Abstract

This paper describes a new methodology of estimating free-space optical communications link budgets to be expected in conditions of severe turbulence. The approach is derived from observing that the ability of an adaptive optics (AO) system to compensate turbulence along a path is limited by the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh range, proportional to the diameter of the optics squared and inverse of the wavelength of light utilized. The method uses the Fried parameter computed over the range outside of the transmitter and receiver Rayleigh ranges, to calculate the Strehl ratios that yield a reasonable prediction of the light impinging on the receiving telescope aperture and the power coupling into the fiber. Comparisons will be given between theory and field measurements. These comparisons show that AO is most effective within the Rayleigh ranges, or when an atmospheric gradient is present, and lesser so when the total range is much greater than the sum of the Rayleigh ranges.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Joe and I. Porche, III, “Future Army bandwidth needs and capabilities,” Report for the U.S. Army by RAND Corporation(2004).
  2. L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).
  6. L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).
  13. J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).
  14. R. R. Beland, “Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,” Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1996), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.
  15. Richard J. Sasiele, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2007), pp. 111–112.
  16. R. Alliss, B. Felton, and E. Kemp, “Simulations of optical turbulence via numerical weather prediction for use in optical communication studies,” in Proceedings of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference (2008), p. E14.

2009 (1)

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Abelson, D.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Airola, M.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Alliss, R.

R. Alliss, B. Felton, and E. Kemp, “Simulations of optical turbulence via numerical weather prediction for use in optical communication studies,” in Proceedings of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference (2008), p. E14.

Andrews, L.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics (SPIE, 2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Beland, R. R.

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,” Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1996), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970), p. 462.

Cherry, P.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Driver, D.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Felton, B.

R. Alliss, B. Felton, and E. Kemp, “Simulations of optical turbulence via numerical weather prediction for use in optical communication studies,” in Proceedings of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference (2008), p. E14.

Foshee, J.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Graves, B.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).

Hughes, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, H.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Joe, L.

L. Joe and I. Porche, III, “Future Army bandwidth needs and capabilities,” Report for the U.S. Army by RAND Corporation(2004).

Juarez, J.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karr, T. J.

Kemp, E.

R. Alliss, B. Felton, and E. Kemp, “Simulations of optical turbulence via numerical weather prediction for use in optical communication studies,” in Proceedings of the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference (2008), p. E14.

Kolodzy, P.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Latham, J.

J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).

Martin, T.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClaren, A.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

McIntire, W.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Northcott, M.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).

Phillips, J.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Phillips, R.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Pike, A.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Porche, I.

L. Joe and I. Porche, III, “Future Army bandwidth needs and capabilities,” Report for the U.S. Army by RAND Corporation(2004).

Rozzi, J.

J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).

Sasiele, Richard J.

Richard J. Sasiele, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2007), pp. 111–112.

Sluz, J.

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sova, R.

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed.(Academic, 1991).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 4th ed. (Pergamon, 1970), p. 462.

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

Young, D.

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

Zissis, G. J.

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Proc. IEEE (1)

L. B. Stotts, J. Foshee, B. Stadler, D. Young, P. Cherry, W. McIntire, M. Northcott, P. Kolodzy, L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and A. Pike, “Hybrid optical RF communications,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1109–1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780R (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Northcott, A. McClaren, B. Graves, J. Phillips, D. Driver, D. Abelson, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, and J. Foshee, “Long distance laser communications demonstration,” Proc. SPIE 6578, 65780S (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, M. Airola, R. Sova, H. Hurt, M. Northcott, J. Phillips, A. McClaren, D. Driver, D. Abelson, and J. Foshee, “Demonstration of high data rate wavelength division multiplexed transmission over a 150km free space optical link,” in MILCOM 2007, Advanced Communications Technologies 4.2, Directional Hybrid Optical/RF Networks (IEEE, 2007).

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

J. Latham, M. Northcott, B. Graves, and J. Rozzi, “IRON-T2 2008 AOptix Technologies test report,” Contract FA8750-08-C-0185 (2009).

R. R. Beland, “Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,” Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1996), Vol. 2, Chap. 2.

Richard J. Sasiele, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2007), pp. 111–112.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rayleigh range limitation in AO compensation for turbulence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiples of HV model compared to Korean turbulence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled and measured results using Rayleigh range limitation in AO compensation for atmospheric turbulence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Statistical distribution of the PIF with AO produces a consistent linear relationship between log optical power and log cumulative distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitter and receiver SRs versus PIB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hawaii 99% PIF fade depths versus mean PIF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Campbell 99% PIF fade depths versus mean PIF.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Assumed profile of strength of turbulence: 0.2 × HV 5/7 plus 100 × boundary layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Link budget developed from Hawaii test results.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Weather Research and Forecasting r 0 results for all NTTR flights.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Summary of the refractive index structure function, C n 2 , measured on the ground during the six flights conducted on 16–18 May 2009.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of predicted and measured link performance for 17 May flight 2 ( 5 × HV 5/7).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of predicted and measured link performance for 17 May 2009.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of predicted and measured link performance for 12 May 2009.

Equations (11)

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R RR = 0.7 d 2 / λ = 0.7 R Fraun / 2 ,
I ff 0 = A TX P TX / ( R λ ) 2 .
P RX = P TX A TX A RX / ( R λ ) 2 ,
SR = exp ( σ φ 2 ) ,
SR 1 / [ 1 + ( d / r 0 ) 5 / 3 ] 6 / 5 ,
r 0 = [ 0.42 sec ( ζ ) k 2 0 L C n 2 ( h ) d h ] 3 / 5 ,
r 0 = 2.1 ρ 0 .
Receiver coherence length r 0 R = [ 16.71 sec ( ζ ) R Tx RR L R Rx RR C n 2 ( r ) ( r / R ) 5 / 3 d r / λ 2 ] 3 / 5 ,
Transmitter coherence distance r 0 T = [ 16.71 sec ( ζ ) R Tx RR L R Rx RR C n 2 ( r ) ( 1 r / R ) 5 / 3 d r / λ 2 ] 3 / 5 .
Rytov number σ r 2 = 4.78 0 R d r C n 2 ( r ) r 5 / 6 ( 1 r / R ) 5 / 6 / λ 7 / 6
Rytov number σ r 2 = 4.78 R Tx RR L R Rx RR d r C n 2 ( r ) r 5 / 6 ( 1 r / R ) 5 / 6 / λ 7 / 6 ,

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