modeling of atmospherically perturbed phase screens: new solutions for classical fast Fourier transform and Zernike methods,” Appl. Opt. 49, G47–G52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optics systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, J.-F.

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, S.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, P.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tubbs, R. N.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vérinaud, C.

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xompero, M.

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic wave-front sensor in closed loop adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid wavefront sensor behavior in partial correction adaptive optics systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (4)

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, and L. Fini, “Modelling astronomical adaptive optics: I. the software package CAOS,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 1263–1275(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden and C. A. Haniff, “Low light level CCDs and visibility parameter estimation,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 347, 1187–1197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low light level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985–991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Vérinaud, M. Le Louarn, V. Korkiakoski, and M. Carbillet, “Adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging: pyramid sensor versus Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 357, L26–L30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, L. Fini, A. T. Puglisi, E. Pinna, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, F. Quirós Pacheco, P. Stefanini, J. C. Guerra, L. Busoni, A. Tozzi, F. Pieralli, G. Agapito, G. Brusa-Zappellini, R. Demers, J. G. Brynnel, and P. Salinari, “First-light AO (FLAO) system for LBT: final integration and acceptance tests in Europe,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Guarracino, L. Fini, O. Lardière, B. Le Roux, A. T. Puglisi, B. Femenía, A. Riccardi, B. Anconelli, M. Bertero, and P. Boccacci, “CAOS—a numerical simulation tool for astronomical adaptive optics (and beyond),” Proc. SPIE 5490, 637–648 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, A. Riccardi, and S. Esposito, “Numerical simulation studies for the first-light adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 731–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Foppiani, C. Baffa, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Giani, S. Esposito, B. Marano, and P. Salinari, “Photon counting CCDs as wavefront sensors for AO,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 312–316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Jerram, P. Pool, D. J. Burt, S. Bowring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. J. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, Th. Fusco, J. Charton, D. Mouillet, P. Rabou, T. Buey, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, P. Baudoz, P. Gigan, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, N. Hubin, P. Feautrier, J.-L. Beuzit, and P. Puget, “The SPHERE XAO system: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151D (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, A. Puglisi, B. Femenía, and L. Fini, “Performance of the first-light adaptive optics system of LBT by means of CAOS simulations,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 131–139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Relative) SNR: ideal CCD (photon noise only) versus CCD + 3.5 e RON (case 1) versus CCD + 4.5 e RON (case 2) versus LLLCCD (excess noise factor of 2, no dark current noise).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histograms of the number of output electrons when considering 128 × 128 incident photons (each pixel of the 128 × 128 pixel chip receives one incident photon) and predicting the resulting output electrons with direct simulation of the avalanche process (rhombuses), and model-based simulation (squares). Note that the number of elements in the multiplication register considered is 591 and the multiplication factor is 1.012, implying that the expected value for the output is 1.012 591 1150 photoelectrons.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) K-band Strehl values versus the number of modes corrected for the standard CCD case and an AO-guide-star R magnitude of 15, (b) Strehl values versus the (relative) loop gain for the same case, (c), (d) the same plots as in the LLLCCD case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimum K-band Strehl values versus the AO-guide-star R magnitude for both the standard CCD case and the LLLCCD case.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Parameters of the Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Standard CCD Case Versus LLLCCD Case a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( x ) = m n r x n 1 e x m r ( n 1 ) ! ,
P ( X ) = X n 1 e X Γ ( n ) ,

Metrics