Abstract

We propose and analyze a novel orientation-free pressure sensor based on a π-shifted all-single-mode-fiber (SMF) Sagnac interferometer. Compared with a conventional pressure sensor based on high-birefringence polarization-maintaining fiber, this all-SMF structure is more simple, stable, and economical. Because an initial π shift is introduced into the Sagnac loop by adjusting actively the polarization controller, the intensity response of the sensor is independent of the birefringence orientation associated with the device under test (DUT). This configuration not only eliminates the effect of an uncertain birefringence orientation in the fiber loop, it also exhibits excellent repeatability and high sensitivity, which will ease the following demodulation of the measurand. The Jones matrix method is used to analyze the orientation-free characteristic of this sensor, and some theoretical and experimental results are also given.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Vali and R. W. Shorthill, “Fiber ring interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1099–1100 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Laser-driven photonic-bandgap fiber optic gyroscope with negligible Kerr-induced drift,” Opt. Lett. 34, 875–877 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Knudsen and K. Blotekjaer, “An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push–pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1696–1700(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382–2390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Simova and I. Golub, “π-shifted Sagnac interferometer for characterization of femtosecond first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1681–1683 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Knudsen and K. Blotekjaer, “An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push–pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1696–1700(1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976

Ansari, F.

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blotekjaer, K.

S. Knudsen and K. Blotekjaer, “An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push–pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1696–1700(1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H.-L.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dangui, V.

De La Rosa, E.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demarest, K. R.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dong, X.

Fang, X.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Geng, J.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

Huang, X.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Khijwania, S. K.

Kino, G. S.

Knudsen, S.

S. Knudsen and K. Blotekjaer, “An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push–pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1696–1700(1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lu, C.

Martin, E.

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, D.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pang, F.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelz, L. J.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qu, R.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Shorthill, R. W.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vali, V.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Q.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382–2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zenteno, L. A.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhao, H.

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. Fang, E. Martin, and J. P. Meunier, “Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1343–1345 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

X. Fang, H. Ji, L. J. Pelz, and K. R. Demarest, “A DC to multigigabit/s polarization-independent modulator based on a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2166–2171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Knudsen and K. Blotekjaer, “An ultrasonic fiber-optic hydrophone incorporating a push–pull transducer in a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1696–1700(1994).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

F. Liu, Q. Ye, F. Pang, J. Geng, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, “Polarization analysis and experimental implementation of PLZT electro-optical switch using fiber Sagnac interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 709–713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. Wang, Z. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Huang, B. Chen, and H.-L. Cui, “Fiber-Bragg-grating-based weigh-in-motion system using fiber-reinforced composites as the load-supporting material,” Opt. Eng. 45, 064401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators A, Phys.

S. Yuan, F. Ansari, X. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Optic fiber-based dynamic pressure sensor for WIM system,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 120, 53–58 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic scheme of the SMF-SI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results for the output power of the Sagnac loop by rotating the HWP to obtain a different orientation θ D of the birefringence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output powers of the Sagnac loop when first initializing to π shift and then inserting the wave plate to change the orientation θ D : (a) HWP and (b) QWP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup of the pressure sensor. (b) Protection and encapsulation of the sensing fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of the variations of the sensing signal S with the pressures for the stochastic initial birefringence within loop.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results of the variations of the sensing signal S with the pressures for the π-shifted SMF-SI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of an effective demodulation scheme.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Thermal characteristic of the sensing head.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M CW ( δ , θ ) = ( cos δ 2 + i sin δ 2 cos 2 θ i sin δ 2 sin 2 θ i sin δ 2 sin 2 θ cos δ 2 i sin δ 2 cos 2 θ ) ,
M CCW ( δ , θ ) = ( cos δ 2 + i sin δ 2 cos 2 θ i sin δ 2 sin 2 θ i sin δ 2 sin 2 θ cos δ 2 i sin δ 2 cos 2 θ ) ,
I R = I 0 ( 1 sin 2 δ 2 sin 2 2 θ ) ,
I T = I 0 sin 2 δ 2 sin 2 2 θ ,
M CW ( π , ( 2 n + 1 ) π / 4 ) = ( 0 i i 0 ) ,
M CCW ( π , ( 2 n + 1 ) π / 4 ) = ( 0 ± i ± i 0 ) .
M CW = M CW ( π , ( 2 n + 1 ) π / 4 ) M CW ( δ D , θ D ) = ( sin δ D 2 sin 2 θ D sin δ D 2 cos 2 θ D i cos δ D 2 sin δ D 2 cos 2 θ D i cos δ D 2 sin δ D 2 sin 2 θ D ) ,
M CCW = M CCW ( δ D , θ D ) M CCW ( π , ( 2 n + 1 ) π / 4 ) = ( sin δ D 2 sin 2 θ D sin δ D 2 cos 2 θ D ± i cos δ D 2 sin δ D 2 cos 2 θ D ± i cos δ D 2 sin δ D 2 sin 2 θ D ) ,
I R = I 0 sin 2 δ D 2 ,
I T = I 0 cos 2 δ D 2 .
S = I R I T I 0 = cos δ D .
δ D = 4 n 3 2 R E λ ( p 12 p 11 ) ( 1 + μ ) L F ,

Metrics