Abstract

The EAGLE instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope is a multi-object integral field unit spectrograph that uses a multi-object adaptive optics (AO) system for wavefront correction of interesting lines of sight. We present a Monte Carlo AO simulation package that has been used to model the performance of EAGLE, and provide results, including comparisons with an analytical code. These results include an investigation of the performance of compressed reconstructor representations that have the potential to significantly reduce the complexity of a real-time control system when implemented.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).
  3. C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Basden, T. Butterley, R. M. Myers, and R. W. Wilson, “Durham Extremely Large Telescope adaptive optics simulation platform,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1089–1098 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).
  7. V. I. Tatarski, Wavefront Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, 1961).
  8. D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.
  9. W. J. Wild, E. J. Kibblewhite, and R. Vuilleumier, “Sparse matrix wave-front estimators for adaptive-optics systems for large ground-based telescopes,” Opt. Lett. 20, 955–957 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. L. Ellerbroek, “Efficient computation of minimum-variance wave-front reconstructors with sparse matrix techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1803–1816 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

2002 (1)

1995 (1)

1961 (1)

V. I. Tatarski, Wavefront Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, 1961).

Alexander, D. M.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assemat, F.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Basden, A. G.

Bauman, B.

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

Britton, M.

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butterley, T.

Clare, R.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clenet, Y.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Comerón, F.

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Cuby, J. G.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Dekany, R.

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

Devaney, N.

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dipper, N. A.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Eikenberry, S. S.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Evans, C. J.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, M.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Gardhouse, W.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

Gendron, E.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Gilmozzi, R.

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Guzman, R.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Julian, R.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kibblewhite, E. J.

Kissler-Patig, M.

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Leckie, B.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lehnert, M. D.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lorente, N. P. F.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. L.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, T. J.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Myers, R. M.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

A. G. Basden, T. Butterley, R. M. Myers, and R. W. Wilson, “Durham Extremely Large Telescope adaptive optics simulation platform,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1089–1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neichel, B.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

Paumard, T.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rambold, W.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Swinbank, A. M.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wavefront Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, 1961).

Taylor, W. D.

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J.

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vuilleumier, R.

Wild, W. J.

Wilson, R. W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

D. Gavel, B. Bauman, R. Dekany, M. Britton, and D. Andersen, “Adaptive optics designs for an infrared multi-object spectrograph on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720R (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Andersen, S. S. Eikenberry, M. Fletcher, W. Gardhouse, B. Leckie, J. Véran, D. Gavel, R. Clare, R. Guzman, L. Jolissaint, R. Julian, and W. Rambold, “The MOAO system of the IRMOS near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62694K (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Evans, M. D. Lehnert, J. G. Cuby, S. L. Morris, A. M. Swinbank, W. D. Taylor, D. M. Alexander, N. P. F. Lorente, Y. Clenet, and T. Paumard, “Science requirements for EAGLE for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 701462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger (1)

J. Spyromilio, F. Comerón, S. D’Odorico, M. Kissler-Patig, and R. Gilmozzi, “Progress on the European Extremely Large Telescope,” The Messenger 133, 2–8 (2008).

Other (3)

T. Fusco, F. Assemat, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, N. A. Dipper, T. J. Morris, R. M. Myers, and B. Neichel, “EAGLE AO analysis and design report,” EAGLE consortium document (2008).

V. I. Tatarski, Wavefront Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, 1961).

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, B. Bauman, and J. Nelson, “Multi-conjugate deformable mirror fitting error” (2003), http://cfao.ucolick.org/research/aoforelt/MCAO_DM_FittingError.pdf.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Adaptive optics performance for different line-of-sight directions across the field of view. The center of the field of view is at 0 arc sec , and an LGS is at 219 arc sec .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of DM misconjgation on AO system performance, which is represented by ensquared energy falling in a 75 mas di ameter box with a science wavelength of 1.65 μm . The long-dashed curve shows analytical results for a 110 × 110 subaperture system, with the solid curve showing the Monte Carlo simulation equivalent. The dotted curve just below this shows the performance reduction when a more realistic simulation, including the cone effect and LGS spot elongation, is included. The two lowest curves show the performance reduction when the subaperture order is reduced to 84 × 84 , with two different sodium layer profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Adaptive optics system performance as a function of number of atmospheric layers and virtual DMs simulated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layer heights and relative strengths used for multiple layer simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Predicted EAGLE AO system performance as the sparsity of the control matrix is altered with the sparsity factor representing the fraction of the original control matrix present. Uncertainties are about 2 % in Strehl ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Predicted EAGLE AO system performance with a fixed point control matrix representation. Uncertainties are about 2 % in Strehl ratio.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Predicted EAGLE AO system performance with a compressed floating point control matrix representation. Uncertainties are about 2 % in Strehl ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Predicted EAGLE AO system performance with a variable precision floating point control matrix representation. The key gives the number of bits used for the exponent for each curve. Uncertainties are about 2 % in Strehl ratio.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nonlinearity of a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, after subtraction of the linear response.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Predicted EAGLE AO system performance (Strehl ratio) as the number of calibration steps is increased. A 40% Strehl ratio is achieved with no calibration (0 steps, not shown on the logarithmic scale).

Equations (1)

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( 1 ) s × b × a e × ( a 2 + m ) ,

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