Abstract

To assess the effect of motion on observer performance with an undersampled uncooled thermal imager, moving imagery from a static scene was recorded at nine different angular velocities ranging from 0 (static) to 1 pixel/frame by use of a tilted rotating mirror. The scene contained a thermal acuity test chart with triangular test patterns based on the triangle orientation discrimination test method. Visual acuity with the sensor was determined in two playback modes: normal speed and slow motion. In both playback conditions, a slow angular velocity of the test pattern over the sensor focal plane (up to 0.25  pixel/frame) results in a large acuity increase (+50%) in comparison with the static condition because the observer is able to utilize more phases of the same test pattern. At higher sensor velocities the benefit rapidly decreases due to sensor smear, and above 0.50  pixel/frame the difference with the static condition is marginal. Up to 0.75  pixel/frame, the results for the two playback conditions are similar, indicating that temporal display characteristics and human dynamic acuity are not responsible for the reduction. The results obtained with this laboratory test method correspond well with earlier perception studies on real targets for low and medium camera motion.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).
  2. K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, and B. Teaney, “Target-acquisition performance in undersampled infrared imagers: static imagery to motion video,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7055-7061 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).
  4. S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).
  5. K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).
  6. S. S. Young and R. G. Driggers, “Super-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of aliased imagery,” Proc SPIE 5784, 51-62 (2005).
  7. K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, E. Jacobs, S. Burks, and S. Young, “Characteristics of infrared imaging systems that benefit from superresolution reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4594-4603(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Holst, “Imaging system performance based upon /d,” Opt. Eng. 46, 103204 (2007).
  9. E. Jacobs and R. G. Driggers, “NVThermIP modeling of super-resolution algorithms,” Proc SPIE 5784, 125-135 (2005).
  10. M. A. Hogervorst, A. Toet, and P. Bijl, “The TOD method for dynamic image quality assessment.,” Report TNO-DV 2006 C423 (TNO Defense, Security, and Safety, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2006).
  11. J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).
  12. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1976-1983 (1998).
  13. J. Fanning and J. Reynolds, “Target identification performance of superresolution versus dither,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410N (2008).
  14. J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).
  15. J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).
  16. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Validation of the new TOD method and ACQUIRE model predictions using observer performance data for ship targets,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998).
  17. P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).
  18. P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).
  19. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement.,” Proc SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999).
  20. J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).
  21. P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).
  22. D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).
  23. M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).
  24. A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).
  25. W. A. Wagenaar, “Note on the construction of diagram-balanced Latin squares,” Psychol. Bull. 72, 384-386 (1969).
  26. E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, “Study of visual acuity during the ocular pursuit of moving test objects. I. Introduction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799-802 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. L. Demer and F. Amjadi, “Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion.,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1894-1906 (1993).
  28. V. M. Reading, “Visual resolution as measured by dynamic and static tests.,” Pjlugers Arch. 333, 17-26 (1972).
  29. M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Visual sensitivity to different test patterns used in system/human performance tests.,” Report TNO-TM-02-B007 (TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2002).
  30. P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. ITU standard G.1070: opinion model for video-telephony applications (International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007).

2008 (2)

J. Fanning and J. Reynolds, “Target identification performance of superresolution versus dither,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410N (2008).

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

2007 (4)

G. Holst, “Imaging system performance based upon /d,” Opt. Eng. 46, 103204 (2007).

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, E. Jacobs, S. Burks, and S. Young, “Characteristics of infrared imaging systems that benefit from superresolution reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4594-4603(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).

2005 (3)

E. Jacobs and R. G. Driggers, “NVThermIP modeling of super-resolution algorithms,” Proc SPIE 5784, 125-135 (2005).

S. S. Young and R. G. Driggers, “Super-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of aliased imagery,” Proc SPIE 5784, 51-62 (2005).

K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, and B. Teaney, “Target-acquisition performance in undersampled infrared imagers: static imagery to motion video,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7055-7061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).

2003 (3)

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).

K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

2001 (2)

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

1999 (1)

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement.,” Proc SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999).

1998 (2)

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Validation of the new TOD method and ACQUIRE model predictions using observer performance data for ship targets,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1976-1983 (1998).

1993 (1)

J. L. Demer and F. Amjadi, “Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion.,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1894-1906 (1993).

1972 (1)

V. M. Reading, “Visual resolution as measured by dynamic and static tests.,” Pjlugers Arch. 333, 17-26 (1972).

1969 (1)

W. A. Wagenaar, “Note on the construction of diagram-balanced Latin squares,” Psychol. Bull. 72, 384-386 (1969).

1958 (1)

Agterhuis, E.

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

Amjadi, F.

J. L. Demer and F. Amjadi, “Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion.,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1894-1906 (1993).

Beintema, J. A.

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

Bijl, P.

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).

D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement.,” Proc SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Validation of the new TOD method and ACQUIRE model predictions using observer performance data for ship targets,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1976-1983 (1998).

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Visual sensitivity to different test patterns used in system/human performance tests.,” Report TNO-TM-02-B007 (TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2002).

M. A. Hogervorst, A. Toet, and P. Bijl, “The TOD method for dynamic image quality assessment.,” Report TNO-DV 2006 C423 (TNO Defense, Security, and Safety, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2006).

Bos, J. E.

J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).

Burks, S.

de Jong, A. N.

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).

de Lange, D. J.

K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).

D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).

de Ruiter, C. J.

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

Demer, J. L.

J. L. Demer and F. Amjadi, “Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion.,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1894-1906 (1993).

Dijk, J.

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

Driggers, R.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Driggers, R. G.

K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, E. Jacobs, S. Burks, and S. Young, “Characteristics of infrared imaging systems that benefit from superresolution reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4594-4603(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Young and R. G. Driggers, “Super-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of aliased imagery,” Proc SPIE 5784, 51-62 (2005).

E. Jacobs and R. G. Driggers, “NVThermIP modeling of super-resolution algorithms,” Proc SPIE 5784, 125-135 (2005).

K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, and B. Teaney, “Target-acquisition performance in undersampled infrared imagers: static imagery to motion video,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7055-7061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

Fanning, J.

J. Fanning and J. Reynolds, “Target identification performance of superresolution versus dither,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410N (2008).

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Halford, C.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Hogervorst, M. A.

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).

J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Visual sensitivity to different test patterns used in system/human performance tests.,” Report TNO-TM-02-B007 (TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2002).

M. A. Hogervorst, A. Toet, and P. Bijl, “The TOD method for dynamic image quality assessment.,” Report TNO-DV 2006 C423 (TNO Defense, Security, and Safety, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2006).

Holst, G.

G. Holst, “Imaging system performance based upon /d,” Opt. Eng. 46, 103204 (2007).

Jacobs, E.

Kang, M. G.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).

Krapels, K.

Kriekaard, S.

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

Ludvigh, E.

Miller, J.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Miller, J. W.

Munnoch, K.

J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).

Murrill, S.

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

O'Shea, P.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Oudegeest, O. R.

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

Park, J.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Park, M. K.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).

Park, S. C.

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).

Perrault, D.

J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).

Reading, V. M.

V. M. Reading, “Visual resolution as measured by dynamic and static tests.,” Pjlugers Arch. 333, 17-26 (1972).

Reynolds, J.

J. Fanning and J. Reynolds, “Target identification performance of superresolution versus dither,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410N (2008).

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Schuler, J.

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

Schutte, K.

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).

K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).

Teaney, B.

Tener, G.

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

Thielke, M.

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

Toet, A.

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).

M. A. Hogervorst, A. Toet, and P. Bijl, “The TOD method for dynamic image quality assessment.,” Report TNO-DV 2006 C423 (TNO Defense, Security, and Safety, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2006).

Valeton, J. M.

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).

D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement.,” Proc SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Validation of the new TOD method and ACQUIRE model predictions using observer performance data for ship targets,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1976-1983 (1998).

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Visual sensitivity to different test patterns used in system/human performance tests.,” Report TNO-TM-02-B007 (TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2002).

van den Broek, S. P.

K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).

van Eekeren, A. W. M.

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

van Vliet, L. J.

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

Wagenaar, W. A.

W. A. Wagenaar, “Note on the construction of diagram-balanced Latin squares,” Psychol. Bull. 72, 384-386 (1969).

Young, S.

Young, S. S.

S. S. Young and R. G. Driggers, “Super-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of aliased imagery,” Proc SPIE 5784, 51-62 (2005).

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (2)

EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. (1)

A. W. M. van Eekeren, K. Schutte, O. R. Oudegeest, and L. J. van Vliet, “Performance evaluation of super-resolution reconstruction methods on real-world data,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process. 2007, 43953 (2007).

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 21-36 (2003).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

J. L. Demer and F. Amjadi, “Dynamic visual acuity of normal subjects during vertical optotype and head motion.,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1894-1906 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (4)

R. G. Driggers, K. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, “Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers,” Opt. Eng. 44, 014001 (2004).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1976-1983 (1998).

G. Holst, “Imaging system performance based upon /d,” Opt. Eng. 46, 103204 (2007).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Validation of the new TOD method and ACQUIRE model predictions using observer performance data for ship targets,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998).

Pjlugers Arch. (1)

V. M. Reading, “Visual resolution as measured by dynamic and static tests.,” Pjlugers Arch. 333, 17-26 (1972).

Proc SPIE (9)

K. Schutte, D. J. de Lange, and S. P. van den Broek, “Signal conditioning algorithms for enhanced tactical sensor imagery,” Proc SPIE 5076, 92-100 (2003).

S. S. Young and R. G. Driggers, “Super-resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of aliased imagery,” Proc SPIE 5784, 51-62 (2005).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and A. N. de Jong, “TOD predicts target acquisition performance for staring and scanning thermal imagers,” Proc SPIE 4030, 96-103 (2000).

E. Jacobs and R. G. Driggers, “NVThermIP modeling of super-resolution algorithms,” Proc SPIE 5784, 125-135 (2005).

J. Fanning and J. Reynolds, “Target identification performance of superresolution versus dither,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410N (2008).

J. A. Beintema, P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and J. Dijk, “Target acquisition performance: effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing,” Proc SPIE 6941, 69410C (2008).

J. Fanning, J. Miller, J. Park, G. Tener, J. Reynolds, P. O'Shea, C. Halford, and R. Driggers, “IR system field performance with superresolution,” Proc SPIE 6543, 65430Z (2007).

P. Bijl, K. Schutte, and M. A. Hogervorst, “Applicability of TOD, MRT, DMRT and MTDP for dynamic image enhancement techniques,” Proc SPIE 6207, 154-165 (2006).

P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, “Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement.,” Proc SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999).

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. M. Valeton, P. Bijl, E. Agterhuis, and S. Kriekaard, “T-CAT, a new thermal camera acuity tester,” Proc. SPIE 4030, 232-238(2000).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, J. M. Valeton, and C. J. de Ruiter, “BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems,” Proc. SPIE 5071, 341-352 (2003).

D. J. De Lange, J. M. Valeton, and P. Bijl, “Automatic characterization of electro-optical sensors with image-processing, using the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) method,” Proc. SPIE 3701, 104-111 (2000).

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Capturing the sampling effects: a TOD sensor performance model,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 62-73 (2001).

P. Bijl, M. A. Hogervorst, and A. Toet, “Identification of military targets and simple laboratory test patterns in band-limited noise,” Proc. SPIE 5407, 104-115 (2004).

P. Bijl, J. M. Valeton, and M. A. Hogervorst, “A critical evaluation of test patterns for EO system characterization.,” Proc. SPIE 4372, 27-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

W. A. Wagenaar, “Note on the construction of diagram-balanced Latin squares,” Psychol. Bull. 72, 384-386 (1969).

Other (4)

M. A. Hogervorst, A. Toet, and P. Bijl, “The TOD method for dynamic image quality assessment.,” Report TNO-DV 2006 C423 (TNO Defense, Security, and Safety, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2006).

J. E. Bos, M. A. Hogervorst, K. Munnoch, and D. Perrault, “Human performance at sea assessed by dynamic visual acuity,” in Proceedings of the Pacific 2008 International Maritime Conference (Arinex, 2008).

ITU standard G.1070: opinion model for video-telephony applications (International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007).

M. A. Hogervorst, P. Bijl, and J. M. Valeton, “Visual sensitivity to different test patterns used in system/human performance tests.,” Report TNO-TM-02-B007 (TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test pattern or stimulus in the TOD method is an equilateral triangle with one of four possible orientations: apex up, down, left, or right. The observer must indicate its orientation. Task difficulty depends on test pattern size and contrast. See Bijl and Valeton [12].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Camera and the rotating tilted mirror used to generate a dynamic image and (b) the TCAT used to generate the thermal test patterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of the triangle test pattern images: (a) static image and (b) the same scene but now recorded at a speed of 6/8 pixels/frame. The image in (b) clearly shows a smear behind the triangle test patterns and even the top triangles are difficult to judge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probability correct responses versus test pattern size for two conditions: static (filled triangles) and with the scene moving over the sensor focal plane with 0.25   pixel / frame (open triangles); the observer was AMB. Maximum-likelihood fits are indicated by the continuous curves. A sensor motion of 0.25   pixel / frame yields a performance that is approximately 50% better (smaller triangle sizes) than with a static image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TOD acuity (in mrad 1 ) as a function of the velocity of the sensor over the test patterns (in pixels/frame) for the four observers in the experiment: (a) observer AMB, (b) PB, (c) SL, (d) NL. Filled circles: video displayed at normal speed; open circles, video displayed in slow motion. The error bars represent the standard error obtained with the maximum-likelihood procedure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TOD acuity (in mrad 1 ) as a function of the velocity of the sensor over the test patterns (in pixels/frame). The weighted average over all the observers is shown. For an explanation of the symbols, see Fig. 5.

Metrics