Abstract

During the process of integrated circuit manufacturing, positioning techniques, such as leveling and focusing, are among the key factors in improving the resolution of optical lithography and related lithographic tools. We present a measurement scheme based on the proverbial moiré effect for focus positioning in projection lithography. The framework of this scheme is based on a fundamental model of dual gratings and can also be decomposed into a dual 4f optical system. In this scheme, the moiré effect that usually occurs in the superposition of two gratings also comes forth when they are located at two sides of the dual 4f optical system, which puts one grating together with the other by optical imaging. Related results of this basic dual-grating model have been concluded. The framework of this scheme is built, and the complex structure is explored when similarly broken down to a basic model of two superposed proximity gratings. Finally, experimental results and corresponding analyses indicate that focusing resolution at the nanometer level can be realized by this scheme.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

, "Adaptive Optics feature pagination: publisher’s note," Appl. Opt. 49, 6139-6139 (2010)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-49-31-6139

References

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  1. W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).
  5. X. Li and F. Chen, “Measurement model of focusing and leveling measurement system for projection lithography tool,” Acta Opt Sin. 27, 1987–1991 (2007).
  6. S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).
  7. D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Jun, “Solution to improving certain kinds of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67240M(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Vanderwerf, “Optical focus and level sensor for wafer steppers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 735–740 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Zhou, Y. Fu, X. Tang, S. Hu, W. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Fourier-based analysis of moiré fringe patterns of superposed gratings in alignment of nanolithography,” Opt. Express 16, 7869–7880(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Chen, W. Yan, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and S. Zhou, “Extended dual-grating alignment method for optical projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 49, 708–713 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Jun, “Solution to improving certain kinds of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67240M(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li and F. Chen, “Measurement model of focusing and leveling measurement system for projection lithography tool,” Acta Opt Sin. 27, 1987–1991 (2007).

2004 (1)

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. E. Vanderwerf, “Optical focus and level sensor for wafer steppers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 735–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Castaño, F. J.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

X. Li and F. Chen, “Measurement model of focusing and leveling measurement system for projection lithography tool,” Acta Opt Sin. 27, 1987–1991 (2007).

X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Choi, B.-Y.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Fujii, A.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funatsu, R.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, T.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamatani, M.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

Huang, T.

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

Inagaki, A.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W.-I.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jun, G.

G. Jun, “Solution to improving certain kinds of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67240M(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. W.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, N.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J. H.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. I.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li and F. Chen, “Measurement model of focusing and leveling measurement system for projection lithography tool,” Acta Opt Sin. 27, 1987–1991 (2007).

Li, Z.

X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linders, H.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Liu, S.

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

Martens, J. W. D.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Menon, R.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mondol, M. K.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E. E.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morita, E.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ninomiya, T.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, K.

K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okita, S.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshida, Y.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Shi, T.

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

Smith, H. I.

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoeldrayer, J.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

Tashiro, H.

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Brink, M.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Vanderwerf, J. E.

J. E. Vanderwerf, “Optical focus and level sensor for wafer steppers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 735–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wakamoto, S.

K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wittekoek, S.

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

Yan, W.

W. Chen, W. Yan, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and S. Zhou, “Extended dual-grating alignment method for optical projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 49, 708–713 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yi, P.

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

Yoo, H. J.

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Acta Opt Sin. (1)

X. Li and F. Chen, “Measurement model of focusing and leveling measurement system for projection lithography tool,” Acta Opt Sin. 27, 1987–1991 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4129–4130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Menon, E. E. Moon, M. K. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, “Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone-plate-array lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3382–3385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Vanderwerf, “Optical focus and level sensor for wafer steppers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 735–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, R. Funatsu, A. Inagaki, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Shot leveling and focusing with interferometry for optical lithography of sub-half-micron LSI,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5867–5873 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (9)

W. Jiang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, L. Zhao, W. Yan, S. Zhou, and W. Chen, “Study on laser direct writing system for 32nm node,” Proc. SPIE 7284, 72840C (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Huang, S. Liu, P. Yi, and T. Shi, “Focusing and leveling system for optical lithography using linear CCD,” Proc. SPIE 7160, 71602X (2009).

M. Watanabe, Y. Oshida, Y. Nakayama, M. Yoshida, R. Funatsu, A. Fujii, and T. Ninomiya, “Focusing and leveling based on wafer surface profile detection with interferometry for optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 980–989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, F. Chen, and Z. Li, “Simulation on signal processing of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67241R (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wittekoek, M. van den Brink, H. Linders, J. Stoeldrayer, J. W. D. Martens, and D. Ritchie, “Deep UV wafer stepper with through the lens wafer to reticle alignment,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 534–547 (1990).

D. Kim, W.-I. Jang, B.-Y. Choi, Y. I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H. J. Yoo, S. W. Kang, and J. H. Kwon, “Focusing and leveling system using position-sensitive detectors for the wafer steppers,” Proc. SPIE 2197, 997–1003 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, S. Wakamoto, and K. Nishi, “KrF step-and-scan exposure system using higher-NA projection lens,” Proc. SPIE 2726, 767–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hagiwara, M. Hamatani, H. Tashiro, E. Morita, S. Okita, and N. Kondo, “Wafer edge-shot algorithm for wafer scanners,” Proc. SPIE 4691, 790–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Jun, “Solution to improving certain kinds of focusing and leveling measurement system,” Proc. SPIE 6724, 67240M(2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffractions occurring on the surfaces of two superposed gratings and the field behind them.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of moiré fringes generated only by the ± 1 st order diffractions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Diagram of moiré-based focusing and leveling system, which is decomposed into (b) two adjacent 4 f optical systems that put two gratings, G1 and G2, together in projection lithography.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertical movement ( Δ g ) of the wafer and corresponding shift ( Δ x ) of G 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of four points in the exposure field on the wafer during the focusing and leveling process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Circular grating G1 with P 1 = 10 μm and corresponding moiré fringes with phase offset by (b) zero, (c) π, corresponding to G 1 offset by 0 and 5.0 μm , respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Linear fringe pattern captured by the CCD when the height of the wafer is (a) set at the reference point and (b) lifted about 2.5 μm away from the reference point, corresponding to Figs. 6b, 6c, respectively.

Equations (9)

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E ( x , y ) = g 1 ( x , y ) g 2 ( x , y ) = ( m , n ) a n b m exp [ i 2 π ( n u 1 + m u 2 ) x ] = ( m , n ) a n b m exp [ i ( k m , n ) r ] ,
E ( x , y ) = k = + a k b k exp ( i 2 π k | u 1 u 2 | x ) = a 0 b 0 + 2 k = 1 + a k b k cos ( 2 π k x P ) ,
E ( x , y ) = a 0 b 0 + 2 a 1 b 1 cos ( 2 π x P ) .
E ( x , y , 2 f ) = FT [ g 1 ( x , y ) ] | u = x λ f , v = y λ f = G 1 ( x λ f , y λ f ) ,
E ( x , y , 4 f ) = FT [ E ( x , y , 2 f ) ] | u = x λ f , v = y λ f = FT [ G 1 ( x λ f , y λ f ) ] | u = x λ f , v = y λ f .
E ( x , y , 4 f ) = g 1 ( x , y ) .
E ( x , y , 8 f ) = g 1 ( x , y ) = g 1 ( x , y ) .
Δ x = Δ φ 2 π P 1 = Δ X P 2 / | P 1 P 2 | .
Δ g = Δ φ 2 π · P 1 2 sin θ = | P 1 P 2 | P 2 Δ X 2 sin θ ,

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