Abstract

We demonstrate that the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in an Ag-backed red-fluorescent-dye-doped polymer film can be controlled by the effect of the film thickness. Optical losses associated with the metallic contacts necessary for charge injection, an obstacle to the development of an electrically pumped organic solid-state laser, may be possible to be reduced by increasing the gain medium layer thickness. The study of ASE characteristics of Ag-backed 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7- tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB)-doped polystyrene (PS) films with different thicknesses shows that increasing the film thickness can reduce the influence of the Ag layer. The threshold, gain, and loss of the device with a thickness of 800nm are comparable to those of a metal-free device. Our findings demonstrate that the Ag-backed DCJTB:PS film can still be a good organic gain medium material for the fabrication of solid-state lasers, when the thickness of the DCJTB:PS layer increases to an appropriate value.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610-3616 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 172-174 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting conjugated polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. G. Ma, “Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5074-5078 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Berman, Advances in Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (Academic, 1994).
  16. J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2003

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting conjugated polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 172-174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610-3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P.

P. Berman, Advances in Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (Academic, 1994).

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 172-174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610-3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crewett, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 172-174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

Forster, M.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Galvin, M. E.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganzke, D.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gokhale, M. R.

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

Haase, W.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting conjugated polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holleitner, A. W.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasano, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

Lupton, J. M.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D. G.

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347, 539-541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting conjugated polymers as materials for solid-state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1655-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otomo, A.

S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Laser emission from high-gain media of dye-doped dendrimer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 7-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, and K. Yoshino, “Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14, 306-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parthasarath, G.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarath, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Optically pumped blue organic semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 144-146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, and S. R. Forrest, “Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108(1998).
[CrossRef]

Plessen, G.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, and T. M. Miller, “Spatially indirect excitons as primary photoexcitations in conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1104-1107 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, F.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K.-C.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, R.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1726-1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takezoc, H.

F. Araoka, K.-C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoc, Z. G. Zhu, and T. M. Swager, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610-3616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, “Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22, 172-174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

V. Bulovic, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954-2956(1997).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. A. Turnbull, T. F. Krauss, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757-1758 (2001).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption and PL spectra of Ag-backed DCJTB:PS film used. Inset, schematic structure of the quartz–metal–doping polymer–air optical waveguide used for measuring the ASE characteristics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of Ag-free DCJTB:PS film (solid curve) and Ag-backed DCJTB:PS films in thicknesses of 250 (open circles), 400 (stars), 600 (half open circles), and 800 nm (squares) at the pumped energy intensity of 0.5 mJ / pulse . Inset, emission spectra of Ag-backed DCJTB:PS films in thicknesses of 250 and 400 nm at the pumped energy intensity of 1.14 mJ /   pulse .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output emission intensity integrated over all wavelengths as a function of the pump intensity for Ag-free DCJTB:PS film (squares) and Ag-backed DCJTB:PS films in thicknesses of 250 (triangles), 400 (half open circles), 600 (stars), and 800 nm (circle).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the emission intensity at the peak wavelength on the excitation length at indicated pump intensities for Ag-free DCJTB:PS film and Ag-backed DCJTB:PS films in thicknesses of 600 and 800 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity of light emitted at 638 nm from the edge of a waveguide as a function of the distance between the pump stripe and the edge of Ag-free DCJTB:PS film and Ag-backed DCJTB:PS films in thicknesses of 600 and 800 nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Amplified Spontaneous Emission Characteristics of 800 nm Ag-Free DCJTB:PS Film and Ag-Backed DCJTB:PS Films with Thicknesses of 250, 400, 600, and 800 nm

Equations (2)

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I = A ( λ ) I P G ( λ ) ( e G ( λ ) L 1 ) ,
I = I 0 e ( α x ) ,

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