Abstract

As technology improves human vision, some procedures currently performed may be causing a decrease of the natural UV protection of the cornea. A portable dual beam system prototype was assembled for physicians for clinical studies of these effects on the corneas endowing two types of 300–400 nm evaluations: 1, regularly donated corneas and 2, simulating refractive keratectomy by corneal lamellae removal. The system performs 500 measurements/s, providing ±0.25% precision for the transmittance. The measurements performed on the prototype are 95% in agreement with Cary 17 and HR4000CG-UV-NIR Ocean Optics spectrophotometers. Preliminary studies on cadaveric corneas demonstrate that, as the stromal layer is reduced (150μm depth), there is significant loss—an average of 7.1%.—of the cornea’s natural UV protection. The prototype is being tested in an eye bank for routine evaluation of donor corneas.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).
  3. A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).
  4. J. S. Hoffman, ed. Assessing the Risks of Trace Gases that can Modify the Stratosphere (Environmental Protection Agency, 1987), EPA 400/1-A 87/001C, Chap. 10.
  5. A. Ringvold, “Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye,” Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 149–153 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Seiler and P. J. McDonnell, “Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40, 89–118 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth–Heinemann, 2000).
  12. J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327, 307–310 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2005

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

2000

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Ringvold, “Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye,” Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 149–153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).

1995

T. Seiler and P. J. McDonnell, “Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40, 89–118 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327, 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327, 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth–Heinemann, 2000).

Bispo, J. M.

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327, 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blaudschun, R.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

Brenneisen, P.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calvano, C. J.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. W.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cmic-Rein, T. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, J. E.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, J. S.

J. S. Hoffman, ed. Assessing the Risks of Trace Gases that can Modify the Stratosphere (Environmental Protection Agency, 1987), EPA 400/1-A 87/001C, Chap. 10.

Hopp, B.

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

Hu, X.-H.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).

Huynh, P. D.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jesus, G. T.

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalmus, G. W.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).

Kolozsvári, L.

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

Kuhr, L.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lembares, A.

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).

Ma, W.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, P. J.

T. Seiler and P. J. McDonnell, “Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40, 89–118 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meewes, C.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Messias, A. M. V.

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nógrádi, A.

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

Oliveira, G. C. D.

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, T.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ringvold, A.

A. Ringvold, “Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye,” Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 149–153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scharffetter-Kochanek, K.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, L.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, T.

T. Seiler and P. J. McDonnell, “Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40, 89–118 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiler, T. P.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth–Heinemann, 2000).

Sousa, S. J. F.

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spoerl, E.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thall, E. H.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, A. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, L.

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenk, J.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilsch, M.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wlaschek, M.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wollensak, G.

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol.

A. Ringvold, “Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye,” Acta Ophthalmol. 76, 149–153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Eng. Online

L. Ventura, G. T. Jesus, G. C. D. Oliveira, and S. J. F. Sousa, “Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas,” Biomed. Eng. Online 4, 70 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Probl. Dermatol.

J. Wenk, P. Brenneisen, C. Meewes, M. Wlaschek, T. Peters, R. Blaudschun, W. Ma, L. Kuhr, L. Schneider, and K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, “UV-induced oxidative stress and photoagin,” Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 29, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

L. Kolozsvári, A. Nógrádi, B. Hopp, and Z. Bor, “UV absorbance of the human cornea in the 240- to 400 nmrange,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2165–2168(2002).

A. Lembares, X.-H. Hu, and G. W. Kalmus, “Absorption spectra of the córneas in the far ultraviolet region,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1283–1287 (1997).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Cmic-Rein, and E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue ablation depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Wollensak, E. Spoerl, M. Wilsch, T. P. Seiler, “Endothelial cell damage after riboflavin—ultraviolet-A treatment in the rabbit,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1786–1790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancet

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327, 307–310 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas.

L. Ventura, S. J. F. Sousa, A. M. V. Messias, and J. M. Bispo, “System for measuring the transmission spectrum of in vitro corneas,” Physiol. Meas. 21 , 197–207 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol.

T. Seiler and P. J. McDonnell, “Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 40, 89–118 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. S. Hoffman, ed. Assessing the Risks of Trace Gases that can Modify the Stratosphere (Environmental Protection Agency, 1987), EPA 400/1-A 87/001C, Chap. 10.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth–Heinemann, 2000).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) OSRAM UV lamp emission spectra and (b) spectral responsivity of the EPD 365 sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Picture of the system itself, (b) detail of the cornea being positioned for tests, (c) LCD display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Acrylic sample tested on the prototype.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation between our system and the Cary 17 Olis upgraded spectrophotometer of the percentage of UV ( 300 400 nm ) transmission for acrylic samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scatterplot of the transmittance for the acrylic samples on both systems.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Difference plot of the transmittance for acrylic samples for both systems and the boundary lines of agreement, bias, and identity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Chart of the correlation diagram of both systems for corneas at their initial state (no tissue removal).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Chart of the correlation diagram of both systems for corneas submitted to steps 1-4 of the protocol (tissue removal).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scatterplot of the integral preserved cornea.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scatterplot of the UV transmittance for corneas submitted to steps 1-4 of the protocol (tissue removal).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Difference plot of the UV transmittance of the intact cornea.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Difference plot of the UV transmittance of corneas submitted to tissue removal (steps 1-4 of the protocol).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Histogram of differences of the transmittance of the intact cornea.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Histogram of differences for corneas submitted to steps 1-4.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 UV Transmittances of Human Corneas for Steps 1-4 of the Protocol

Equations (1)

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y ¯ = i = 1 500 A i R i 500 .

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