Abstract

Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

E. M. Galimov, “Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation,” Sol. Syst. Res. 44(1), 5–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. J. Ball, M. E. Price, R. J. Walker, G. C. Dando, N. S. Wells, and J. C. Zarnecki, “Mars Phobos and Deimos survey (M-PADS)—A Martian Moons orbiter and Phobos lander,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 120–127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mahaffy, “Sample analysis at Mars: developing analytical tools to search for a habitable environment on the red planet,” Geochem. News 141 (2009).

M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, J-P. Muller, M. R. Fisk, C. Cousins, B. Sattler, A. D. Griffiths, and A. J. Coates, “Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam,” Astrobiology 9(10), 953–964(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gaft and L. Nagli, “Gated Raman spectroscopy: potential for fundamental and applied mineralogy,” Eur. J. Mineral. 21, 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. Makreski and G. Jovanovski, “Minerals from Macedonia. XXII. Laser-induced fluorescence bands in the FT-Raman spectrum of almandine mineral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 1210–1213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Poppet, “UV Raman imaging: a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Basilevsky, M. A. Ivanov, J. W. Head, M. Aittola, and J. Raitala, “Landing on Venus: past and present,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 2097–2112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. McEwen, E. M. Eliason, J. W. Bergstrom, N. T. Bridges, C. J. Hansen, W. A. Delamere, J. A. Grant, V. C. Gulick, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Keszthelyi, R. L. Kirk, M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz, “Mars reconnaissance orbiter’s high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S02 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Wang, J. F. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I-M Chou, “Sulfates on mars, a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7024, 6118–6135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. G. M. Edwards, S. E. Jorge Villar, J. Jehlicka, and T. Munshi, “FT–Raman spectroscopic study of calcium-rich and magnesium-rich carbonate minerals,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 61, 2273–2280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, B. C. Clark, D. A. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, A. Haldemann, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, M. Malin, S. M. McLennan, T. Parker, L. Soderblom, J. N. Sohl-Dickstein, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, and W. A. Watters, “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 11–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. M. Johnson and B. Fegley, “Longevity of fluorine-bearing tremolite on Venus,” Icarus 165(2), 340–348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. Everall, T. Hahn, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, and M. Towrie, “Picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of solids: capabilities and limitations for fluorescence rejection and the influence of diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 1701–1708(2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Burgio and R. J. H. Clark, “Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 57, 1491–1521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Xu, I. S. Butler, and D. F. R. Gilson, “FT-Raman and high-pressure infrared spectroscopic studies of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O) and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4),” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2801–2809 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Alia, H. G. M. Edwards, F. J. Garcia-Navarro, J. Parras-Armenteros, and C. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, “Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy to quality control in brick clays firing process,” Talanta 50, 291–298 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Aminzadeh, “Fluorescence bands in the FT-Raman spectra of some calcium minerals,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53693–697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Zolotov, B. Fegley, Jr., and K. Lodders, “Hydrous silicates and water on Venus,” Icarus 130, 475–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. L. Frost and L. Rintoul, “Lattice vibrations of montmorillonite: an FT Raman and x-ray diffraction study,” Appl. Clay Sci. 11, 171–183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, and L. A. Haskin, “Raman spectroscopy as a method for mineral identification on lunar robotic exploration missions,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(E10), 21189–21199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Hamaguchi and T. L. Gustafson, “Ultrafast time-resolved spontaneous and coherent Raman spectroscopy: the structure and dynamics of photogenerated transient species,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 45, 593–622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

Y. Wang and R. L. McCreery, “Evaluation of a diode laser/charge coupled device spectrometer for near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2647–265 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Aittola, M.

A. T. Basilevsky, M. A. Ivanov, J. W. Head, M. Aittola, and J. Raitala, “Landing on Venus: past and present,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 2097–2112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alia, J. M.

J. M. Alia, H. G. M. Edwards, F. J. Garcia-Navarro, J. Parras-Armenteros, and C. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, “Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy to quality control in brick clays firing process,” Talanta 50, 291–298 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aminzadeh, A.

A. Aminzadeh, “Fluorescence bands in the FT-Raman spectra of some calcium minerals,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53693–697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, S.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arvidson, R.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
[CrossRef]

Arvidson, R. E.

J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, B. C. Clark, D. A. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, A. Haldemann, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, M. Malin, S. M. McLennan, T. Parker, L. Soderblom, J. N. Sohl-Dickstein, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, and W. A. Watters, “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 11–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, A. J.

A. J. Ball, M. E. Price, R. J. Walker, G. C. Dando, N. S. Wells, and J. C. Zarnecki, “Mars Phobos and Deimos survey (M-PADS)—A Martian Moons orbiter and Phobos lander,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 120–127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandfield, J. L.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Basilevsky, A. T.

A. T. Basilevsky, M. A. Ivanov, J. W. Head, M. Aittola, and J. Raitala, “Landing on Venus: past and present,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 2097–2112 (2007).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Beisser, K.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Bell, J. F.

J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, B. C. Clark, D. A. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, A. Haldemann, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, M. Malin, S. M. McLennan, T. Parker, L. Soderblom, J. N. Sohl-Dickstein, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, and W. A. Watters, “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 11–72 (2005).
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L. A. Soderblom and J. F. Bell III, “Exploration of the Martian surface: 1992–2007,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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Bergstrom, J. W.

A. S. McEwen, E. M. Eliason, J. W. Bergstrom, N. T. Bridges, C. J. Hansen, W. A. Delamere, J. A. Grant, V. C. Gulick, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Keszthelyi, R. L. Kirk, M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz, “Mars reconnaissance orbiter’s high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S02 (2007).
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Bibring, J.-P.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Bishop, J.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Blaney, D. L.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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S. W. Ruff, P. R. Christensen, T. D. Glotch, D. L. Blaney, J. E. Moerch, and M. B. Wyatt, “The mineralogy of Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum derived from the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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Boldt, J.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Bridges, N. T.

A. S. McEwen, E. M. Eliason, J. W. Bergstrom, N. T. Bridges, C. J. Hansen, W. A. Delamere, J. A. Grant, V. C. Gulick, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Keszthelyi, R. L. Kirk, M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz, “Mars reconnaissance orbiter’s high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S02 (2007).
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Budney, C.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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Burgio, L.

L. Burgio and R. J. H. Clark, “Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 57, 1491–1521 (2001).
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Butler, I. S.

J. Xu, I. S. Butler, and D. F. R. Gilson, “FT-Raman and high-pressure infrared spectroscopic studies of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O) and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4),” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 2801–2809 (1999).
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Calvin, W.

J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, B. C. Clark, D. A. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, A. Haldemann, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, M. Malin, S. M. McLennan, T. Parker, L. Soderblom, J. N. Sohl-Dickstein, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, and W. A. Watters, “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 11–72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calvin, W. M.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavender, P.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Chase, B.

Choo, T.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Chou, I-M

A. Wang, J. F. Freeman, B. L. Jolliff, and I-M Chou, “Sulfates on mars, a systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7024, 6118–6135 (2006).
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Christensen, P.

P. Christensen, “Scientific overview of Mars sample return,” presented at the 22nd MEPAG Meeting, Monrovia, California, 17–18 March 2010.

Christensen, P. R.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
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S. W. Ruff, P. R. Christensen, T. D. Glotch, D. L. Blaney, J. E. Moerch, and M. B. Wyatt, “The mineralogy of Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum derived from the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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Clancy, R. T.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Clark, B. C.

J. P. Grotzinger, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, W. Calvin, B. C. Clark, D. A. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, A. Haldemann, K. E. Herkenhoff, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, M. Malin, S. M. McLennan, T. Parker, L. Soderblom, J. N. Sohl-Dickstein, S. W. Squyres, N. J. Tosca, and W. A. Watters, “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240, 11–72 (2005).
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D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, and B. C. Clark, “Aqueous alteration on Mars,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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Clark, R. J. H.

L. Burgio and R. J. H. Clark, “Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 57, 1491–1521 (2001).
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Clark, R. N.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
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Coates, A. J.

M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, J-P. Muller, M. R. Fisk, C. Cousins, B. Sattler, A. D. Griffiths, and A. J. Coates, “Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam,” Astrobiology 9(10), 953–964(2009).
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Cousins, C.

M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, J-P. Muller, M. R. Fisk, C. Cousins, B. Sattler, A. D. Griffiths, and A. J. Coates, “Laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam,” Astrobiology 9(10), 953–964(2009).
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Dando, G. C.

A. J. Ball, M. E. Price, R. J. Walker, G. C. Dando, N. S. Wells, and J. C. Zarnecki, “Mars Phobos and Deimos survey (M-PADS)—A Martian Moons orbiter and Phobos lander,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 120–127 (2009).
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Darlington, E. H.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Dasari, R. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
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Delamere, W. A.

A. S. McEwen, E. M. Eliason, J. W. Bergstrom, N. T. Bridges, C. J. Hansen, W. A. Delamere, J. A. Grant, V. C. Gulick, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Keszthelyi, R. L. Kirk, M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz, “Mars reconnaissance orbiter’s high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S02 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Des Marais, D.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Edgett, K. S.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
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Edwards, H. G. M.

H. G. M. Edwards, S. E. Jorge Villar, J. Jehlicka, and T. Munshi, “FT–Raman spectroscopic study of calcium-rich and magnesium-rich carbonate minerals,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 61, 2273–2280 (2005).
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J. M. Alia, H. G. M. Edwards, F. J. Garcia-Navarro, J. Parras-Armenteros, and C. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, “Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy to quality control in brick clays firing process,” Talanta 50, 291–298 (1999).
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Elfving, A.

C. G. Salvo and A. Elfving, “Proposed Mars astrobiology explorer–Cacher (MAX-C) & ExoMars 2018 (MXM-2018) Mission Formulation Status,” presented at the 22nd MEPAG Meeting, Monrovia, California, 17–18 March 2010.

Eliason, E. M.

A. S. McEwen, E. M. Eliason, J. W. Bergstrom, N. T. Bridges, C. J. Hansen, W. A. Delamere, J. A. Grant, V. C. Gulick, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Keszthelyi, R. L. Kirk, M. T. Mellon, S. W. Squyres, N. Thomas, and C. M. Weitz, “Mars reconnaissance orbiter’s high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S02 (2007).
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Espiritu, R.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Everall, N.

Fallacaro, A.

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, R. N. Clark, K. S. Edgett, V. E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. D. Lane, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, J. C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T. L. Roush, S. W. Ruff, and M. D. Smith, “Detection of crystalline hematite mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: evidence for near-surface water,” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 105, 9623–9642 (2000).
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P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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J. M. Alia, H. G. M. Edwards, F. J. Garcia-Navarro, J. Parras-Armenteros, and C. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, “Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy to quality control in brick clays firing process,” Talanta 50, 291–298 (1999).
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T. Frosch, N. Tarcea, M. Schmitt, H. Thiele, F. Langenhorst, and J. Poppet, “UV Raman imaging: a promising tool for astrobiology: comparative Raman studies with different excitation wavelengths on SNC Martian meteorites,” Anal. Chem. 79, 1101–1108 (2007).
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Seagrave, G.

S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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S. Murchie, R. Arvidson, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, J.-P. Bibring, J. Bishop, J. Boldt, P. Cavender, T. Choo, R. T. Clancy, E. H. Darlington, D. Des Marais, R. Espiritu, D. Fort, R. Green, E. Guinness, J. Hayes, C. Hash, K. Heffernan, J. Hemmler, G. Heyler, D. Humm, J. Hutcheson, N. Izenberg, R. Lee, J. Lees, D. Lohr, E. Malaret, T. Martin, J. A. McGovern, P. McGuire, R. Morris, J. Mustard, S. Pelkey, E. Rhodes, M. Robinson, T. Roush, E. Schaefer, G. Seagrave, F. Seelos, P. Silverglate, S. Slavney, M. Smith, W.-J. Shyong, K. Strohbehn, H. Taylor, P. Thompson, B. Tossman, M. Wirzburger, and M. Wolff, “Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars reconnaissance orbiter (MRO),” J. Geophys. Res. [Planets] 112(E5), E05S03(2007).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
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Planet. Space Sci. (1)

A. T. Basilevsky, M. A. Ivanov, J. W. Head, M. Aittola, and J. Raitala, “Landing on Venus: past and present,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 2097–2112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. R. Christensen, M. B. Wyatt, T. D. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bandfield, D. L. Blaney, C. Budney, W. M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R. L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T. G. Graff, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, J. R. Johnson, A. T. Knudson, H. Y. McSween, G. L. Mehall, L. K. Mehall, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, M. D. Smith, S. W. Squyres, S. W. Ruff, and M. J. Wolff, “Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover,” Science 306, 1733–1739 (2004).
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Sol. Syst. Res. (1)

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Spectrochim. Acta Part A (4)

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Talanta (1)

J. M. Alia, H. G. M. Edwards, F. J. Garcia-Navarro, J. Parras-Armenteros, and C. J. Sanchez-Jimenez, “Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy to quality control in brick clays firing process,” Talanta 50, 291–298 (1999).
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S. W. Ruff, P. R. Christensen, T. D. Glotch, D. L. Blaney, J. E. Moerch, and M. B. Wyatt, “The mineralogy of Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum derived from the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gaft, R. Reisfeld, and G. Panczer, Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

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[CrossRef]

D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, and B. C. Clark, “Aqueous alteration on Mars,” in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties, J.F.BellIII, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, and L. A. Haskin, “Investigating surface mineralogy, alteration processes, and biomarkers on Mars using laser Raman spectroscopy,” in Sixth International Conference on Mars, abstract no. 3270 (2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the time-resolved Raman instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Streak camera images of calcite a) showing strong Raman return and b) showing Raman return and plasma effects. The horizontal scale covers 4 ns, and the vertical scale covers 235 2600 cm 1 . Insets show spectra averaged over time for the length of the laser pulse. Photos of each calcite sample show differences in opacity of the samples. Note that the oscillating nature of the plasma peak is an artifact of the streak camera sweep circuitry, causing small variations in sweep speed with time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of willemite (pictured in the inset) obtained using pulsed and CW Raman. Under CW illumination, the fluorescence saturates the CCD detector. The RRUFF spectrum acquired using a 785 nm source is shown for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of spodumene (pictured in the inset) obtained using pulsed and CW Raman. The RRUFF spectrum acquired using a 785 nm source is shown for reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of montmorillonite (pictured in the inset) obtained using pulsed and CW Raman. Under CW illumination, the fluorescence saturates the CCD detector. A pulsed Raman spectrum of calcite is shown, as well, revealing that a minor phase of calcite is likely present.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman spectrum of Brushite (loose powder pictured in the inset) obtained using pulsed and CW Raman. The time-resolved spectrum has been background subtracted. The RRUFF spectrum is also shown for reference. The peak locations of the P-O stretching modes for the anhydrous and hydrated phases from [37] are noted and reveal the presence of both phases.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectrum of kieserite (loose white powder pictured in the inset) obtained using pulsed Raman. Under CW illumination, the fluorescence saturates the CCD detector. Data from [38] are plotted, as well, and show that the peaks shift to a higher wavenumber with decreasing hydration state. Our sample spectrum matches well with the completely hydrated sample.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of in situ Techniques for Planetary Mineralogy a

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