Abstract

Laser collimation is required in many experiments based on lasers. Some laser experiments demand a high quality of collimation, e.g., the optical coherent processor, image transformer, and Fourier transform generator. A device is required to test the collimation of lasers in such experiments. We have suggested a modification in existing collimation testing techniques by which sensitivity can be improved. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate twice the improvement in sensitivity when used with previous techniques.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, “Improved collimation testing using Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4056–4057(1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. R. Ganesan and P. Venkateswarlu, “Laser beam collimation using Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2918–2920 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Sirohi and M. P. Kothiyal, “Double wedge plate shearing interferometer for collimation test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4054–4056(1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. P. Kothiyal, R. S. Sirohi, and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Improved techniques of collimation testing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 139–144 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Chang and D. C. Su, “Collimation method that uses spiral gratings and Talbot interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1783–1784 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Kothiyal, K. V. Sriram, and R. S. Sirohi, “Setting sensitivity in Talbot interferometry with modified gratings,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 361–365 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. D. Henning and J. L. Carlsten, “Cyclic shearing interferometer for collimating short coherence length laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1199–1209 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. V. Sriram, P. Senthilkumaran, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Double-wedge interferometer for collimation testing-new configuration,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4199–4203 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Collimation testing with linear dual field, spiral and evolute gratings: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7258–7260 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Senthilkumaran, K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometer for collimation testing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1197–1202 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. S. Sirohi, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and P. Senthilkumaran, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometry in transmission,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1747–1755 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. E. Silva, “A simple interferometric method of beam collimation,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1980–1982 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Fouere and D. Malacara, “Focusing errors in a collimation lens or mirror: use of a moiré technique,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1322–1326 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Yokozeki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. V. R. K. Murty, “The use of a single plane parallel plate as a lateral shearing interferometer with a visible gas laser source,” Appl. Opt. 3, 531–534 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D.Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1978), Chap. 4.
  20. P. Langenbeck, “Improved collimation test,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2590–2593 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. C. Fouere and D. Malacara, “Focusing errors in a collimating lens or mirror: use of a moiré technique,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1322–1326 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Prakash, S. Rana, S. Prakash, and O. Sasaki, “Automated collimation testing using a temporal phase shifting technique in Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5938–5943 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique(Elsevier, 1993).
  25. K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Rana and . Prakash, “Collimation testing by use of the Lau effect coupled with moiré readout,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3213–3217(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

2009 (1)

S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

S. Rana and . Prakash, “Collimation testing by use of the Lau effect coupled with moiré readout,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3213–3217(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

P. Senthilkumaran, K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometer for collimation testing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1197–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Collimation testing with linear dual field, spiral and evolute gratings: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7258–7260 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Sirohi, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and P. Senthilkumaran, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometry in transmission,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1747–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

C. W. Chang and D. C. Su, “Collimation method that uses spiral gratings and Talbot interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1783–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kothiyal, K. V. Sriram, and R. S. Sirohi, “Setting sensitivity in Talbot interferometry with modified gratings,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. P. Kothiyal, R. S. Sirohi, and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Improved techniques of collimation testing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1978 (1)

D.Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1978), Chap. 4.

1976 (2)

1975 (2)

S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokozeki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

1964 (1)

Bolognini, N.

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

Chang, C. W.

Chang, C.-W.

C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

Chang, J.-T.

C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

Dokhanian, M.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

R. S. Sirohi, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and P. Senthilkumaran, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometry in transmission,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1747–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fouere, J. C.

Ganesan, A. R.

George, M. C.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T. D.

Kothiyal, M. P.

Langenbeck, P.

Malacara, D.

Matsuda, K.

R. S. Sirohi, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and P. Senthilkumaran, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometry in transmission,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1747–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Ohnishi, K.

S. Yokozeki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Patorski, K.

K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique(Elsevier, 1993).

K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokozeki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Prakash,

Prakash, S.

S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Rana, S. Prakash, and O. Sasaki, “Automated collimation testing using a temporal phase shifting technique in Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5938–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Rana, S. Prakash, and O. Sasaki, “Automated collimation testing using a temporal phase shifting technique in Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5938–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rana, S.

S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Rana, S. Prakash, and O. Sasaki, “Automated collimation testing using a temporal phase shifting technique in Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5938–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Rana and . Prakash, “Collimation testing by use of the Lau effect coupled with moiré readout,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3213–3217(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbruch, K.-J.

M. P. Kothiyal, R. S. Sirohi, and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Improved techniques of collimation testing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, O.

Senthilkumaran, P.

Shukla, R. P.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. E.

Sing, S.

S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirohi, R. S.

Sriram, K. V.

Su, D. C.

C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

C. W. Chang and D. C. Su, “Collimation method that uses spiral gratings and Talbot interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1783–1784 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

Tagliaferri, A.

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldi, M.

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torroba, R.

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venkateshwarlu, P.

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Yokoseki, S.

S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yokozeki, S.

Appl. Opt. (16)

M. V. R. K. Murty, “The use of a single plane parallel plate as a lateral shearing interferometer with a visible gas laser source,” Appl. Opt. 3, 531–534 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Fouere and D. Malacara, “Focusing errors in a collimating lens or mirror: use of a moiré technique,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1322–1326 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Fouere and D. Malacara, “Focusing errors in a collimation lens or mirror: use of a moiré technique,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1322–1326 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Patorski, S. Yokozeki, and T. Suzuki, “Collimation test by double grating shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1234–1240 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Henning and J. L. Carlsten, “Cyclic shearing interferometer for collimating short coherence length laser beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1199–1209 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Ganesan and P. Venkateswarlu, “Laser beam collimation using Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2918–2920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Collimation testing with linear dual field, spiral and evolute gratings: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7258–7260 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Senthilkumaran, K. V. Sriram, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometer for collimation testing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1197–1202 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Sriram, P. Senthilkumaran, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Double-wedge interferometer for collimation testing-new configuration,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4199–4203 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rana and . Prakash, “Collimation testing by use of the Lau effect coupled with moiré readout,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3213–3217(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Langenbeck, “Improved collimation test,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2590–2593 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Sirohi and M. P. Kothiyal, “Double wedge plate shearing interferometer for collimation test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4054–4056(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, “Improved collimation testing using Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4056–4057(1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Silva, “A simple interferometric method of beam collimation,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1980–1982 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Prakash, S. Rana, S. Prakash, and O. Sasaki, “Automated collimation testing using a temporal phase shifting technique in Talbot interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5938–5943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Phys. (1)

C.-W. Chang, D. C. Su, and J.-T. Chang, “Moiré fringes by two spiral gratings and its applications on collimation tests,” Chin. J. Phys. 33, 439–449 (1995).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. S. Sirohi, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and P. Senthilkumaran, “Multiple beam wedge plate shear interferometry in transmission,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1747–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Prakash, S. Sing, and S. Rana, “Setting sensitivity in collimation testing using Lau interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 290–294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Yokozeki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoseki, K. Patorski, and K. Ohnishi, “Collimation method using Fourier imaging and moiré techniques,” Opt. Commun. 14, 401–405 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Torroba, N. Bolognini, M. Tebaldi, and A. Tagliaferri, “Moiré beating digital technique to collimation testing,” Opt. Commun. 201, 283–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. P. Shukla, M. Dokhanian, M. C. George, and P. Venkateshwarlu, “Laser beam collimation using phase conjugate Twyman–Green interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 30, 386–390(1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

M. P. Kothiyal, K. V. Sriram, and R. S. Sirohi, “Setting sensitivity in Talbot interferometry with modified gratings,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 361–365 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kothiyal, R. S. Sirohi, and K.-J. Rosenbruch, “Improved techniques of collimation testing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 139–144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Rana, S. Prakash, and S. Prakash, “Automated collimation testing in Lau interferometry using phase shifting technique,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 656–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

K. Patorski, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique(Elsevier, 1993).

D.Malacara, ed., Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1978), Chap. 4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of modified optical system for collimation measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-lens system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two possible configurations of the TLS: (a) TLS consisting of convex and concave lenses and (b) TLS consisting of two convex lenses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images recorded during collimation testing: images in the left column are with the conventional system and images in the right column are with the modified system (TLS). (a) and (b), (c) and (d), (e) and (f), and (g) and (h) are the images when the collimating lens is displaced 0, 1, 2, and 3 cm, respectively, to the left of its collimating position; (i) and (j) are the horizontal cross sections through the center of images (g) and (h), respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ y 0 α 0 ] = [ 1 0 1 f 4 1 ] [ 1 d 0 1 ] [ 1 0 1 f 3 1 ] [ y i α i ] .
[ y 0 α 0 ] = [ y i + d ( y i f 3 + α i ) y i f 3 + α i y i + d ( y i f 3 + α i ) f 4 ] .
α 0 = y i f 3 + α i y i + d ( y i f 3 + α i ) f 4 .
d = f 4 ( y i f 3 + y i f 4 + α i ) y i f 3 + α i .
d = f 4 .
f 3 = 2 f 4 , d = f 4 .
α 0 = 2 α i ± δ . D 0 f 4 ( f 4 ± δ ) .

Metrics