Abstract

The current trend in building medium-size telescopes for wide-field imaging is to use a Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design with a multilens corrector near the focus. Our goal is to find a cost-effective alternative design to the RC system for seeing-limited observations. We present an f/4.5 all-spherical catadioptric system with a 1.5° field of view. The system consists of a 0.8m spherical primary and 0.4m flat secondary mirror combined with a meniscus lens and followed by a three-lens field corrector. The optical performance is comparable to an equivalent f/4.5 RC system. We conclude that, for telescopes with apertures up to 2m, the catadioptric design is a good alternative to the RC system.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (3)

A. V. Goncharov, E. Atad-Ettedgui, and J. C. Dainty, “Future giant telescopes: integration of MCAO into telescope design,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71001I (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cifuentes, J. Arasa, and M. C. de la Fuente, “Use of Mangin and aspheric mirrors to increase the FOV in Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71000M (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, A. V. Goncharov, and J. C. Dainty, “Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1072–1081 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Beach, “Ultra-high-speed wide-angle catadioptric corrector system for medium-scale spherical mirror telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 405–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. V. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, and D. T. Puryayev, “Intrinsic apodization effect in a compact two-mirror system with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3111–3115(2002).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Brandl, R. Dekany, and R. Giovenelli, “An optimized wide-field survey telescope using adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4836, 290–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

D. T. Puryayev and A. V. Goncharov, “Aplanatic four-mirror system for optical telescopes with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2334–2342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Gallert, “Design examples of diffraction-limited catadioptric objective,” Proc. SPIE 2774, 143–153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “A four-lens combined field and dispersion corrector giving telecentric imagery over a field diameter of 1.5°,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 265, 747–754 (1993).

1992 (1)

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569–588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

C. G. Wynne, “Field correction of a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope at several focal ratios,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 193, 7–13(1980).

1976 (1)

C. F. W. Harmer and C. G. Wynne, “A simple wide-field Cassegrain telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 177, 25P–30P(1976).

1974 (1)

1968 (1)

Achtner, B.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems (WILEY-VCH, 2008).

Andersen, T.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arasa, J.

A. Cifuentes, J. Arasa, and M. C. de la Fuente, “Use of Mangin and aspheric mirrors to increase the FOV in Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71000M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atad-Ettedgui, E.

A. V. Goncharov, E. Atad-Ettedgui, and J. C. Dainty, “Future giant telescopes: integration of MCAO into telescope design,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71001I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahrami, M.

M. Bahrami, A. V. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “All-spherical catadioptric system for 0.8mF/4.5 astronomical telescope: can we compete with the Ritchey-Chrétien design?,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper ITuA6.

Beach, D.

D. Beach, “Ultra-high-speed wide-angle catadioptric corrector system for medium-scale spherical mirror telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 405–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, M.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Blechinger, F.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems (WILEY-VCH, 2008).

Brandl, B. R.

B. R. Brandl, R. Dekany, and R. Giovenelli, “An optimized wide-field survey telescope using adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4836, 290–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchdahl, H. A.

H. A. Buchdahl, Optical Aberrations Coefficients (Dover, 1958).

Cifuentes, A.

A. Cifuentes, J. Arasa, and M. C. de la Fuente, “Use of Mangin and aspheric mirrors to increase the FOV in Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71000M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

M. Bahrami, A. V. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “All-spherical catadioptric system for 0.8mF/4.5 astronomical telescope: can we compete with the Ritchey-Chrétien design?,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper ITuA6.

Dainty, J. C.

N. Devaney, A. V. Goncharov, and J. C. Dainty, “Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1072–1081 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Goncharov, E. Atad-Ettedgui, and J. C. Dainty, “Future giant telescopes: integration of MCAO into telescope design,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71001I (2008).
[CrossRef]

de la Fuente, M. C.

A. Cifuentes, J. Arasa, and M. C. de la Fuente, “Use of Mangin and aspheric mirrors to increase the FOV in Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71000M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

B. R. Brandl, R. Dekany, and R. Giovenelli, “An optimized wide-field survey telescope using adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4836, 290–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

N. Devaney, A. V. Goncharov, and J. C. Dainty, “Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1072–1081 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dierickx, P.

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569–588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gallert, F.

F. Gallert, “Design examples of diffraction-limited catadioptric objective,” Proc. SPIE 2774, 143–153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, A.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Giovenelli, R.

B. R. Brandl, R. Dekany, and R. Giovenelli, “An optimized wide-field survey telescope using adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4836, 290–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A. V.

A. V. Goncharov, E. Atad-Ettedgui, and J. C. Dainty, “Future giant telescopes: integration of MCAO into telescope design,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71001I (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, A. V. Goncharov, and J. C. Dainty, “Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1072–1081 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, and D. T. Puryayev, “Intrinsic apodization effect in a compact two-mirror system with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3111–3115(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Puryayev and A. V. Goncharov, “Aplanatic four-mirror system for optical telescopes with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2334–2342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahrami, A. V. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “All-spherical catadioptric system for 0.8mF/4.5 astronomical telescope: can we compete with the Ritchey-Chrétien design?,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper ITuA6.

Gross, H.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems (WILEY-VCH, 2008).

Guarro, J.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Harmer, C. F. W.

C. F. W. Harmer and C. G. Wynne, “A simple wide-field Cassegrain telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 177, 25P–30P(1976).

Kidger, M. J.

M. J. Kidger, Intermediate Optical Design (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE, 2002).

Klevtsov, Yu. A.

Mertz, L.

Moretto, G.

Nomen, J.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Owner-Petersen, M.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, and D. T. Puryayev, “Intrinsic apodization effect in a compact two-mirror system with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3111–3115(2002).
[CrossRef]

Popov, G. M.

G. M. Popov, Modern Astronomical Optics (Nauka, 1988).

Puryayev, D. T.

A. V. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, and D. T. Puryayev, “Intrinsic apodization effect in a compact two-mirror system with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3111–3115(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Puryayev and A. V. Goncharov, “Aplanatic four-mirror system for optical telescopes with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2334–2342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, L. W.

Ray, F. B.

Riedl, M. J.

Riewaldt, H.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Sanchez, S.

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

Sebring, T. A.

Snel, R.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

Wynne, C. G.

C. G. Wynne, “A four-lens combined field and dispersion corrector giving telecentric imagery over a field diameter of 1.5°,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 265, 747–754 (1993).

C. G. Wynne, “Field correction of a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope at several focal ratios,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 193, 7–13(1980).

C. F. W. Harmer and C. G. Wynne, “A simple wide-field Cassegrain telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 177, 25P–30P(1976).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569–588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (3)

C. F. W. Harmer and C. G. Wynne, “A simple wide-field Cassegrain telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 177, 25P–30P(1976).

C. G. Wynne, “Field correction of a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope at several focal ratios,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 193, 7–13(1980).

C. G. Wynne, “A four-lens combined field and dispersion corrector giving telecentric imagery over a field diameter of 1.5°,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 265, 747–754 (1993).

Opt. Eng. (3)

D. Beach, “Ultra-high-speed wide-angle catadioptric corrector system for medium-scale spherical mirror telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 42, 405–415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Puryayev and A. V. Goncharov, “Aplanatic four-mirror system for optical telescopes with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2334–2342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, and D. T. Puryayev, “Intrinsic apodization effect in a compact two-mirror system with a spherical primary mirror,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3111–3115(2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

F. Gallert, “Design examples of diffraction-limited catadioptric objective,” Proc. SPIE 2774, 143–153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Brandl, R. Dekany, and R. Giovenelli, “An optimized wide-field survey telescope using adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4836, 290–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Goncharov, E. Atad-Ettedgui, and J. C. Dainty, “Future giant telescopes: integration of MCAO into telescope design,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71001I (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, T. Andersen, J. Beckers, and N. Devaney, “Adaptive optics for the Euro50: design and performance,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 36–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, and D. Walker, “The Euro50 extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4840, 214–225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Cifuentes, J. Arasa, and M. C. de la Fuente, “Use of Mangin and aspheric mirrors to increase the FOV in Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 7100, 71000M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. J. Kidger, Fundamental Optical Design (SPIE, 2002).

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems (WILEY-VCH, 2008).

M. J. Kidger, Intermediate Optical Design (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahrami, A. V. Goncharov, and C. Dainty, “All-spherical catadioptric system for 0.8mF/4.5 astronomical telescope: can we compete with the Ritchey-Chrétien design?,” in International Optical Design Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper ITuA6.

H. A. Buchdahl, Optical Aberrations Coefficients (Dover, 1958).

J. Nomen, S. Sanchez, J. Guarro, J. Rodriguez, A. Garcia, and M. Blasco, “Building three compact-low cost 61cm Klevtsov telescopes for NEO follow-up,” presented at the Asteroids and Comets in Europe Conference, Višnjan, Croatia, 17–19 May 2002.

G. M. Popov, Modern Astronomical Optics (Nauka, 1988).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

All-spherical catadioptric f / 9.5 telescopes with a three-lens corrector, using meniscus MC and Mangin mirror M2 (a) or a convex secondary M2 (b) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aberration diagrams for an all-spherical catadioptric f / 9.5 telescope with a (a) Mangin mirror and (b) secondary mirror. The vertical axis represents wave aberrations in waves ( λ = 588 nm ). MC* stands for the second path through the meniscus corrector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Secondary groups, field correctors, and spot diagrams for all-spherical catadioptric f / 9.5 telescope with a (a) Mangin mirror and (b) convex secondary mirror M2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

f / 4.5 RC system with a planoid secondary and three-lens field corrector(a) and an f / 4.5 all-spherical catadioptric system (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unfolded optical layout for an f / 4.5 all-spherical catadioptric telescope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Aberration diagrams for an (a) f / 4.5 RC system and (b) f / 4.5 all-spherical catadioptric system, both featuring a three-lens field corrector. The vertical axis represents wave aberrations in waves ( λ = 588 nm ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spot diagrams for an (a) f / 4.5 RC system and (b) f / 4.5 all-spherical catadioptric system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Balancing field curvature against astigmatism for flat-field correction (third and fifth orders are shown) for systems presented in Fig. 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction encircled energy for the f / 4.5 all-spherical catadioptric telescope (three field points are shown).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Optical Parameters of an f / 4.5 All-Spherical Catadioptric System for a 0.8 m Sky Survey Telescope a

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