Abstract

A trace gas sensor for the detection of nitrogen dioxide based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) and a continuous wave external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature has been designed, and its features and performance characteristics are reported. By measuring the ringdown times of the cavity at different concentrations of NO2, we report a sensitivity of 1.2ppb for the detection of NO2 in Zero Air.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275–282 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases: the structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685–695 (2005).

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. T. Persijn, E. Santosa, and F. J. M. Harren, “A versatile photoacoustic spectrometer for sensitive trace-gas analysis in the mid-infrared wavelength region (5.1–8.0 and 2.8–4.1 μm),” Appl. Phys. B 75, 335–342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A.

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babikov, Yu. L.

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases: the structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685–695 (2005).

Bakhirkin, Y.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275–282 (2006).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, G. Berden, and R. Engeln, “An introduction to cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 1–26.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Black, E.

E. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K. W.

K. W. Busch, A. Hennequin, and M. A. Busch, “Mode formation in optical cavities,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of the ACS Symposium Series, K.W.Busch and M.A.Busch, eds. (American Chemical Society, 1999), pp. 34–48.
[CrossRef]

K. W. Busch and M. Busch, “Introduction to cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of the ACS Symposium Series, K.W.Busch and M.A.Busch, eds. (American Chemical Society, 1999), pp. 7–19.
[CrossRef]

Busch, M.

K. W. Busch and M. Busch, “Introduction to cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of the ACS Symposium Series, K.W.Busch and M.A.Busch, eds. (American Chemical Society, 1999), pp. 7–19.
[CrossRef]

Busch, M. A.

K. W. Busch, A. Hennequin, and M. A. Busch, “Mode formation in optical cavities,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of the ACS Symposium Series, K.W.Busch and M.A.Busch, eds. (American Chemical Society, 1999), pp. 34–48.
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

K. K. Lehmann, G. Berden, and R. Engeln, “An introduction to cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 1–26.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources , Vol. 89 of Topics in Applied Physics,I.T.Sorokina and K.L.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamacheb, R. R.

M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
[CrossRef]

Golovko, V. F.

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases: the structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685–695 (2005).

Hall, J.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
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Harren, F. J. M.

S. T. Persijn, E. Santosa, and F. J. M. Harren, “A versatile photoacoustic spectrometer for sensitive trace-gas analysis in the mid-infrared wavelength region (5.1–8.0 and 2.8–4.1 μm),” Appl. Phys. B 75, 335–342 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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Hennequin, A.

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J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
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Hildenbrand, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
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Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
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Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
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Ketterle, W.

Kollner, M.

Kosterev, A.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275–282 (2006).

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
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Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Lambrecht, A.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
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Lehmann, K. K.

K. K. Lehmann, G. Berden, and R. Engeln, “An introduction to cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 1–26.

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
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Ma, L.

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
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Meienburg, W.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
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Mikhailenko, C. N.

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Miklos, A.

Mitchell, G. M.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, and G. L. Ryals, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the compound semiconductor market,” presented at Semicon West, San Francisco, California, 17–21 July 2002.

Monkhouse, P.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Neckel, H.

O’Keefe, A.

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2554 (1988).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S. T.

S. T. Persijn, E. Santosa, and F. J. M. Harren, “A versatile photoacoustic spectrometer for sensitive trace-gas analysis in the mid-infrared wavelength region (5.1–8.0 and 2.8–4.1 μm),” Appl. Phys. B 75, 335–342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Van Helden, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity enhanced techniques using continuous wave lasers,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 27–56.

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources , Vol. 89 of Topics in Applied Physics,I.T.Sorokina and K.L.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Van Helden, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity enhanced techniques using continuous wave lasers,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 27–56.

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L.

M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryals, G. L.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, and G. L. Ryals, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the compound semiconductor market,” presented at Semicon West, San Francisco, California, 17–21 July 2002.

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santosa, E.

S. T. Persijn, E. Santosa, and F. J. M. Harren, “A versatile photoacoustic spectrometer for sensitive trace-gas analysis in the mid-infrared wavelength region (5.1–8.0 and 2.8–4.1 μm),” Appl. Phys. B 75, 335–342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, M.

Schindler, K. P.

Schmohl, A.

Sick, V.

Šimecková, M.

M. Šimečková, D. Jacquemarta, L. Rothman, R. R. Gamacheb, and A. Goldman, “Einstein A-coefficients and statistical weights for molecular absorption transitions in the HITRAN database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 98, 130–155(2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “CW cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suntz, R.

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources , Vol. 89 of Topics in Applied Physics,I.T.Sorokina and K.L.Vodopyanov, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 445–516.

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275–282 (2006).

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
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Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Helden, J. H.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Van Helden, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity enhanced techniques using continuous wave lasers,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications, G.Berden and R.Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2009), pp. 27–56.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorsa, V.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, and G. L. Ryals, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the compound semiconductor market,” presented at Semicon West, San Francisco, California, 17–21 July 2002.

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. J.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54197–236(1998).
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Wolfrum, J.

Wöllenstein, J.

J. Hildenbrand, J. Herbst, J. Wöllenstein, and A. Lambrecht, “Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275–282 (2006).

Ye, J.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69, 79–87 (2001).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Persijn, E. Santosa, and F. J. M. Harren, “A versatile photoacoustic spectrometer for sensitive trace-gas analysis in the mid-infrared wavelength region (5.1–8.0 and 2.8–4.1 μm),” Appl. Phys. B 75, 335–342 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup used for CRDS of NO 2 . The CW QCL was chopped using an AOM. An off-axis parabolic mirror focuses the light exiting the cavity onto the Vigo detector. The detector output is amplified and fed into a digital oscilloscope, where the signal is averaged over 512 pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cavity resonances of the CRD cell recorded by dithering its front mirror using a PZT. The recorded peaks were averaged over 16 scans (a period of 300 ms ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of the CRD times at a fixed laser frequency. A total of 70 ringdown time measurements were recorded. Each measurement was an average of 512 ringdown events.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption spectrum of NO 2 at approximately atmospheric pressure, recorded from 1640.8 to 1642.1 cm 1 . The feature used for the CRD work is seen at 1641.05 cm 1 and is comprised of approximately 20 closely spaced NO 2 lines. The positions of the strongest transitions that make up this spectrum are identified using a vertical stick spectrum. The simulation was generated using the HITRAN database [21] and the SPECTRA software developed by Mikhailenko et al. [23]. (b) An expanded view of the absorption feature at 1641.05 cm 1 on which CRDS was conducted. The positions of the four strong doublets (listed in Table 1), which are the primary contributors to this feature, are identified using a vertical stick spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CRD time plot for 100 ppb of NO 2 in Zero Air at 950 mbars.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of ( 1 / τ 1 / τ 0 ) versus concentration of NO 2 in Zero Air. The CRD lifetimes show the expected linear relationship. The large y-intercept value is due to an NO 2 background due to cell contamination.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral Line Parameters from HITRAN [21] for the Major NO 2 Doublets in the R-Branch that Make Up the Absorption Feature at 1641.05 cm 1 Used to Conduct CRDS

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral Line Intensities, Air Broadening, and Cross Sections from HITRAN [21] for the NO 2 Transitions that Make Up the Absorption Feature at 1641.05 cm 1 Used to Conduct CRDS

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Concentration of NO 2 for Five Different Trace Mixtures of NO 2 in Zero Air

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ 0 = τ r 2 ( 1 R ) .
τ ( ν ) = τ r 2 [ ( 1 R ) + i σ i ( ν ) 0 l N i ( x ) d x ] ,
τ = τ r 2 [ ( 1 R ) + α eff l ] ,
α eff = 1 c ( 1 τ 1 τ 0 ) = i σ i N i .
[ α eff ] min = 1 c τ Δ τ τ .
σ eff ( ν ) = i σ i ( ν ) .
σ ( ν ν 0 ) = S ν N Φ ( ν ν 0 ) ,
N = 1 i σ i ( ν ) c [ 1 τ ( v ) 1 τ 0 ] ,

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