Abstract

In this paper, injection molded polymer lenses are measured and analyzed to determine the effects of process parameters on the geometric errors and optical properties of the lenses. The significant factors and optimal combination of process parameters in the injection molding process could be determined by making use of the Taguchi method for screening the control factors via the analysis of variance (ANOVA) process. Finally, the effects of storage time on contour precision and the optical properties of the lens are also investigated. The contour precision and optical properties degraded six months after production with both significant factors and optimal combination of the factors being changed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison–Wesley, 2002), pp. 149–226.
  2. K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. C. Chang, “Shrinkage behavior and optimization of injection molded parts studied by the Taguchi method,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 703–710 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Yoon and K. K. Wang, “The effect of holding pressure on frozen-in birefringence in injection—molded discs,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 1992), pp. 2221–2224.
  6. H. E. Lai and P. J. Wang, “Study of process parameters on optical qualities for injection-molded plastic lenses,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2017–2027 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Park and W. Joo, “Optical simulation of a plastic lens reflecting injection molding effect,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 2005), pp. 561–565 .
  8. S. M. Lin, “Analysis of birefringence in optical lenses for injection molding,” Master’s thesis (Tsing-Hua University, 2005).
  9. K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.
  10. H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. Chen, “The error simulation and experiment analysis of Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Master’s thesis (Yuan Ze University, 2007).
  12. J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R.Shannon and J.C.Wyant, eds. (Academic, 1992), Vol 11, pp. 28–39.
  13. L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).
  14. P. Y. Maeda, “Zernike polynomials and their use in describing the wavefront aberrations of the human eye,” EE 362 course project (Stanford University, (2003).
  15. J. R. Phillip, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).
  16. S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Chen and F. Gao, “A study of packing profile on injection molded part quality,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 205–213(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. S. Deng and J. H. Chin, “Hole roundness in deep-hole drilling as analysed by Taguchi methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25, 420–426 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. S. Mahapatra and A. Patnaik, “Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34, 911–925 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Yang and S. W. Hung, “Optimizing the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: An approach by using the Taguchi method and the utility concept,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 24, 353–360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. J. Ross, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

T. J. Chen, “The error simulation and experiment analysis of Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Master’s thesis (Yuan Ze University, 2007).

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mahapatra and A. Patnaik, “Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34, 911–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

C. S. Deng and J. H. Chin, “Hole roundness in deep-hole drilling as analysed by Taguchi methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25, 420–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Park and W. Joo, “Optical simulation of a plastic lens reflecting injection molding effect,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 2005), pp. 561–565 .

S. M. Lin, “Analysis of birefringence in optical lenses for injection molding,” Master’s thesis (Tsing-Hua University, 2005).

H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Yang and S. W. Hung, “Optimizing the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: An approach by using the Taguchi method and the utility concept,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 24, 353–360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Chen and F. Gao, “A study of packing profile on injection molded part quality,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 205–213(2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Maeda, “Zernike polynomials and their use in describing the wavefront aberrations of the human eye,” EE 362 course project (Stanford University, (2003).

2002 (2)

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison–Wesley, 2002), pp. 149–226.

2001 (2)

T. C. Chang, “Shrinkage behavior and optimization of injection molded parts studied by the Taguchi method,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 703–710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. R. Phillip, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

P. J. Ross, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

1992 (2)

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R.Shannon and J.C.Wyant, eds. (Academic, 1992), Vol 11, pp. 28–39.

K. Yoon and K. K. Wang, “The effect of holding pressure on frozen-in birefringence in injection—molded discs,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 1992), pp. 2221–2224.

Applegate, R. A.

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

Chang, T. C.

T. C. Chang, “Shrinkage behavior and optimization of injection molded parts studied by the Taguchi method,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 703–710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C. A.

F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

T. J. Chen, “The error simulation and experiment analysis of Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Master’s thesis (Yuan Ze University, 2007).

Chen, X.

X. Chen and F. Gao, “A study of packing profile on injection molded part quality,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 205–213(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. H.

C. S. Deng and J. H. Chin, “Hole roundness in deep-hole drilling as analysed by Taguchi methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25, 420–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R.Shannon and J.C.Wyant, eds. (Academic, 1992), Vol 11, pp. 28–39.

Deng, C. S.

C. S. Deng and J. H. Chin, “Hole roundness in deep-hole drilling as analysed by Taguchi methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25, 420–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, K. B.

K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.

Gao, F.

X. Chen and F. Gao, “A study of packing profile on injection molded part quality,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 205–213(2003).
[CrossRef]

Genberg, V. L.

K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison–Wesley, 2002), pp. 149–226.

Hoffman, J. M.

K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.

Huang, M. C.

M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hung, S. W.

C. Yang and S. W. Hung, “Optimizing the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: An approach by using the Taguchi method and the utility concept,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 24, 353–360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Husselman, M. H.

K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, N.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, K. M. B.

K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joo, W.

K. Park and W. Joo, “Optical simulation of a plastic lens reflecting injection molding effect,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 2005), pp. 561–565 .

Lai, H. E.

Li, B.

B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. T.

F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. M.

S. M. Lin, “Analysis of birefringence in optical lenses for injection molding,” Master’s thesis (Tsing-Hua University, 2005).

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, P. Y.

P. Y. Maeda, “Zernike polynomials and their use in describing the wavefront aberrations of the human eye,” EE 362 course project (Stanford University, (2003).

Mahapatra, S. S.

S. S. Mahapatra and A. Patnaik, “Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34, 911–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, D. R.

B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michels, G. J.

K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.

Nye, T. J.

B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

K. Park and W. Joo, “Optical simulation of a plastic lens reflecting injection molding effect,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 2005), pp. 561–565 .

Patnaik, A.

S. S. Mahapatra and A. Patnaik, “Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34, 911–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillip, J. R.

J. R. Phillip, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

Ross, P. J.

P. J. Ross, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

Samin, B.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sapuan, S. M.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schweigerling, J. T.

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

Shiou, F. J.

F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sulaiman, S.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C. C.

M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. J.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L.

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

Vandijk, D. J.

K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. K.

K. Yoon and K. K. Wang, “The effect of holding pressure on frozen-in birefringence in injection—molded discs,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 1992), pp. 2221–2224.

Wang, P. J.

Webb, R.

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R.Shannon and J.C.Wyant, eds. (Academic, 1992), Vol 11, pp. 28–39.

Yang, C.

C. Yang and S. W. Hung, “Optimizing the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: An approach by using the Taguchi method and the utility concept,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 24, 353–360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K.

K. Yoon and K. K. Wang, “The effect of holding pressure on frozen-in birefringence in injection—molded discs,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 1992), pp. 2221–2224.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (5)

C. S. Deng and J. H. Chin, “Hole roundness in deep-hole drilling as analysed by Taguchi methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25, 420–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Shiou, C. C. A. Chen, and W. T. Li, “Automated surface finishing of plastic injection mold steel with spherical grinding and ball burnishing processes,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 61–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mahapatra and A. Patnaik, “Optimization of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters using Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34, 911–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang and S. W. Hung, “Optimizing the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: An approach by using the Taguchi method and the utility concept,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 24, 353–360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, T. J. Nye, and D. R. Metzger, “Multi-objective optimization of forming parameters for tube hydroforming process based on the Taguchi method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 28, 23–30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process Technol. (1)

S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail, and B. Samin, “The use of Taguchi method in design of plastic injection mold for reducing warpage,” J. Mater. Process Technol. 182, 418–426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection-molded part with a thin shell feature,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 110, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

L. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–665 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

X. Chen and F. Gao, “A study of packing profile on injection molded part quality,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 205–213(2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Liu, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Using diffractive optical element and Zygo interferometer to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 642–646 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (2)

K. M. B. Jansen, D. J. Vandijk, and M. H. Husselman, “Effect of processing conditions on shrinkage in injection molding,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 838–846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chang, “Shrinkage behavior and optimization of injection molded parts studied by the Taguchi method,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 703–710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

K. Yoon and K. K. Wang, “The effect of holding pressure on frozen-in birefringence in injection—molded discs,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 1992), pp. 2221–2224.

K. Park and W. Joo, “Optical simulation of a plastic lens reflecting injection molding effect,” in SPE ANTEC Proceedings (Society of Plastics Engineers, 2005), pp. 561–565 .

S. M. Lin, “Analysis of birefringence in optical lenses for injection molding,” Master’s thesis (Tsing-Hua University, 2005).

K. B. Doyle, J. M. Hoffman, V. L. Genberg, and G. J. Michels, “Stress birefringence modeling for lens design and photonics,” in International Optical Design Conference (2002); http://www.display-optics.com.

T. J. Chen, “The error simulation and experiment analysis of Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor,” Master’s thesis (Yuan Ze University, 2007).

J. C. Wyant and K. Creath, “Basic wavefront aberration theory for optical metrology,” Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R.Shannon and J.C.Wyant, eds. (Academic, 1992), Vol 11, pp. 28–39.

P. Y. Maeda, “Zernike polynomials and their use in describing the wavefront aberrations of the human eye,” EE 362 course project (Stanford University, (2003).

J. R. Phillip, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

P. J. Ross, Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, 1996).

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison–Wesley, 2002), pp. 149–226.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for the structure of this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molds for the optical lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dimensions of the lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response graph for the waviness of the lens at the time of production and six months after production.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response graph for the spherical aberration of the lens at the time of production and six months after production.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response graph for the coma of the lens at the time of production and six months after production.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response graph for the astigmatism of the lens at the time of production and six months after production.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Response graph of Taguchi experiments for the illuminance of the lens.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Process Parameters and Levels for the Screening Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Results for L 18 ( 2 1 × 3 7 ) Screening Experiments based on the Procedure of Design of Experiment

Tables Icon

Table 3 Analysis of Variance for the Contour Precision of the Lens

Tables Icon

Table 4 Analysis of Variance for the Spherical Aberration of the Lens

Tables Icon

Table 5 Analysis of Variance for the Coma of the Lens

Tables Icon

Table 6 Analysis of Variance for the Astigmatism of the Lens

Tables Icon

Table 7 Analysis of Variance for the Illuminance of the Lens

Tables Icon

Table 8 Result of Contour Precision and Optical Properties of the Lens in the Confirmation Experiments

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η STB = 10 log [ 1 n i = 1 n y i 2 ] ,
η LTB = 10 log [ 1 n i = 1 n 1 y i 2 ] .
η ^ = T ¯ + ( E ¯ 3 T ¯ ) + ( G ¯ 1 T ¯ ) = E ¯ 3 + G ¯ 1 T ¯ = 5 . 1285 4 . 9629 + 5 . 9338 = 4 . 1576 ( dB ) .
CI SN = F α ; v 1 , v 2 × V e × ( 1 n eff + 1 r ) = F α ; 1 , v 2 × V e × ( 1 n eff + 1 r ) ,
n eff = Total number of experiments 1 + Total degrees of freedom of associated items used in the mean estimate .
CI SN = 4 . 67 × 1.0208 × ( 1 18 1 + ( 2 + 2 ) + 1 5 ) = 1.5092 ( dB ) .

Metrics