Abstract

A 37-element solar adaptive optics system, which consists of a fine tracking loop with a tip/tilt mirror and a correlation tracker, and a high-order correction loop with a 37-element deformable mirror, a correlating Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, and a real-time controller, was built and installed at the 26cm solar fine structure telescope of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory in 2009. In this system, the absolute difference algorithm is used. A new architecture with field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP) for the real-time controller based on systolic array and pipeline was developed. The computational latencies of the fine tracking loop and high-order correction loop are about 35 and 100μs, respectively. The tracking residual root-mean-square error is less than 0.1     arcsec, and the wavefront residual root-mean-square error is about 0.05 wavelengths (λ=550nm) after correction. The observational results show that the contrast and resolution of the solar images are improved after the correction by this adaptive optics system.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34–46 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 218–231 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Acton and R. C. Smithson, “Solar imaging with a segmented adaptive mirror,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3161–3169(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. B. Dunn, “NSO/SP adaptive optics program,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 216–231 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

2004 (2)

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 218–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

R. B. Dunn, “NSO/SP adaptive optics program,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 216–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. S.

Ammons, S. M.

C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berkefeld, T.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Denker, C.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dettori, P.

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dettori, P. M.

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Didkovsky, L. V.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, M.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Dolgushyn, A. I.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. B.

R. B. Dunn, “NSO/SP adaptive optics program,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 216–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, S.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Goode, P. R.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, S.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Hegwer, S.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keller, C. U.

C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Ling, N.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Lofdahl, M. G.

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marquette, W. H.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mi, T.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Nenow, J.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plymate, C.

C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Rao, X.

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Ren, D.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, K.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T.

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T. R.

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 218–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scharmer, G. B.

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schelenz, T.

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

Shand, M.

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smithson, R. C.

Soltau, D.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Luehe, O.

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

Varsik, J. R.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von der Luhe, O.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

C. Rao, W. Jiang, C. Fang, N. Ling, W. Zhou, M. Ding, X. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Li, X. Gao, and T. Mi, “A tilt-correction adaptive optical system for the solar telescope of Nanjing University,” Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 3, 576–586(2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (11)

C. Rao, W. Jiang, N. Ling, and J. M. Beckers, “Correlation tracking algorithms for low contrast extended object,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 245–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Recent advances in solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 34–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Rimmele, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, and S. Gregory, “Solar adaptive optics: a progress report,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 635–646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Rimmele, “Solar adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 218–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Dunn, “NSO/SP adaptive optics program,” Proc. SPIE 1271, 216–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, M. Shand, M. G. Lofdahl, P. M. Dettori, and W. Wei, “Workstation based solar/stellar adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 239–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Didkovsky, A. I. Dolgushyn, W. H. Marquette, J. Nenow, J. R. Varsik, P. R. Goode, S. Hegwer, D. Ren, S. Fletcher, K. Richards, T. R. Rimmele, C. Denker, and H. Wang, “High-order adaptive optical system for Big Bear Solar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 630–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. van der Luehe, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, and T. Schelenz, “KAOS: adaptive optics system for the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Teide Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 187–193(2003).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, C. Plymate, and S. M. Ammons, “Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 351–359(2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scharmer, P. Dettori, M. G. Lofdahl, and M. Shand, “Adaptive optics system for the new Swedish solar telesecope,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 370–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, “Second-generation adaptive optics for the 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR, Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 260–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Rao, L. Zhu, X. Rao, C. Guan, D. Chen, J. Lin, and Z. Liu, “37-Element Solar Adaptive Optics for 26 cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory,” submitted to Chin. Opt. Lett..

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the AO system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Matching arrangement of the actuators of DM and the subapertures of WFS. (b) Relative correction RMS error for the Zernike aberrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the correlation tracker and the real-time controller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Overall delay of the fine tracking loop. (b) Overall delay of the high-order correction loop.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Control characteristic of the fine tracking loop.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Control characteristic of the high-order correction loop.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured open-loop and closed-loop image motion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Open-loop and closed-loop wavefront error of the system: (a) PV error of the wavefront and (b) RMS error of the wavefront.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images using sunspots as the beacon.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images using solar granulation as the beacon.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Developed/Developing Solar AO Systems

Metrics