Abstract

Dry plasma etching is a promising technique for crystalline silicon surface texturing aimed at improving solar cell efficiencies by reducing incident light reflection and backscattering at the cell front surface. In this work we present a new optical characterization technique for textured surfaces based on a Mueller polarimeter coupled with a high numerical aperture microscope operated either in real or in angular spaces. This tool provides both the specularly reflected and the angle-resolved backscattered intensities in a very efficient manner, due to the absence of moving parts. Three different silicon samples were etched in a standard reactor with SF6/O2 plasmas at various RF powers, resulting in different textures that were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, standard reflectometry, and by our tool. The three techniques yielded consistent results. However, reflectometry could not take into account the backscattered light from highly textured surfaces, leading to significant underestimation of the overall amount of the reflected light. In contrast, our tool has demonstrated the potential to measure both reflected and backscattered light quickly and efficiently for all samples, paving the way for a new characterization technique for textured solar cells both at the development and at the production stage.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.
  7. L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.
  8. J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Moreno, D. Daineka, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Plasma texturing for solar cells: from pyramids to inverted pyramids-like structures,” submitted to Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells.
  11. A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, “General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, “General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agostinelli, G.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

Bae, J. W.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basu, P. K.

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaucarne, G.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

Bowden, S.

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, M.

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carnel, L.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

Centurioni, E.

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciach, R.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Compain, E.

Daineka, D.

M. Moreno, D. Daineka, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Plasma texturing for solar cells: from pyramids to inverted pyramids-like structures,” submitted to Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells.

Das, U.

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Clercq, K.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Martino, A.

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekkers, H.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

Dekkers, H. F. W.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

Dhungel, S. K.

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drevillon, B.

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, “General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duekkers, F.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

Duerinckx, F.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

Edwards, M.

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Einhaus, R.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foldyna, M.

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, U.

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Caurel, E.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

Hatit, S. Ben

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hezel, R.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

i Cabarrocas, P. Roca

M. Moreno, D. Daineka, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Plasma texturing for solar cells: from pyramids to inverted pyramids-like structures,” submitted to Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells.

Iencinella, D.

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayn, N.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. C.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipinski, M.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, M.

M. Moreno, D. Daineka, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Plasma texturing for solar cells: from pyramids to inverted pyramids-like structures,” submitted to Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells.

Mylyanych, A.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, H.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nijs, J.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Panek, P.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. B.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, S.

Poortmans, J.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rizzoli, R.

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Said, K.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Szlufcik, J.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thamilselvan, M.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thu Thuy, P. T.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Kerschaver, E.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vazsonyi, E.

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, G. Y.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yerokhov, V. Y.

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. J.

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M. C.

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zignani, F.

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Yoo, K. Kim, M. Thamilselvan, N. Lakshminarayn, Y. K. Kim, J. Lee, K. J. Yoo, and J. Yi, “RIE texturing optimization for thin c-Si solar cells in SF6/O2 plasma,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 125205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. Ben Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Angle-resolved Mueller polarimeter using a microscope objective,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743-747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. De Martino, S. Ben Hatit, and M. Foldyna, “Mueller polarimetry in the back focal plane,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180(2007).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energ. (1)

U. Gangopadhyay, K. Kim, S. K. Dhungel, P. K. Basu, and J. Yi, “Low-cost texturization of large-area crystalline silicon solar cells using hydrazine mono-hydrate for industrial use,” Renew. Energ. 31, 1906-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells (4)

M. Edwards, S. Bowden, U. Das, and M. Burrows, “Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 92, 1373-1377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Vazsonyi, K. De Clercq, R. Einhaus, E. Van Kerschaver, K. Said, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, and J. Nijs, “Improved anisotropic etching process for industrial texturing of silicon solar cells--an introduction to design, data analysis and model building,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 57, 179-188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Iencinella, E. Centurioni, R. Rizzoli, and F. Zignani, “An optimized texturing process for silicon solar cell substrates using TMAH,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 87, 725-732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Yerokhov, R. Hezel, M. Lipinski, R. Ciach, H. Nagel, A. Mylyanych, and P. Panek, “Cost-effective methods of texturing for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 72, 291-298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. C. Lee, J. B. Park, J. W. Bae, P. T. Thu Thuy, M. C. Yoo, and G. Y. Yeom, “Effect of the surface texturing shapes fabricated using dry etching on the extraction efficiency of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 1193-1196 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, “Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Moreno, D. Daineka, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Plasma texturing for solar cells: from pyramids to inverted pyramids-like structures,” submitted to Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells.

H. F. W. Dekkers, F. Duerinckx, L. Carnel, G. Agostinelli, and G. Beaucarne, “Plasma texturing processes for the next generations of crystalline Si solar cells,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 754-757.

L. Carnel, I. Gordon, H. Dekkers, F. Duekkers, and F. Duerinckx, “Improvement of the short-circuit current of thin-film polysilicon solar cells using plasma texturing,” in Proceedings of 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (WIP Renewable Energies Press, 2006), pp. 830-833.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic plot of the polarimeter setup. Positions of the polarization state generator (PSG) and the polarization state analyzer (PSA) are before and after the microscope objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the studied textured crystalline silicon surfaces obtained using RF powers of (a)  50 W , (b)  100 W , and (c)  150 W .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real-space (microscopic) images of the studied textured c-Si samples provided by the polarimeter. Images represents (a) lightly textured, (b) relatively flat, and (c) heavily textured crystalline silicon surfaces obtained using RF power of 50 W , 100 W , and 150 W , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (c) Angle-resolved absolute reflectance measured for all polar (marked next to the circles) and azimuthal angles on the 50 W (a) and 100 W (c) sample. (b), (d) Absolute reflectance of the horizontal cross section of the images in (a) and (c) with average values at small polar angles marked by the horizontal line. The small plots in the insets show detailed views of the scattered light intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute reflectance measured by the commercial spectrophotometer on the studied samples at the wavelength of 532 nm (triangles). These values are compared with the polarimetric measurement (squares) marked by the horizontal lines in Figs. 4b, 4d. The black line shows the reflectance of the flat crystalline silicon wafer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Angle-resolved reflectance measured for all polar and azimuthal angles on the 150 W sample. (b) Horizontal cross section of the absolute reflectance image on the left side with a detailed view of the scattered light intensity.

Equations (3)

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I D ( α , φ ) d α d φ = c · cos α sin α · d α d φ ,
S D ( r , φ ) r d r d φ = I D ( α , φ ) d α d φ .
R = 1 sin 2 α sin 2 α ( S d S r ) = cot 2 α ( S d S r ) .

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