Abstract

Based on a nanoimprint technique, a new method is proposed for the rapid fabrication of an electrically switchable liquid crystal Fresnel zone lens (SLCFZL). The flow chart of the proposed fabrication method for a SLCFZL is given and a binary SLCFZL is experimentally demonstrated using the proposed method. The diffraction efficiency of the SLCFZL is continuously tunable through an external electric field, and the driving voltage is relatively low (<15Vrms). The measured maximal diffraction efficiency reaches 35% for a linearly polarized light, which is close to the theoretical value of 40.5%. The focusing and imaging properties of the SLCFZL are also experimentally tested.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ferstl and A. M. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451–1462 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L626 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, “Liquid crystal lens review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 186–194 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).
  8. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16, 532–534 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W.-C. Hung, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Lin, I.-M. Jiang, and T.-F. Hsu, “Sensitive voltage-dependent diffraction of a liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2094–2098 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 336–338 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515–1517 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 3080–3086 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically switchable Fresnel lens using a polymer-separated composite film,” Opt. Express 13, 4141–4147 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. H. Lin, Y. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14, 2359–2364 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, and C.-R. Lee, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik (Jena) 31, 95–104 (1970).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, and C.-R. Lee, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. H. Lin, Y. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14, 2359–2364 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11, 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Ferstl and A. M. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, “Liquid crystal lens review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 186–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

1985 (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik (Jena) 31, 95–104 (1970).

Äyräs, P.

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, S.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

Clark, M. G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik (Jena) 31, 95–104 (1970).

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dias, D.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, M. R.

Fan, Y. H.

Ferstl, M.

M. Ferstl and A. M. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, C. W.

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, “Liquid crystal lens review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 186–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisch, A. M.

M. Ferstl and A. M. Frisch, “Static and dynamic Fresnel zone lenses for optical interconnections,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1451–1462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glöckner, R.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haddock, J. N.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hain, M.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, T.-F.

Huang, Y.

Hung, W.-C.

Jiang, I.-M.

Kim, D.-W.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-R.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-J.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-R.

K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, and C.-R. Lee, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

Lin, T. H.

Lo, K.-C.

K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, and C.-R. Lee, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, J. S.

Pateras, E. S.

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, “Liquid crystal lens review,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 186–194 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyman, G.

Powell, N. J.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

Purvis, A.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

Rastani, K.

Ren, H.

Sato, R.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovic, S.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, A.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal Fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188, 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-D.

K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, and C.-R. Lee, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).

Williby, G.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Yu, C.-J.

D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, H.-R. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and S.-D. Lee, “Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal Fresnel lens of dynamic focusing in an orthogonal binary configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, P. Äyräs, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111105(2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing steps for the SLCFZL fabrication: (a) stamp preparation and film coating, (b) imprinting, (c) peeling off the stamp, and (d) assembling the lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

POM images of the SLCFZL at (a) V = 0 , (b) 4, (c) 8, and (d) 9 V rms . The LC cell is sandwiched between two orthogonal polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for studying the focusing and imaging properties of the SLCFZL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency of the fabricated SLCFZL as the applied voltage varies when the polarization of the incident beam is (a) parallel or (b) perpendicular to the rubbing direction of the LC cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image properties of the SLCFZL recorded by a CCD camera (a) at the image plane, V = 5.5 V rms , (b) at the focal plane, V = 5.5 V rms , and (c) at the image plane, V = 14.5 V rms .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Driving square wave and the response signal of the SLCFZL recorded by oscillograph.

Equations (3)

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η = [ sin ( m π / 2 ) m π / 2 ] 2 ,
Δ δ = 2 π λ [ n j ( l + d ) ( n j + 1 · d + n p · l ) ] ,
η = p p 0 p t ,

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