Abstract

The short-term dynamic properties of a wide range of commercially available optical polishing pitches were determined with an impact frequency response test. A simple dynamic model is presented to evaluate the relevance of the measurement variations across the range of pitches tested. Test results show that harder pitches have higher natural frequencies and lower damping ratios. Strong correlations between pitch hardness (as measured by the indent test) and the natural frequency only existed among pitches from the same series, i.e., the Gugolz or Acculap series. This implies that pitches with similar hardness values from different manufacturers have different dynamic properties.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Leistner, “Fabrication and testing of precision spheres,” Metrologia 28, 503-506 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Leistner, “Teflon polishers: their manufacture and use,” Appl. Opt. 15, 293-298 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” preprint of a paper prepared for submission to the Optical Society of America workshop on Optical Fabrication and Testing, 10-12 Nov. 1977, San Mateo, Calif., preprint UCRL 80031, www.livermore.com.
  5. S. P. Sutton, “Development of new synthetic optical polishing pitches,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper OTuA2.
  6. B. Gillman and F. Tinker, “Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 72-79 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Sutton Scientifics Inc., “The art and science of formulation,” http://www.salemdist.com/precision/pdf/tech/polish/e_Pitch/TECH_ACCULAP.pdf.
  9. Y. Liu and Z. You, “Simulation of cyclic loading tests for asphalt mixtures using user defined models within discrete element method,” in Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008: Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of GeoSystems (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2008), Vol. 179, pp 742-749.
  10. E. J. Graesser and C. R. Wong, “The relationship of traditional damping measures for materials with high damping capacity: a review,” in M3D: Mechanics and Mechanisms of Material Damping, ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1169 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1992), pp 316-343.
  11. D. Inman, Engineering Vibration (Prentice Hall, 1994).
  12. B. Mullany and E. Corcoran, “An innovative look at precision polishing tools,” in Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting (International Academy for Production Engineering, 2008), pp 589-598.

2003 (1)

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Gillman and F. Tinker, “Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 72-79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. J. Leistner, “Fabrication and testing of precision spheres,” Metrologia 28, 503-506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Bickel, R.

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N. J.

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” preprint of a paper prepared for submission to the Optical Society of America workshop on Optical Fabrication and Testing, 10-12 Nov. 1977, San Mateo, Calif., preprint UCRL 80031, www.livermore.com.

Chow, R.

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, E.

B. Mullany and E. Corcoran, “An innovative look at precision polishing tools,” in Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting (International Academy for Production Engineering, 2008), pp 589-598.

DeGroote, J. E.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gillman, B.

B. Gillman and F. Tinker, “Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 72-79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graesser, E. J.

E. J. Graesser and C. R. Wong, “The relationship of traditional damping measures for materials with high damping capacity: a review,” in M3D: Mechanics and Mechanisms of Material Damping, ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1169 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1992), pp 316-343.

Gregg, L.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inman, D.

D. Inman, Engineering Vibration (Prentice Hall, 1994).

Jacobs, S. D.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leistner, A. J.

A. J. Leistner, “Fabrication and testing of precision spheres,” Metrologia 28, 503-506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Leistner, “Teflon polishers: their manufacture and use,” Appl. Opt. 15, 293-298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and Z. You, “Simulation of cyclic loading tests for asphalt mixtures using user defined models within discrete element method,” in Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008: Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of GeoSystems (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2008), Vol. 179, pp 742-749.

Marino, A.

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mullany, B.

B. Mullany and E. Corcoran, “An innovative look at precision polishing tools,” in Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting (International Academy for Production Engineering, 2008), pp 589-598.

Sutton, S. P.

S. P. Sutton, “Development of new synthetic optical polishing pitches,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper OTuA2.

Taylor, J.

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tinker, F.

B. Gillman and F. Tinker, “Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 72-79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. R.

E. J. Graesser and C. R. Wong, “The relationship of traditional damping measures for materials with high damping capacity: a review,” in M3D: Mechanics and Mechanisms of Material Damping, ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1169 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1992), pp 316-343.

You, Z.

Y. Liu and Z. You, “Simulation of cyclic loading tests for asphalt mixtures using user defined models within discrete element method,” in Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008: Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of GeoSystems (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2008), Vol. 179, pp 742-749.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Metrologia (1)

A. J. Leistner, “Fabrication and testing of precision spheres,” Metrologia 28, 503-506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. Chow, M. Thomas, R. Bickel, and J. Taylor, “Comparison of anti-reflective coated and uncoated surfaces figured by pitch-polishing and magneto-rheological processes,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 112-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Gillman and F. Tinker, “Fun facts about pitch and the pitfalls of ignorance,” Proc. SPIE 3782, 72-79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. DeGroote, S. D. Jacobs, L. Gregg, A. Marino, and J. Hayes, “Quantitative characterization of optical polishing pitch,” Proc. SPIE 4451, 209-221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Sutton Scientifics Inc., “The art and science of formulation,” http://www.salemdist.com/precision/pdf/tech/polish/e_Pitch/TECH_ACCULAP.pdf.

Y. Liu and Z. You, “Simulation of cyclic loading tests for asphalt mixtures using user defined models within discrete element method,” in Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008: Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of GeoSystems (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2008), Vol. 179, pp 742-749.

E. J. Graesser and C. R. Wong, “The relationship of traditional damping measures for materials with high damping capacity: a review,” in M3D: Mechanics and Mechanisms of Material Damping, ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 1169 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1992), pp 316-343.

D. Inman, Engineering Vibration (Prentice Hall, 1994).

B. Mullany and E. Corcoran, “An innovative look at precision polishing tools,” in Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting (International Academy for Production Engineering, 2008), pp 589-598.

N. J. Brown, “Optical polishing pitch,” preprint of a paper prepared for submission to the Optical Society of America workshop on Optical Fabrication and Testing, 10-12 Nov. 1977, San Mateo, Calif., preprint UCRL 80031, www.livermore.com.

S. P. Sutton, “Development of new synthetic optical polishing pitches,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper OTuA2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Burger model and (b) response to step load input.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Long-term viscous behavior of the pitch (Gugolz 64) and (b) brittle response to impact load.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single degree model of a polishing system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of frequency and damping ratio on the displacement ratio, X / Y , as calculated from Eq. (1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical test sample and impact frequency response test setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Indent test results. Note that the Gugolz55 pitch was tested for only 30 min . All other samples were tested for 1 h .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of pitch age on the indent depths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Natural frequency of each pitch tested.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Influence of pitch age on natural frequency values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Damping ratio of each pitch tested.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of pitch age on the damping ratios.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Indent depth versus natural frequency for each test sample. Note that the Gugolz55 values were omitted as their indent tests were not for the same duration as the others.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Commonly Available Optical Pitches Listed in Order of Increasing Hardness, Based on Indentation Tests and Published Literature

Tables Icon

Table 2 Details of the Optical Pitches Tested

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X Y = 1 + ( 2 ζ r ) 2 ( 1 r 2 ) 2 + ( 2 ζ r ) 2 ,

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